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Dilation and evacuation
(D&E)
Background
Abortion type Surgical
First use 1970s
Gestation 13-24 weeks
Usage
UK: Eng. & Wales 5% (2005)
Infobox references

Dilation and evacuation (also sometimes called dilation and extraction) literally refers to the dilation of the cervix and surgical evacuation of the contents of the uterus. It is a method of abortion as well as a therapeutic procedure used after miscarriage to prevent infection by ensuring that the uterus is fully evacuated.[1][2]

In various health care centers it may be called by different names:

  • D&E (Dilation and evacuation)
  • ERPOC (Evacuation of Retained Products of Conception)
  • TOP or STOP ((Surgical) Termination Of Pregnancy)

D&E normally refers to a specific second trimester procedure.[2] However, some sources use the term D&E to refer more generally to any procedure that involves the processes of dilation and evacuation, which includes the first trimester procedures of manual and electric vacuum aspiration.[1]

Contents

Usage

Approximately 11% of induced abortions are performed in the second trimester. In 2002, there were an estimated 142,000 second-trimester abortions in the United States.[3] The second trimester of pregnancy begins at 13 weeks gestation. For first-trimester and early second-trimester abortions, the pregnancy may be ended by vacuum aspiration alone. Sometime in the second trimester, however, it becomes necessary to use instruments to help remove the fetus. This instrumental procedure is normally what is meant when the term dilation and evacuation is used.

Description

The first step in a D&E is to dilate the cervix. This is often begun about a day before the surgical procedure. Enlarging the opening of the cervix enables surgical instruments such as a curette or forceps to be inserted into the uterus.[2]

The second step is to remove the fetus. Either a local anesthetic or general anesthesia is given to the woman. Forceps are inserted into the uterus through the vagina and used to pull the fetus into pieces, which are removed one at a time. Lastly, vacuum aspiration is used to ensure no fetal tissue remains in the uterus (such tissue can cause serious infections in the woman). The pieces are also examined to ensure that the entire fetus was removed.[2]

Variations

Feticide may be performed prior to the surgical procedure. The tissues of the dead fetus will soften, making dismemberment easier. The standard D&E procedure is difficult after 20 weeks gestational age due to the toughness of the fetal tissues.[4]

If the fetus is removed intact, the procedure is referred to as intact dilation and extraction by the American Medical Association,[5] and referred to as "intact dilation and evacuation" by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Miscarriage". EBSCO Publishing Health Library. Brigham and Women's Hospital. January 2007. http://healthgate.partners.org/browsing/browseContent.asp?fileName=11672.xml&title=Miscarriage. Retrieved 2007-04-07.  
  2. ^ a b c d "Dilation and evacuation (D&E) for abortion". Healthwise. WebMD. 2004-10-07. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Dilation-and-evacuation-DE-for-abortion. Retrieved 2007-04-07.  
  3. ^ Guttmacher Institute: "Facts On Induced Abortion in the United States", May 2006. Accessed May 2006.
  4. ^ Haskell, Martin (1992-09-13). "Dilation and Extraction for Late Second Trimester Abortion". National Abortion Federation Risk Management Seminar. Dallas, Texas. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/SFL/partial-birth_abortion.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-05.  
  5. ^ Health and Ethics Policies of the AMA American Medical Association. H-5.982 Retrieved April 24, 2007.
  6. ^ ACOG Statement on the US Supreme Court Decision Upholding the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 (April 18, 2007). Retrieved 2007-04-22.

Simple English

Dilatation and Evacuation is a abortion procedure. This procedure takes place between 12-32 weeks of pregnancy. The baby is delivered up to the hips, then forceps are used to twist, snap and tear apart the baby's developing body. The skull must be completely crushed and spine snapped before the remains of the baby can be removed. No anaesthetic is given to the baby before the procedure, even though research proves that their sense of feel is fully developed.








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