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Dinosaurs
Fossil range: Carnian to present
Mounted skeletons of Tyrannosaurus (left) and Apatosaurus (right) at the American Museum of Natural History
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Subclass: Diapsida
Infraclass: Archosauromorpha
Superorder: Dinosauria
Owen, 1842
Orders and suborders
.Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrate animals for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period (about 230 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous period (about 65 million years ago), when the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event caused the extinction of most dinosaur species.^ Earth about 65 million years ago, with global consequences including the extinction of the dinosaurs.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event The sudden mass extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs, around 65 million years ago, is one of the most intriguing mysteries in paleontology .
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event , which occurred approximately 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period, caused the extinction of all dinosaurs except for the line that had already given rise to the first birds.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fossil record indicates that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic period, and most paleontologists regard them as the only clade of dinosaurs to have survived until the present day.^ Modern birds are classified by most paleontologists as belonging to the subgroup Maniraptora , which are coelurosaurs , which are theropods , which are saurischians , which are dinosaurs.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least one significant group of dinosaurs has survived until the present day; taxonomists consider modern Birds to be the direct descendants of theropod dinosaurs.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Principal dinosaurs of this group in America are Brontosaurus , Diplodocus , Camarasaurus ( Morosaurus ) and Brachiosaurus , all of the Upper Jurassic and Comanchic periods.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.Dinosaurs were a varied group of animals.^ Dinosaurs were an extremely varied group of animals; according to a 2006 study, 527 dinosaur genera have been identified with certainty so far, and 1,844 genera are believed to have existed.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Religious perspectives on dinosaurs Various religious groups have views about dinosaurs that differ from those held by scientists.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera[2] and more than 1,000 different species of dinosaur,[3] and remains have been found on every continent on Earth.^ Dinosaur remains have been found on every continent on Earth, including Antarctica .
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Many more dinosaurs still to be found."
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to paleontologist Bill Erickson, estimates of median dinosaur weight range from 500 kg to 5 tonnes ; a recent study of 63 dinosaur genera yielded an average weight greater than 850 kg — comparable to the weight of a grizzly bear — and a median weight of nearly 2 tons, or about as much as a giraffe.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .Some dinosaurs were herbivorous, others carnivorous.^ Some were herbivorous , others carnivorous .
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From this ancestral type the Dinosaurs evolved into a great variety of different kinds, many of them of gigantic size, some herbivorous, some carnivorous; some bipedal, others quadrupedal; many of them protected by various kinds of bony armor-plates, or provided with horns or spines; some with sharp claws, others with blunted claws or hoofs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the bones of other herbivorous dinosaurs found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry were similarly scored and bitten off, and the teeth of Allosaurus were also found close to them.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some were bipedal, others quadrupedal, and others were able to shift between these body postures.^ The only other hominins of this body and brain size date to the Pliocene epoch [between roughly 7 million and 2 million years ago] in Africa.
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Many species developed elaborate skeletal modifications such as bony armor, horns or crests. .Although generally known for their large size, many dinosaurs were human-sized or even smaller.^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a large herbivorous dinosaur of the closing period of the Age of Reptiles and is known to palaeontologists as Trachodon or more popularly as the 'duck-billed dinosaur.'
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The best-known such event was the one that wiped out the dinosaurs 65m years ago, but that was not the worst; the planet has suffered several such large mass extinctions ...
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most major groups of dinosaurs are known to have built nests and laid eggs, suggesting an oviparity similar to that of modern birds.^ One or two dinosaurs on each team guard the nest while other dinosaurs try to steal eggs from other nests.

^ This would indicate that dinosaurs had > metabolisms that were higher than is seen in modern reptiles, and more > similar to modern birds."
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has found that dinosaur bones have a lot of blood vessels running through them, similar to birds and in contrast to very few blood vessels in reptiles.
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term "dinosaur" was coined in 1842 by Sir Richard Owen and derives from Greek δεινός (deinos) "terrible, powerful, wondrous" + σαῦρος (sauros) "lizard". Through the first half of the twentieth century, most of the scientific community believed dinosaurs to have been sluggish, unintelligent cold-blooded animals.^ The study of these "great fossil lizards" soon became of great interest to European and American scientists, and in 1842 the English paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term "dinosaur".
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was a revolutionary discovery as, until that point, most scientists had believed dinosaurs walked on four feet, like other lizards.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most scientists agree that man’s conception of dinosaurs has been limited to the past 180 years or so (the word itself wasn’t even coined until 1841).
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most research conducted since the 1970s, however, has indicated that dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction.^ This would indicate that dinosaurs had > metabolisms that were higher than is seen in modern reptiles, and more > similar to modern birds."
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most dinosaurs, however, were much smaller than the giant sauropods.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most discussions of dinosaur endothermy tend to compare them to average birds or mammals, which expend energy to elevate body temperature above that of the environment.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the first dinosaur fossils were recognized in the early nineteenth century, mounted dinosaur skeletons have been major attractions at museums around the world, and dinosaurs have become a part of world culture.^ The missing parts of the two best skeletons have been restored, and with the help of two small models of the skeleton, a group has been made ready for mounting as the central piece of the proposed Cretaceous Dinosaur Hall.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All twelve cosmic energies are now present for the first time since Atlantis, and now there is a thirteenth energy, which is only just appearing around the whole planet for the first time.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A skeleton mount from these specimens will shortly be constructed for the Cretaceous Dinosaur Hall.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.They have been featured in best-selling books and films such as Jurassic Park, and new discoveries are regularly covered by the media.^ JURASSIC PARK: THE WEBQUEST NEW! http://fayette.k12.in.us/~cbeard/jp/webquest2.html A webquest for middle school students on dinosaurs .
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  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ In fact, I will go so far as to say that, "We will all be only too happy to buy your New York Times #1-Best Selling book on this fantastic discovery."
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dinosaurs hold a place of awe and wonder for humans; the success of the Jurassic Park movies and books is testament to the fact that these extinct animals fascinate us.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.As a result, the word "dinosaur" has entered the vernacular, although its use and meaning in colloquial speech may be inconsistent with modern science.^ The word dinosaur means 'terrible lizard'.

^ Science may claim to have issues with a “god”, but Science NEVER has issues with the word of God!
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please note that I am even refraining from using the word "insurance" in this context, because "health insurance" as commonly used in this country at this time is not actually "insurance" in any linguistic meaning of the word.

.In English, for example, "dinosaur" is commonly used to describe anything that is impractically large, slow-moving, obsolete, or bound for extinction.^ DINOSAUR SPEED CALCULATOR NEW! http://www.sorbygeology.group.shef.ac.uk/DINOC01/dinocal1.html Calculated the speed that dinosaurs moved using dinosaur trackways.
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  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[5]

Contents

Etymology

.The taxon Dinosauria was formally named in 1842 by English paleontologist Richard Owen, who used it to refer to the "distinct tribe or sub-order of Saurian Reptiles" that were then being recognized in England and around the world.^ The taxon Dinosauria was formally named by the English palaeontologist Richard Owen in 1842 as "a distinct tribe or suborder of Saurian reptiles".
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the first remains of these amphibious Dinosaurs were found in the Oxford Clays of England, they were considered by Richard Owen to be related to the Crocodiles, and named Opisthocoelia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It has also been suggested that Dinosauria be defined as all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of Megalosaurus and Iguanodon , because these were two of the three genera cited by Richard Owen when he recognized the Dinosauria.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .The term is derived from the Greek words δεινός (deinos meaning "terrible", "powerful", or "wondrous") and σαῦρος (sauros meaning "lizard" or "reptile").^ The name, derived from deinos terrible, and sauros lizard, refers to the fact that they appeared externally like enormous lizards, with very long limbs, necks, and tails.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Saurischians ('lizard-hipped', from the Greek sauros ( σαυρος ) meaning 'lizard' and ischion ( ισχιον ) meaning 'hip joint') are dinosaurs that originally retained the hip structure of their ancestors.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term is derived from the Greek words δεινός ( deinos meaning "terrible", "fearsome" or "formidable") and σαύρα ( saura meaning "lizard" or "reptile").
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Though the taxonomic name has often been interpreted as a reference to dinosaurs' teeth, claws, and other fearsome characteristics, Owen intended it merely to evoke their size and majesty.^ Many of the bones of other herbivorous dinosaurs found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry were similarly scored and bitten off, and the teeth of Allosaurus were also found close to them.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though feathers have been found only in the lagerstätte of the Yixian Formation and a few other places, it is possible that non-avian dinosaurs elsewhere in the world were also feathered.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Owen chose it to express his awe at the size and majesty of the extinct animals, not out of fear or trepidation at their size and often-formidable arsenal of teeth and claws.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .In colloquial English "dinosaur" is sometimes used to describe an obsolete or unsuccessful thing or person,[9] despite the dinosaurs' 160 million year reign and the global abundance and diversity of their avian descendants: modern-day birds.^ The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event , which occurred approximately 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period, caused the extinction of all dinosaurs except for the line that had already given rise to the first birds.
  • Dinosaur - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students are used to seeing animals, and they have probably also learned some things about dinosaurs or seen dinosaur reproductions in museums, movies, or elsewhere.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ This would indicate that dinosaurs had > metabolisms that were higher than is seen in modern reptiles, and more > similar to modern birds."
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Modern definition

Under phylogenetic taxonomy, dinosaurs are usually defined as the group consisting of "Triceratops, Neornithes [modern birds], their most recent common ancestor, and all descendants."[10] It has also been suggested that Dinosauria be defined with respect to the most recent common ancestor of Megalosaurus and Iguanodon, because these were two of the three genera cited by Richard Owen when he recognized the Dinosauria.[11] .Both definitions result in the same set of animals being defined as dinosaurs, including theropods (mostly bipedal carnivores), sauropodomorphs (mostly large herbivorous quadrupeds with long necks and tails), ankylosaurians (armored herbivorous quadrupeds), stegosaurians (plated herbivorous quadrupeds), ceratopsians (herbivorous quadrupeds with horns and frills), and ornithopods (bipedal or quadrupedal herbivores including "duck-bills").^ Sort animals by herbivores or carnivores.

^ All our pictures of Dinosaurs, developed against images first proposed over 100 years ago, show large tails being dragged, lizard-like, over the ground, and these were shown to be incorrect.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most students, dinosaurs are the large, scary animals in the movies.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.These definitions are written to correspond with scientific conceptions of dinosaurs that predate the modern use of phylogenetics.^ These conclusions can be transferred to dinosaur leg length, stride length, and speed since these dinosaurs walked with their feet well under the body like modern mammals and birds.
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  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ All of this is very interesting since "modern" man's conception of dinosaurs did not begin until the 1800's when the word dinosaur was coined (1841).
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The continuity of meaning is intended to prevent confusion about what the term "dinosaur" means.
.There is a wide consensus among paleontologists that birds are the descendants of theropod dinosaurs.^ Most paleontologists now agree that birds are the dinosaurs’ closest living relatives.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using the strict cladistical definition that all descendants of a single common ancestor must be included in a group for that group to be natural, birds would thus be dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, therefore, not extinct.^ Image from Roland T. Birds, A Dinosaur Walks into the Museum, published in Natural History, February 1941., reprinted with permission.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, if we discovered evidence of man’s knowledge of (or coexistence with) dinosaurs during the last couple of centuries, “science” (as we know it) would be turned upside down.
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^ At the top of the sketch a series of human-like tracks can be seen, including a notation by Dr. Bird himself, "Single giant track to American Museum of Natural History".
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.Birds are classified by most paleontologists as belonging to the subgroup Maniraptora, which are coelurosaurs, which are theropods, which are saurischians, which are dinosaurs.^ To understand her dinosaur bone, Schweitzer turned to two of the most primitive living birds: ostriches and emus.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most paleontologists now agree that birds are the dinosaurs’ closest living relatives.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.From the point of view of cladistics, birds are dinosaurs, but in ordinary speech the word "dinosaur" does not include birds.^ Sections include: Dinosaur Myths, Dinosaur FAQs, T-rex, Pterosaurs, Dinosaurs Down South, What Killed Them?, Dinosaur DNA, Were They Warm-Blooded?, From Birds to Dinosaurs?, Thieves and Dealers and Dinosaur Links.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

Additionally, referring to dinosaurs that are not birds as "non-avian dinosaurs" is cumbersome. For clarity, this article will use "dinosaur" as a synonym for "non-avian dinosaur". The term "non-avian dinosaur" will be used for emphasis as needed.

General description

.Using one of the above definitions, dinosaurs (aside from birds) can be generally described as terrestrial archosaurian reptiles with limbs held erect beneath the body, that existed from the Late Triassic (first appearing in the Carnian faunal stage) to the Late Cretaceous (going extinct at the end of the Maastrichtian).^ "We can go extinct like the dinosaurs."
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^ This would indicate that dinosaurs had > metabolisms that were higher than is seen in modern reptiles, and more > similar to modern birds."
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She held a little rubber toy of one of the cast of the dinosaurs and I also found one of Earl Sinclair floating in the water.
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[13] .Many prehistoric animals are popularly conceived of as dinosaurs, such as ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, pterosaurs, and Dimetrodon, but are not classified scientifically as dinosaurs.^ By far the most imposing of these animals are those which may be popularly designated as the great or giant dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This renders it probable that they were the prey of the smaller pneumatic-built dinosaurs such as the present animal.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ PLESIOSAURS ICHTHYOSAURS MOSASAURS .
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Marine reptiles like ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs, and plesiosaurs were neither terrestrial nor archosaurs; pterosaurs were archosaurs but not terrestrial; and Dimetrodon was a Permian animal more closely related to mammals.^ The Crocodiles and Turtles of the swamps were not so very different from their modern descendants; there were also sea-crocodiles, sea-turtles, huge marine lizards (Mosasaurs) with flippers instead of feet; and another group of great marine reptiles (Plesiosaurs) somewhat like sea-turtles but with long neck and toothed jaws and without any carapace.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a large herbivorous dinosaur of the closing period of the Age of Reptiles and is known to palaeontologists as Trachodon or more popularly as the 'duck-billed dinosaur.'
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Its methods of attack and combat must have been more like those of modern reptiles than the more intelligent methods of the [45] mammalian carnivore.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates of the Mesozoic, especially the Jurassic and Cretaceous.^ The Mesozoic age is divided into three periods, from earliest to latest: the Triassic period, the Jurassic period, and the Cretaceous period.
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.Other groups of animals were restricted in size and niches; mammals, for example, rarely exceeded the size of a cat, and were generally rodent-sized carnivores of small prey.^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Cretacic Period, there were also small and medium sized carnivorous dinosaurs, contemporary with the gigantic kinds; a complete skeleton of Ornithomimus at the entrance [57] to the Dinosaur Hall finely illustrates this group.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fore-limb is very small relatively to the huge size of the animal, but probably was constructed much as in the Allosaurus with two or three large curved claws, the inner claw opposing the others.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[15] .One notable exception is Repenomamus giganticus, a triconodont weighing between 12 kilograms (26 lb) and 14 kilograms (31 lb) that is known to have eaten small dinosaurs like young Psittacosaurus.^ In one of these slides we found several small mammal jaws and teeth not known before from Canada, associated with fossil clam shells of Eocene age.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The one notable exception was the new Apple store , it was packed.

^ But these dinosaurs ran like birds, setting one foot nearly in front of the other, so that the prints of right and left feet are nearly in a straight line.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.Dinosaurs were an extremely varied group of animals; according to a 2006 study, over 500 dinosaur genera have been identified with certainty so far, and the total number of genera preserved in the fossil record has been estimated at around 1850, nearly 75% of which remain to be discovered.^ DISCOVERING DINOSAURS ACTIVITY GUIDE http://dinosaurs.eb.com/dinosaurs/study/index.htm A classroom activity guide on dinosaurs using the information in the Discovering Dinosaurs web site.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ We may be sure that it had no bony armor like the crocodile, for remains of any such armor could not fail to be preserved with the skeletons, as it always is in fossil crocodiles or turtles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dockum Group, Carnian (220 million years ago) This record (Murry, 1986) may be the earliest for pterosaurs (Andres, 2006) Quetzalcoatlus northropi .
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2] .An earlier study predicted that about 3400 dinosaur genera existed, including many which would not have been preserved in the fossil record.^ Because the chemical makeup of proteins changes through evolution, scientists can study protein sequences to learn more about how dinosaurs evolved.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will visit many sites and learn about fossils.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ They will start to acquire knowledge of the fossil record in preparation for learning about evolution and natural selection–concepts they will study in high school."
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[17] .As of September 17, 2008, 1047 different species of dinosaurs have been named.^ You will investigate: the different types of dinosaurs what dinosaurs ate the special characteristics of the different dinosaurs how they survived You will make a poster to present to the class orally.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ I leave picture cards of different dinosaurs on the table with the names of the dinosaurs so that the children can copy if needed.

^ DINOSAUR FACTS NEW! http://www.mce.k12tn.net/dinosaurs/dinosaurs_fact_list.htm Click on the name of the dinosaur for basic information about that species.
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  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[3] Some were herbivorous, others carnivorous. .Some dinosaurs were bipeds, some were quadrupeds, and others, such as Ammosaurus and Iguanodon, could walk just as easily on two or four legs.^ Nevertheless by some such means as this, these enormous animals could have obtained sufficient food in the water to support their great bulk.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest of these plates situated just back of the pelvis were over two feet high, two and a half long, thinning out from a base four inches thick.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The four or five varieties which existed together were each fitted to some special mode of life; some living more exclusively on land, others for longer periods in the water.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many had bony armor, or cranial modifications like horns and crests.^ We may be sure that it had no bony armor like the crocodile, for remains of any such armor could not fail to be preserved with the skeletons, as it always is in fossil crocodiles or turtles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This group of dinosaurs is most remarkable for the massive bony armor plates, crests or spines covering the body and tail.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although known for large size, many dinosaurs were human-sized or smaller.^ The best-known such event was the one that wiped out the dinosaurs 65m years ago, but that was not the worst; the planet has suffered several such large mass extinctions ...
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were not the huge dinosaurs, but they did have large heads and bodies and walked on their hind feet with their smaller front feet in the air.
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^ That is less than one-third of the average brain size for a modern human and much smaller even than those of the primitive H. erectus skulls from Dmanisi.
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.Dinosaur remains have been found on every continent on Earth, including Antarctica.^ They learn what fossils have been found in Antarctica , and what those fossils indicate about the climate and location of the continent millions of years ago.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

^ They learn what fossils have been found in Antarctica, and what those fossils indicate about the climate and location of the continent millions of years ago.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
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^ Earth about 65 million years ago, with global consequences including the extinction of the dinosaurs.
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[4] .No dinosaurs are known to have lived in marine or aerial habitats, although it is possible some feathered theropods were flyers.^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dinosaurs drove cars (no) Some dinosaurs could fly (yes) Dinosaurs lived in houses (no).

^ In the succeeding Jurassic Period we have the Compsognathus , smallest of known dinosaurs, and this Ornitholestes some six feet long.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Distinguishing anatomical features

.While recent discoveries have made it more difficult to present a universally agreed-upon list of dinosaurs' distinguishing features, nearly all dinosaurs discovered so far share certain modifications to the ancestral archosaurian skeleton.^ DISCOVERING DINOSAURS http://dinosaurs.eb.com/dinosaurs/index2.html A examination of how our views of dinosaurs have changed from 1820 to the present as more fossils are found.
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  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ A examination of how our views of dinosaurs have changed from 1820 to the present as more fossils are found.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

^ Finally, students examine recent evidence that challenges the prevailing theory that all dinosaurs were cold-blooded.” Excellent .
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

.Although some later groups of dinosaurs featured further modified versions of these traits, they are considered typical across Dinosauria; the earliest dinosaurs had them and passed them on to all their descendants.^ Students are used to seeing animals, and they have probably also learned some things about dinosaurs or seen dinosaur reproductions in museums, movies, or elsewhere.
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^ But this is not the only feature in which they came nearer to birds than do the other Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Have the children work out a way to put these dinosaurs into groups.

Such common features across a taxonomic group are called synapomorphies.
.Dinosaur synapomorphies include an elongated crest on the humerus, or upper arm bone, to accommodate the attachment of deltopectoral muscles; a shelf at the rear of the ilium, or main hip bone; a tibia, or shin bone, featuring a broad lower edge and a flange pointing out and to the rear; and an ascending projection on the astragalus, one of the ankle bones, which secures it to the tibia.^ This book features photos of the fossilized bones of Texas dinosaurs and the dinosaur exhibits in every major museum in Texas."
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the preceding chapter we have attempted to point out the place in nature that the Dinosaurs occupied and the conditions under which they lived.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The broad expanded lip of bone known as the fourth trochanter, on the inner posterior face of the femur or thigh bone was for the attachment of powerful tail muscles similar to those which enable the crocodile to move its tail from side to side with such dexterity.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[10]
Edmontonia was an "armored dinosaur" of the group Ankylosauria
.A variety of other skeletal features were shared by many dinosaurs.^ Many famous legends, including the mythology of Egypt, Greece and Rome, include specific descriptions of dragons and other dinosaur-like creatures.
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^ Dinosaur-like creatures are featured on Babylonian landmarks, Roman mosaics, Egyptian burial shrouds, and many other pieces of art throughout the ancient world.
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^ But this is not the only feature in which they came nearer to birds than do the other Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, because they were either common to other groups of archosaurs or were not present in all early dinosaurs, these features are not considered to be synapomorphies.^ DINOSAUR TRACKS – A WEBQUEST http://www.plainfield.k12.in.us/hschool/webq/webq36/page1.htm A webquest in which students are assigned, either individually or in groups to create a map showing dinosaur tracks and where they are found.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ Principal dinosaurs of this group in America are Brontosaurus , Diplodocus , Camarasaurus ( Morosaurus ) and Brachiosaurus , all of the Upper Jurassic and Comanchic periods.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These Beaked Dinosaurs were, so far as we can tell, all vegetarians.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, as diapsid reptiles, dinosaurs ancestrally had two pairs of temporal fenestrae (openings in the skull behind the eyes), and as members of the diapsid group Archosauria, had additional openings in the snout and lower jaw.^ T his 1 to 2 m long putative primitive dinosaur is known only from a right lower jaw.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Skull and lower jaw of Armored Dinosaur Ankylosaurus , from Upper Cretacic (Edmonton formation) of Alberta.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is probable that the Dinosaurs are not really a natural group or order of reptiles, although they have been generally so considered.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[18] .Additionally, several characteristics once thought to be synapomorphies are now known to have appeared before dinosaurs, or were absent in the earliest dinosaurs and independently evolved by different dinosaur groups.^ You will investigate: the different types of dinosaurs what dinosaurs ate the special characteristics of the different dinosaurs how they survived You will make a poster to present to the class orally.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ So for me, its importance is not in the evolutionary story of modern humans, but in how the broad group from which modern humans evolved may have adapted and evolved to different ecosystems.
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^ A large collection of dinosaur images from several different sources.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

.These include an elongated scapula, or shoulder blade; a sacrum composed of three or more fused vertebrae (three are found in some other archosaurs, but only two are found in Herrerasaurus);[10] and an acetabulum, or hip socket, with a hole at the center of its inside surface (closed in Saturnalia, for example).^ Includes three sequential treks, fact sheets, games and much more.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

^ On the hollow inside surface of the femur, Schweitzer had found scraps of bone that gave a surprising amount of information about the dinosaur that made them.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then two days ago, I received a box from UPS. Inside, I found a plastic box.

[19] .Another difficulty of determining distinctly dinosaurian features is that early dinosaurs and other archosaurs from the Late Triassic are often poorly known and were similar in many ways; these animals have sometimes been misidentified in the literature.^ Many of the bones of other herbivorous dinosaurs found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry were similarly scored and bitten off, and the teeth of Allosaurus were also found close to them.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That the gristle of the bone or cartilage was very palatable is attested not only by the toothmarks upon these bones, but by many similar markings found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Late Triassic dinosaurs from the western United States.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

[20]
Hip joints and hindlimb postures
.Dinosaurs stood erect in a manner similar to most modern mammals, but distinct from most other reptiles, whose limbs sprawl out to either side.^ This would indicate that dinosaurs had > metabolisms that were higher than is seen in modern reptiles, and more > similar to modern birds."
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Color distinctions and other curious features of dinosaur tracks near Glen Rose, Texas.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In appearance most of these small dinosaurs must have suggested long-legged bipedal lizards, running and walking on their hind limbs, with the long tail stretched out behind to balance the body.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[21] Their posture was due to the development of a laterally facing recess in the pelvis (usually an open socket) and a corresponding inwardly facing distinct head on the femur.[22] .Their erect posture enabled dinosaurs to breathe easily while moving, which likely permitted stamina and activity levels that surpassed those of "sprawling" reptiles.^ Here are the largest of the giant dinosaurs closely mingled with the remains of the smaller but powerful carnivorous dinosaurs which preyed upon them, also those of the slow and [138] heavy-moving armored dinosaurs of the period, as well as of the lightest and most bird-like of the dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Its methods of attack and combat must have been more like those of modern reptiles than the more intelligent methods of the [45] mammalian carnivore.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[23] .Erect limbs probably also helped support the evolution of large size by reducing bending stresses on limbs.^ The fore-limb is very small relatively to the huge size of the animal, but probably was constructed much as in the Allosaurus with two or three large curved claws, the inner claw opposing the others.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[24] .Some non-dinosaurian archosaurs, including rauisuchians, also had erect limbs but achieved this by a "pillar erect" configuration of the hip joint, where instead of having a projection from the femur insert on a socket on the hip, the upper pelvic bone was rotated to form an overhanging shelf.^ The first, found in 1900, included the jaws, a large part of backbone and ribs, and some limb bones.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The limb joints, however, are so imperfect that we could not in this way make sure of having the bones in a correct position.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The small brain size and the hip-bone shape might favour classification as an australopithecine, whereas the size and shape of the skull might suggest a primitive form of H. erectus .
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[24]

Natural history

Origins and early evolution

Marasuchus, a dinosaur-like ornithodiran
.For a long time many scientists thought dinosaurs were polyphyletic with multiple groups of unrelated "dinosaurs" evolving due to similar pressures,[25][26][27] but dinosaurs are now known to have formed a single group.^ The dinosaurs disappeared a long time ago.
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^ In this activity students will use multiple combining forms added to the suffix "-saurus" (Greek for lizard) to form the name of a "dinosaur" which they will then draw.” Excellent DINOSAUR PLANET NEW! .
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

^ Because the chemical makeup of proteins changes through evolution, scientists can study protein sequences to learn more about how dinosaurs evolved.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][28]
.Dinosaurs diverged from their archosaur ancestors approximately 230 million years ago during the Middle to Late Triassic period, roughly 20 million years after the Permian–Triassic extinction event wiped out an estimated 95% of all life on Earth.^ Did dinosaurs really die out over sixty million years ago?
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^ Earth about 65 million years ago, with global consequences including the extinction of the dinosaurs.
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^ The extinction of the dinosaurs was not a one-time event.
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[29][30] .Radiometric dating of the rock formation that contained fossils from the early dinosaur genus Eoraptor establishes its presence in the fossil record at this time.^ The sedimentary rocks of Texas indeed tell a strange and intriguing story, supporting the biblical record of a worldwide flood in Noah's time (Gen.
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^ FOSSILS, ROCKS AND TIME NEW! http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/fossils/contents.html An online essay from the USGS on fossils and rocks over time.
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^ The Jurassic dinosaur formations skirt the Rockies and outlying mountain ranges but are often turned up on edge and poorly exposed, or barren of fossils.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Paleontologists believe Eoraptor resembles the common ancestor of all dinosaurs;[31] if this is true, its traits suggest that the first dinosaurs were small, bipedal predators.^ We all believe that the Dinosaurs existed.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "A team of paleontologists has just found eight complete dinosaur skeletons from all over the world.
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^ The ancestors of the Theropoda appear first in the Triassic period, already of large [35] size, but less completely bipedal than their successors.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[32] .The discovery of primitive, dinosaur-like ornithodirans such as Marasuchus and Lagerpeton in Argentinian Middle Triassic strata supports this view; analysis of recovered fossils suggests that these animals were indeed small, bipedal predators.^ Recent researches upon Triassic dinosaurs, especially by the distinguished German savants, Friedrich von Huene, Otto Jaekel and the late Eberhard Fraas, and the discovery of more complete specimens of these [31] animals, also clear up the true relationships of these primitive dinosaurs which have mostly been referred hitherto to the Theropoda or Megalosaurians.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ever since you read books like Digging Up Dinosaurs , My Visit to the Dinosaurs , and Fossils Tell of Long Ago , all by Aliki, dinosaurs excited you.
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^ No land animals have ever approached these giant dinosaurs in size, and naturally the first point of interest is the architecture of the skeleton.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.When dinosaurs appeared, terrestrial habitats were occupied by various types of basal archosaurs and therapsids, such as aetosaurs, cynodonts, dicynodonts, ornithosuchids, rauisuchias, and rhynchosaurs.^ Could it be that certain types of dinosaurs actually retreated into an underground habitat where ...
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^ Pelves of Dinosaurs illustrating the two chief types (Saurischia, Ornithischia) and their variations.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most of these other animals became extinct in the Triassic, in one of two events.^ Most of you have learned that there are times when findings in your organ implies that something may be wrong with one or more of the patient's other organs.

^ Most of these illustrations have been published elsewhere by Professor Osborn, Mr. Brown and others.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dinosaurs hold a place of awe and wonder for humans; the success of the Jurassic Park movies and books is testament to the fact that these extinct animals fascinate us.
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.First, at about the boundary between the Carnian and Norian faunal stages (about 215 million years ago), dicynodonts and a variety of basal archosauromorphs, including the prolacertiforms and rhynchosaurs, became extinct.^ Pterosaurs have been extinct for millions of years.
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^ A. boisei became extinct about 1 to 1.5 million years ago.
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^ They learn what fossils have been found in Antarctica , and what those fossils indicate about the climate and location of the continent millions of years ago.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

.This was followed by the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event (about 200 million years ago), that saw the end of most of the other groups of early archosaurs, like aetosaurs, ornithosuchids, phytosaurs, and rauisuchians.^ A. boisei became extinct about 1 to 1.5 million years ago.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archive.html > > "But he said our bones of the hominid and the dinosaur were together, > > in hard sandstone, and that they had to become the fossils at the same > > time, 140 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic.
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A huge asteroid that hit the planet 65 million years ago is believed to have killed off the dinosaurs.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These losses left behind a land fauna of crocodylomorphs, dinosaurs, mammals, pterosaurians, and turtles.^ DINOSAURS corresponding to the larger quadrupeds or land mammals of today.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I was like, stop it!” Finally, through her irritation, she realized what she had: a fragment of dinosaur soft tissue left behind when the mineral bone around it had dissolved.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But real-life paleontologists can learn about the behavior of dinosaurs only by examining the fossilized bones they left behind.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[10]
Full skeleton of an early carnivorous dinosaur, displayed in a glass case in a museum
The early forms Herrerasaurus (large), Eoraptor (small) and a Plateosaurus skull
.The first few lines of primitive dinosaurs diversified through the Carnian and Norian stages of the Triassic, most likely by occupying the niches of groups that became extinct.^ On the other hand, if like the dinosaurs, you only see the threat in the last 10 seconds as it's burning through the atmosphere toward ...
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locality Dockum Group, north of Cedar Mountain, Crosby County, latest Carnian (Late Triassic) Comment specimens consist of vertebrae.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Of the earlier stages in the evolution of the Dinosaurs there are but a few imperfect sketches in this country; in Europe the picture is more complete.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Traditionally, dinosaurs were thought to have replaced the variety of other Triassic land animals by proving superior through a long period of competition.^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No land animals have ever approached these giant dinosaurs in size, and naturally the first point of interest is the architecture of the skeleton.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the succeeding Jurassic Period we have the Compsognathus , smallest of known dinosaurs, and this Ornitholestes some six feet long.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

This now appears unlikely, for several reasons. .Dinosaurs do not show a pattern of steadily increasing in diversity and numbers, as would be predicted if they were competitively replacing other groups; instead, they were very rare through the Carnian, making up only 1–2% of individuals present in faunas.^ But in the present stage of discovery it would be rash to conclude that they were surely limited to the regions where [115] they have been discovered.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Where only parts of one side are missing the corresponding parts of the other side are used for model; where both sides are missing, other individuals or nearly related species may serve as a guide.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To the tune of Mary had a Little Lamb: Dinosaurs are very different, very different, very different, Dinosaurs are very different, but they are very big.

.In the Norian, however, after the extinction of several other groups, they became significant components of faunas, representing 50–90% of individuals.^ However, I understand why others may think it must have been preserved for millions of years because that is the model they are working with, so they are looking at the evidence in that context.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A webquest in which students are assigned, either individually or in groups to create a map showing dinosaur tracks and where they are found.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

.Also, what had been viewed as a key adaptation of dinosaurs, their erect stance, is now known to have been present in several contemporaneous groups that were not as successful (aetosaurs, ornithosuchids, rauisuchians, and some groups of crocodylomorphs).^ The best-known such event was the one that wiped out the dinosaurs 65m years ago, but that was not the worst; the planet has suffered several such large mass extinctions ...
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some stone tools have been found at several sites, however it is not known whether all or only the more advanced species of Australopithecus used these tools.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DISCOVERING DINOSAURS http://dinosaurs.eb.com/dinosaurs/index2.html A examination of how our views of dinosaurs have changed from 1820 to the present as more fossils are found.
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  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

Finally, the Late Triassic itself was a time of great upheaval in life, with shifts in plant life, marine life, and climate.[10] .Crurotarsans, today represented only by crocodilians but in the Late Triassic also encompassing such now-extinct groups as aetosaurs, phytosaurs, ornithosuchians, and rauisuchians, were actually more diverse in the Late Triassic than dinosaurs, indicating that the survival of dinosaurs had more to do with luck than superiority.^ But this is not the only feature in which they came nearer to birds than do the other Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among discoveries of a highly suggestive, almost romantic kind, perhaps none is more remarkable than the one I shall now describe.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The land reptiles were chiefly Dinosaurs, a group which flourished throughout the Age of Reptiles and became extinct at its close.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[33]

Low diversification in the Cretaceous

Statistical analyses based on raw data suggest that dinosaurs diversified, i.e. the number of species increased, in the Late Cretaceous. .However in July 2008 Graeme T. Lloyd et al. argued that this apparent diversification was an illusion caused by sampling bias, because Late Cretaceous rocks have been very heavily studied.^ Related to Stegosaurus , equally huge, but very different in proportions and character of its armor was the Ankylosaurus of the late Cretacic.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, they wrote, dinosaurs underwent only two significant diversifications in the Late Cretaceous, the initial radiations of the euhadrosaurs and ceratopsians.^ But we can form a fairly correct idea of their general appearance and habits and of the part they played in the world of the late Cretacic.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But this is not the only feature in which they came nearer to birds than do the other Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Remember, there would have only been two of every type of dinosaur in the ark, and it is quite likely that earth conditions after the flood were not conducive to sustaining their life.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Mid Cretaceous, the flowering angiosperm plants became a major part of terrestrial ecosystems, which had previous been dominated by gymnosperms such as conifers.^ But in the latter part of this era, all these higher orders appeared along with the flowering plants and trees.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We had previously recovered a few very unusual hominid bones and teeth from the Pleistocene levels of Liang Bua, but now we had a major part of a skeleton, including the skull.
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.Dinosaur coprolites (fossilized dung) indicate that, while some ate angiosperms, most herbivorous dinosaurs mainly ate gymnosperms.^ There were many types of dinosaurs, below are some of the most recognizable.

^ The great carnivorous dinosaurs are much rarer than the herbivorous kinds, and these three skeletons are the most complete that have ever been found.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also indications of aquatic habits in some of the giant dinosaurs which render it probable that a considerable part of their life was led in the water.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile herbivorous insects and mammals diversified rapidly to take advantage of the new type of plant food, while lizards, snakes, crocodilians and birds also diversified at the same time.^ At the same time, they show forth new facts concerning the Genesis Flood.
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^ Scientists have discovered a new and tiny species of human that lived in Indonesia at the same time our own ancestors were colonising the world.
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^ Unlike the birds, they retained their [76] teeth and in some cases converted them into a grinding apparatus which served the same purpose as the grinders of herbivorous quadrupeds.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Lloyd et al. suggest that dinosaurs' failure to diversify as ecosystems were changing doomed them to extinction.[34]

Classification

.Dinosaurs (including birds) are archosaurs, like modern crocodilians.^ This would indicate that dinosaurs had > metabolisms that were higher than is seen in modern reptiles, and more > similar to modern birds."
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many famous legends, including the mythology of Egypt, Greece and Rome, include specific descriptions of dragons and other dinosaur-like creatures.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the top of the sketch a series of human-like tracks can be seen, including a notation by Dr. Bird himself, "Single giant track to American Museum of Natural History".
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Archosaurs' diapsid skulls have two holes, called temporal fenestrae, located where the jaw muscles attach, and an additional antorbital fenestra in front of the eyes. .Most reptiles (including birds) are diapsids; mammals, with only one temporal fenestra, are called synapsids; and turtles, with no temporal fenestra, are anapsids.^ Jack Horner at the Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University has been doing a lot of work with the bone histology (cell structure) of mammals, dinosaurs, birds, and reptiles.
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists called the dwarf skeleton "the most extreme" figure to be included in the extended human family.
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^ The flying Reptiles or Pterosaurians, partly took the place of birds, and most of them were of small size.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Anatomically, dinosaurs share many other archosaur characteristics, including teeth that grow from sockets rather than as direct extensions of the jawbones.^ Many of the bones of other herbivorous dinosaurs found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry were similarly scored and bitten off, and the teeth of Allosaurus were also found close to them.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By you; by your father; and by many more other people than you probably realized.

^ Many famous legends, including the mythology of Egypt, Greece and Rome, include specific descriptions of dragons and other dinosaur-like creatures.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within the archosaur group, dinosaurs are differentiated most noticeably by their gait.^ This group of dinosaurs is most remarkable for the massive bony armor plates, crests or spines covering the body and tail.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "This group takes us back in imagination to the Cretaceous period, more than three millions of years ago, when Trachodonts were among the most numerous of the dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Dinosaur legs extend directly beneath the body, whereas the legs of lizards and crocodilians sprawl out to either side.^ But the bodies of lizards are too long and their limbs too small and slender for this to be the usual mode of progress, as it seems to have been among the Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In appearance most of these small dinosaurs must have suggested long-legged bipedal lizards, running and walking on their hind limbs, with the long tail stretched out behind to balance the body.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The animal swims with perfect ease and quickness by a serpentine movement of its body and flattened tail, its legs meanwhile being closely pressed to its side and motionless.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Collectively, dinosaurs are usually regarded as a superorder or an unranked clade. .They are divided into two orders, Saurischia and Ornithischia, depending upon pelvic structure.^ They looked for ways to get around this restriction, and in particular, they did this energetically, developing a two layer soul structure.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pelves of Dinosaurs illustrating the two chief types (Saurischia, Ornithischia) and their variations.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Students will compare two kinds of dinosaurs based upon the structure of the pelvis: bird-hipped and reptile-hipped.” Very Good WALKING WITH PREHISTORIC BEASTS NEW! .
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

.Saurischia includes those taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with birds than with Ornithischia, while Ornithischia includes all taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with Triceratops than with Saurischia.^ Instead, it suggests recent evolution was more complex than previously thought.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lower jaw contains large, blunt teeth and roots like Australopithecus, a prehuman ancestor in Africa more than 3 million years ago.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would indicate that dinosaurs had metabolisms that were higher than is seen in modern reptiles, and more similar to modern birds."
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Humans and Dinosaur coexistence cover up - talk.origins | Google Groups 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Saurischians ("lizard-hipped", from the Greek sauros (σαυρος) meaning "lizard" and ischion (ισχιον) meaning "hip joint") retained the hip structure of their ancestors, with a pubis bone directed cranially, or forward.^ The hip-bone resembles those of the pre-human African species known as australopithecines (meaning 'southern apes').
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] This basic form was modified by rotating the pubis backward to varying degrees in several groups (Herrerasaurus,[35] therizinosauroids,[36] dromaeosaurids,[37] and birds[12]). .Saurischia includes the theropods (bipedal and mostly carnivores, except for birds) and sauropodomorphs (long-necked quadrupedal herbivores).^ With blunt-pointed teeth and blunt claws, quadrupedal, with elephant-like limbs and feet, long neck and small head.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In contrast to the carnivorous dinosaurs these are quadrupedal, with very small head, blunt teeth, long giraffe-like neck, elephantine body and limbs, long massive tail prolonged at the tip into a whip-lash as in the lizards.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The long slender limbs, long neck, small head and toothless jaws are all singularly bird-like, and afford a striking contrast to the Tyrannosaurus.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.By contrast, ornithischians ("bird-hipped", from the Greek ornitheios (ορνιθειος) meaning "of a bird" and ischion (ισχιον) meaning "hip joint") had a pelvis that superficially resembled a bird's pelvis: the pubis bone was oriented caudally (rear-pointing).^ "Students will compare two kinds of dinosaurs based upon the structure of the pelvis: bird-hipped and reptile-hipped."
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ The hip-bone resembles those of the pre-human African species known as australopithecines (meaning 'southern apes').
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students will compare two kinds of dinosaurs based upon the structure of the pelvis: bird-hipped and reptile-hipped.” Very Good WALKING WITH PREHISTORIC BEASTS NEW! .
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

Unlike birds, the ornithischian pubis also usually had an additional forward-pointing process. Ornithischia includes a variety of herbivores. (NB: the terms "lizard hip" and "bird hip" are misnomers – birds evolved from dinosaurs with "lizard hips".)
.The following is a simplified classification of dinosaur families.^ Classification Order Ornithischia Suborder Ornithopoda Family Iguanodontidae Comments Tenontosaurus is the large dinosaur in the illustration by Karen Carr for Lone Star Dinosaurs .
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A more detailed version can be found at List of dinosaur classifications.^ The intrigue and the mystery of this whole area has been enhanced by the many reports of human tracks, as well as dinosaur tracks, found in the strata on the area of this riverbed for more than fifty years.
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Assemblage of Tetanuran theropods: Torvosaurus left above, Eustreptospondylus left below, Piatnitzkysaurus in central position, Megalosaurus right below, Afrovenator right above, and Cryolophosaurus behind it
Various ornithopod dinosaurs and one heterodontosaurid. Far left: Camptosaurus, left: Iguanodon, center background: Shantungosaurus, center foreground: Dryosaurus, right: Corythosaurus, far right (small): Heterodontosaurus, far right (large) Tenontosaurus.
  • Dinosauria
  • Tyrannosauroids (small to gigantic, often with reduced forelimbs)
  • Ornithomimosaurians ("ostrich-mimics"; mostly toothless; carnivores to possible herbivores)
  • Therizinosauroids (bipedal herbivores with large hand claws and small heads)
  • Oviraptorosaurians (mostly toothless; their diet and lifestyle are uncertain)
  • Dromaeosaurids (popularly known as "raptors"; bird-like carnivores)
  • Troodontids (similar to dromaeosaurids, but more lightly built, and possibly omnivorous)
  • Avialans (flying dinosaurs, including modern birds: the only living dinosaurs)
  • Sauropodomorphs (quadrupedal herbivores with small heads, long necks and tails, and elephant-like bodies)
  • "Prosauropods" (early relatives of sauropods; small to quite large; some possibly omnivorous; bipeds and quadrupeds)
  • Sauropods (very large, usually over 15 meters long [49 ft])
  • Diplodocoids (skulls and tails elongated; teeth typically narrow and pencil-like)
  • Macronarians (boxy skulls; spoon-shaped or pencil-shaped teeth)
  • Brachiosaurids (very long necks; forelimbs longer than hindlimbs)
  • Titanosaurians (diverse; stocky, with wide hips; most common in the Late Cretaceous of southern continents)
  • Ornithopods (diverse, from meter- or yard-scale bipeds to 12-meter (39 ft) animals that could move as both bipeds and quadrupeds; evolved a method of chewing using skull flexibility and large numbers of teeth)
  • Pachycephalosaurians ("bone-heads"; bipeds with domed or knobby growth on skulls)
  • Ceratopsians (dinosaurs with horns and frills, although most early forms had only the beginnings of these features)

Evolution and paleobiogeography

.Dinosaur evolution after the Triassic follows changes in vegetation and the location of continents.^ Because the chemical makeup of proteins changes through evolution, scientists can study protein sequences to learn more about how dinosaurs evolved.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The beginning of the age of dinosaurs; Faunal change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic, the continents were connected as the single landmass Pangaea, and there was a worldwide dinosaur fauna mostly composed of coelophysoid carnivores and prosauropod herbivores.^ In other continents, except in Europe, there has been but little exploration for dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The beginning of the age of dinosaurs; Faunal change across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The great carnivorous dinosaurs are much rarer than the herbivorous kinds, and these three skeletons are the most complete that have ever been found.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[38] Gymnosperm plants (particularly conifers), a potential food source, radiated in the Late Triassic. Prosauropods did not have sophisticated mechanisms for processing food in the mouth, and so must have employed other means of breaking down food farther along the digestive tract.[39] .The general homogeneity of dinosaurian faunas continued into the Middle and Late Jurassic, where most localities had predators consisting of ceratosaurians, spinosauroids, and carnosaurians, and herbivores consisting of stegosaurian ornithischians and large sauropods.^ Tenontosaurus is the most common large herbivore known from the late early Cretaceous of North America.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ All of them lived during the late Jurassic and Comanchic ("Lower Cretaceous") and belong to the older of the two principal Dinosaur faunas.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Locality Dockum Group, north of Cedar Mountain, Crosby County, latest Carnian (Late Triassic) Comment specimens consist of vertebrae.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

Examples of this include the Morrison Formation of North America and Tendaguru Beds of Tanzania. .Dinosaurs in China show some differences, with specialized sinraptorid theropods and unusual, long-necked sauropods like Mamenchisaurus.^ You will investigate: the different types of dinosaurs what dinosaurs ate the special characteristics of the different dinosaurs how they survived You will make a poster to present to the class orally.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ Ceremonial burial stones discovered in Ica, Peru depict numerous species of dinosaurs, some in activities with man (dated from 500 A.D. to 1500 A.D.).
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^ The most obvious explanation for hundreds of life-like depiction's of dinosaurs is that they have not been gone that long.
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[38] Ankylosaurians and ornithopods were also becoming more common, but prosauropods had become extinct. .Conifers and pteridophytes were the most common plants.^ Fruits and leaves of the fig tree are also common, but most abundant among the plant remains are the Equisetae or horsetail rushes, some species of which possibly supplied the Trachodons with food.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Sauropods, like the earlier prosauropods, were not oral processors, but ornithischians were evolving various means of dealing with food in the mouth, including potential cheek-like organs to keep food in the mouth, and jaw motions to grind food.[39] Another notable evolutionary event of the Jurassic was the appearance of true birds, descended from maniraptoran coelurosaurians.[12]
An illustration of 18 species of basal ceratopsia to scale
By the Early Cretaceous and the ongoing breakup of Pangaea, dinosaurs were becoming strongly differentiated by landmass. .The earliest part of this time saw the spread of ankylosaurians, iguanodontians, and brachiosaurids through Europe, North America, and northern Africa.^ Alamosaurus may represent an invasion from South America by titanosaurids, following the mid-Cretaceous extinction of the brachiosaurids in North America.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "During the existence of the Trachodonts the climate of the northern part of North America was much warmer than it is at present, the plant remains indicating a climate for Wyoming and Montana similar to what now prevails in Southern California.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Smaller kinds with less massive armor have been found in Europe but the largest and most extraordinary members of this strange race are from North America.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.These were later supplemented or replaced in Africa by large spinosaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods, and rebbachisaurid and titanosaurian sauropods, also found in South America.^ Remains of these animals have also been found in India, in German East Africa, in Madagascar, and in South America, so that they were evidently widely distributed.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These Duck-billed Dinosaurs probably ranged all over North America and the northerly portions of the Old World during the later Cretacic.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Asia, maniraptoran coelurosaurians like dromaeosaurids, troodontids, and oviraptorosaurians became the common theropods, and ankylosaurids and early ceratopsians like Psittacosaurus became important herbivores.^ Tenontosaurus is the most common large herbivore known from the late early Cretaceous of North America.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

Meanwhile, Australia was home to a fauna of basal ankylosaurians, hypsilophodonts, and iguanodontians.[38] .The stegosaurians appear to have gone extinct at some point in the late Early Cretaceous or early Late Cretaceous.^ Location Paw Paw Formation, Tarrant County (north of Fort Worth), Texas, late Albian (latest Early Cretaceous), about 100 Ma.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Tenontosaurus is the most common large herbivore known from the late early Cretaceous of North America.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Location Flower Mound (north of Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas), Woodbine Formation, Cenomanian (early late Cretaceous), 95 Ma.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

A major change in the Early Cretaceous, which would be amplified in the Late Cretaceous, was the evolution of flowering plants. .At the same time, several groups of dinosaurian herbivores evolved more sophisticated ways to orally process food.^ Cladistics also allows us to examine the ways in which features change within groups, and to observe patterns of origin and diversification over time.
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^ Over time, the same design has been expressed a number of different ways, using the best DNA that was then available, which in turn reflects different stages in the development of the physical planes of existence.
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^ I used the new syringes to give out several more shots, and even though I now knew what to expect, that SNAP still got me every time.

Ceratopsians developed a method of slicing with teeth stacked on each other in batteries, and iguanodontians refined a method of grinding with tooth batteries, taken to its extreme in hadrosaurids.[39] Some sauropods also evolved tooth batteries, best exemplified by the rebbachisaurid Nigersaurus.[40]
.There were three general dinosaur faunas in the Late Cretaceous.^ But we can form a fairly correct idea of their general appearance and habits and of the part they played in the world of the late Cretacic.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is impossible to say which of these three observers actually made the first discovery of Jurassic dinosaurs; whatever doubt there is is in favor of Mr. Reed.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All of them lived during the late Jurassic and Comanchic ("Lower Cretaceous") and belong to the older of the two principal Dinosaur faunas.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the northern continents of North America and Asia, the major theropods were tyrannosaurids and various types of smaller maniraptoran theropods, with a predominantly ornithischian herbivore assemblage of hadrosaurids, ceratopsians, ankylosaurids, and pachycephalosaurians.^ Smaller kinds with less massive armor have been found in Europe but the largest and most extraordinary members of this strange race are from North America.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A wide range of reptiles, mammals, and fish remained in the subtropical forests of North America, Asia, and Europe.
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^ They probably ranged all over North America, and different kinds inhabited other continents as well.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

In the southern continents that had made up the now-splitting Gondwana, abelisaurids were the common theropods, and titanosaurian sauropods the common herbivores. Finally, in Europe, dromaeosaurids, rhabdodontid iguanodontians, nodosaurid ankylosaurians, and titanosaurian sauropods were prevalent.[38] .Flowering plants were greatly radiating,[39] with the first grasses appearing by the end of the Cretaceous.^ The flowering plants and deciduous trees had not appeared.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But in the latter part of this era, all these higher orders appeared along with the flowering plants and trees.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[41] .Grinding hadrosaurids and shearing ceratopsians became extremely diverse across North America and Asia.^ A wide range of reptiles, mammals, and fish remained in the subtropical forests of North America, Asia, and Europe.
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Theropods were also radiating as herbivores or omnivores, with therizinosaurians and ornithomimosaurians becoming common.[39]
.The Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred approximately 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period, caused the extinction of all dinosaurs except for the birds.^ The extinction of the dinosaurs was not a one-time event.
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^ All from the Cretacic period.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Earth about 65 million years ago, with global consequences including the extinction of the dinosaurs.
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.Some other diapsid groups, such as crocodilians, lizards, snakes, sphenodontians, and choristoderans, also survived the event.^ The skin was probably either naked or covered with horny scales as in lizards and snakes; at all events it was not armor-plated as in the crocodile.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[42]

Paleobiology

.Knowledge about dinosaurs is derived from a variety of fossil and non-fossil records, including fossilized bones, feces, trackways, gastroliths, feathers, impressions of skin, internal organs and soft tissues.^ It's not just (bones),there is fossilized soft tissue on each piece.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DINOSAUR FOOTPRINTS AND TRACKWAYS FROM THE NORTHEASTERN U.S. NEW! http://digsfossils.com/fossils/footprints_main.html Information on dinosaur footprints and trackways found in the northeastern US including Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Maryland.
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^ This book features photos of the fossilized bones of Texas dinosaurs and the dinosaur exhibits in every major museum in Texas."
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

[43][44] .Many fields of study contribute to our understanding of dinosaurs, including physics (especially biomechanics), chemistry, biology, and the earth sciences (of which paleontology is a sub-discipline).^ Many famous legends, including the mythology of Egypt, Greece and Rome, include specific descriptions of dragons and other dinosaur-like creatures.
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^ Earth about 65 million years ago, with global consequences including the extinction of the dinosaurs.
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^ OKLAHOMA DINOSAUR LESSON PLAN NEW! http://www.eduref.org/cgi-bin/printlessons.cgi/Virtual/Lessons/Science/Paleontology/PAL0201.html A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on dinosaurs.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.Two topics of particular interest and study have been dinosaur size and behavior.^ This lesson has students trace the steps of a paleontologist from determining where to look for dinosaur fossils to studying the completed dinosaur skeleton for clues about the dinosaur's behavior, diet, and anatomy."
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^ No land animals have ever approached these giant dinosaurs in size, and naturally the first point of interest is the architecture of the skeleton.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The fourth pose or study, for the proposed full sized mount, is that of two reptiles of the same size attracted to the same prey.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Size

Scale diagram comparing the largest known dinosaurs in four suborders and a human
While the evidence is incomplete, it is clear that, as a group, dinosaurs were large. Even by dinosaur standards, the sauropods were gigantic. .For much of the dinosaur era, the smallest sauropods were larger than anything else in their habitat, and the largest were an order of magnitude more massive than anything else that has since walked the Earth.^ This would indicate that dinosaurs had > metabolisms that were higher than is seen in modern reptiles, and more > similar to modern birds."
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^ The great carnivorous dinosaurs are much rarer than the herbivorous kinds, and these three skeletons are the most complete that have ever been found.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This animal, a contemporary of the Tyrannosaurus and duck-billed dinosaurs was more effectively though less grotesquely armored than its more ancient relative.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Giant prehistoric mammals such as the Indricotherium and the Columbian mammoth were dwarfed by the giant sauropods, and only a handful of modern aquatic animals approach or surpass them in size – most notably the blue whale, which reaches up to 173000 kg (381000 lb) and over 30 meters (100 ft) in length.^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This animal probably reached the maximum of size and of development of teeth and claws of which its type of animal mechanism was capable.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These were the Giant Reptiles par-excellence, for all of them were of enormous size, and some were by far the largest of all four-footed animals, exceeded in bulk only by the modern whales.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[45] .There are several proposed advantages for the large size of sauropods, including protection from predation, reduction of energy use, and longevity, but it may be that the most important advantage was dietary.^ You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org 1.E.2.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most great discoveries are due rather to a state of mind, if I may use such an expression, than to accident.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are indeed carnivorous whales of gigantic size, but no very large land carnivore.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Large animals are more efficient at digestion than small animals, because food spends more time in their digestive systems.^ Because in the summer of 1971 while stationed at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, I saw 2 of them flying leisurely overhead at no more than 200 ft distance.
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^ The lower jaw contains large, blunt teeth and roots like Australopithecus, a prehuman ancestor in Africa more than 3 million years ago.
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^ The ruling Dinoids were painfully aware that, at some future time, the humans would become more powerful than them.
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.This also permits them to subsist on food with lower nutritive value than smaller animals.^ "Although smaller than its huge contemporary Brontosaurus, this animal is of gigantic proportions being 34 feet 2 inches in length, and 8 feet 3 inches high."
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sauropod remains are mostly found in rock formations interpreted as dry or seasonally dry, and the ability to eat large quantities of low-nutrient browse would have been advantageous in such environments.^ In a preceding chapter it was shown that the chief formations in which dinosaur remains have been found belong to the end of the Jurassic and the end of the Cretacic periods.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Telmatosaurus of the Gosau formation in Austria also belongs to this group, and fragmentary remains have been found in the upper Cretacic of Belgium, England and France.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the epochs of greatest overflow great marine formations were deposited over large areas of what is now dry land.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.Most dinosaurs, however, were much smaller than the giant sauropods.^ The great carnivorous dinosaurs are much rarer than the herbivorous kinds, and these three skeletons are the most complete that have ever been found.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here are the largest of the giant dinosaurs closely mingled with the remains of the smaller but powerful carnivorous dinosaurs which preyed upon them, also those of the slow and [138] heavy-moving armored dinosaurs of the period, as well as of the lightest and most bird-like of the dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That is less than one-third of the average brain size for a modern human and much smaller even than those of the primitive H. erectus skulls from Dmanisi.
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.Current evidence suggests that dinosaur average size varied through the Triassic, early Jurassic, late Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.^ Aptian-Albian; late Early Cretaceous.
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The immense interval of time that preceded, and the no less vast stretch of time that separated them, is represented in the record of Dinosaur history by a multitude of tracks and a few imperfect skeletons assigned to the close of the Triassic period, and by a few fragments from formations which may be [24] intermediate in age between the Jurassic-Comanchic and the late Cretacic.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Skeleton of Ornitholestes a small carnivorous dinosaur of the Jurassic period.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[31] Theropod dinosaurs, when sorted by estimated weight into categories based on order of magnitude, most often fall into the 100 to 1000 kilogram (220 to 2200 lb) category, whereas recent predatory carnivorans peak in the 10 to 100 kilogram (22 to 220 lb) category.[47] .The mode of dinosaur body masses is between one and ten metric tonnes.^ But the bodies of lizards are too long and their limbs too small and slender for this to be the usual mode of progress, as it seems to have been among the Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The best-known such event was the one that wiped out the dinosaurs 65m years ago, but that was not the worst; the planet has suffered several such large mass extinctions ...
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[48] .This contrasts sharply with the size of Cenozoic mammals, estimated by the National Museum of Natural History as about 2 to 5 kilograms (5 to 10 lb).^ FOSSIL MYSTERIES EXHIBIT NEW! http://www.sdnhm.org/exhibits/mystery/exh_overview.html The site for the Fossil Mysteries exhibit at the San Diego Natural History Museum.
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^ Sue is a Tyrannosaurus Rex that is being put together at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago.
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^ Image from Roland T. Birds, A Dinosaur Walks into the Museum, published in Natural History, February 1941., reprinted with permission.
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[49]

Largest and smallest

Only a tiny percentage of animals ever fossilize, and most of these remain buried in the earth. .Few of the specimens that are recovered are complete skeletons, and impressions of skin and other soft tissues are rare.^ Complete skeletons of these two genera are exhibited in the Dinosaur Hall; the Corythosaurus is worthy of careful study, as the skin of the body, hind limbs and tail, the ossified tendons, and even the impressions of the muscular tissues in parts of the body and tail, are more or less clearly indicated.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Altogether seven specimens have been discovered in which these delicate skin impressions were partly preserved, but the 'Trachodon mummy' far surpasses all the others, as it yields a nearly complete picture of the outer covering.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Skeleton of a Trachodon preserving the skin impressions over a large part of the body.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Rebuilding a complete skeleton by comparing the size and morphology of bones to those of similar, better-known species is an inexact art, and reconstructing the muscles and other organs of the living animal is, at best, a process of educated guesswork.^ The most complete skeleton known from Texas comes from the Twin Mountains Formation at Parker Ranch in Parker County (Harris, 1998).
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypsilophodont - new species, similar to Hypsilophodon foxi (see Winkler and others, 1988; Winkler and Murry, 1989) .
  • texas dinosaurs 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC users.tamuk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There is too much risk of including bones that pertain to other species or genera, and of introducing thereby into the restoration a more or less erroneous concept of the animal which it represents.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

As a result, scientists will probably never be certain of the largest and smallest dinosaurs.
Comparative size of Giraffatitan
The tallest and heaviest dinosaur known from good skeletons is Giraffatitan brancai (previously classified as a species of Brachiosaurus). .Its remains were discovered in Tanzania between 1907–12. Bones from multiple similar-sized individuals were incorporated into the skeleton now mounted and on display at the Humboldt Museum of Berlin;[50] this mount is 12 meters (39 ft) tall and 22.5 meters (74 ft) long, and would have belonged to an animal that weighed between 30000 and 60000 kilograms (70000 and 130000 lb).^ Now, if things didn't die before sin came about, then that would mean that animals and humans lived at the same time.
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^ Five more or less complete skeletons are now to be seen in the Yale, American, Carnegie, and Field Columbian museums.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Outline sketch restoration of Triceratops , from the mounted skeleton in the National Museum.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The longest complete dinosaur is the 27-meter (89 ft) long Diplodocus, which was discovered in Wyoming in the United States and displayed in Pittsburgh's Carnegie Natural History Museum in 1907.
Comparative size of Eoraptor
.There were larger dinosaurs, but knowledge of them is based entirely on a small number of fragmentary fossils.^ But if so we might expect from the analogy of the lizard that the scales of the head would be ossified and preserved in the fossil; and there is nothing of this kind in the Carnivorous Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is nothing whatsoever in this research that suggests either that man and dinosaurs coexisted or that the fossilized remains studied are younger than believed.
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.Most of the largest herbivorous specimens on record were all discovered in the 1970s or later, and include the massive Argentinosaurus, which may have weighed 80000 to 100000 kilograms (90 to 110 short tons); some of the longest were the 33.5 meters (110 ft) long Diplodocus hallorum[46] (formerly Seismosaurus) and the 33 meters (110 ft) long Supersaurus;[51] and the tallest, the 18 meters (59 ft) tall Sauroposeidon, which could have reached a sixth-floor window.^ The longest any human has been on earth is less than 10,000 years from study of the fossil record.
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^ The total length of this massive specimen is estimated at sixty-three feet, or from six to eight feet less than the largest "long-limbed" dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Smaller kinds with less massive armor have been found in Europe but the largest and most extraordinary members of this strange race are from North America.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The longest of them all may have been Amphicoelias fragillimus, known only from a now lost partial vertebral neural arch described in 1878. Extrapolating from the illustration of this bone, the animal may have been 58 meters (190 ft) long and weighed over 120000 kg (260000 lb),[46] heavier than all known dinosaurs except possibly the poorly known Bruhathkayosaurus, which could have weighed 175000 to 220000 kilograms (400000 to 500000 lb).^ Ever since you read books like Digging Up Dinosaurs , My Visit to the Dinosaurs , and Fossils Tell of Long Ago , all by Aliki, dinosaurs excited you.
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^ Mechanical and anatomical considerations, especially the long straight shafts of the leg bones, indicate that dinosaurs walked with their limbs straight under the body, rather than in a crawling attitude with the belly close to the ground, as is common among living reptiles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our very first discovery in the Bone-Cabin Quarry gave us the hint that Diplodocus was distinguished by relatively long, slender limbs, and that it may be popularly known as the "long-limbed dinosaur."
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The largest known carnivorous dinosaur was Spinosaurus, reaching a length of 16 to 18 meters (50 to 60 ft), and weighing in at 8150 kg (18000 lb).^ It reached a length of forty-seven feet, and in bulk must have equalled the mammoth or the mastodon or the largest living elephants.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The total length of this massive specimen is estimated at sixty-three feet, or from six to eight feet less than the largest "long-limbed" dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Beaked Dinosaurs are more limited in their distribution, for none of them so far as at present known reached Australia or South America.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[52] Other large meat-eaters included Giganotosaurus, Mapusaurus, Tyrannosaurus rex and Carcharodontosaurus.
.Not including modern birds, the smallest dinosaurs known were about the size of a pigeon.^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the succeeding Jurassic Period we have the Compsognathus , smallest of known dinosaurs, and this Ornitholestes some six feet long.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These conclusions can be transferred to dinosaur leg length, stride length, and speed since these dinosaurs walked with their feet well under the body like modern mammals and birds.
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[53] The theropods Anchiornis and Epidexipteryx both had a total skeletal length of under 35 centimeters (1.1 ft).[54][53] .Anchiornis is currently the smallest dinosaur described from an adult specimen, with an estimated weight of 110 grams.^ The total length of this massive specimen is estimated at sixty-three feet, or from six to eight feet less than the largest "long-limbed" dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[54] .The smallest herbivorous dinosaurs included Microceratus and Wannanosaurus, at about 60 cm (2 ft) long each.^ In the succeeding Jurassic Period we have the Compsognathus , smallest of known dinosaurs, and this Ornitholestes some six feet long.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[55][56]

Behavior

A nesting ground of Maiasaura was discovered in 1978.
.Interpretations of dinosaur behavior are generally based on the pose of body fossils and their habitat, computer simulations of their biomechanics, and comparisons with modern animals in similar ecological niches.^ As to the actual pose in feeding, there can be little doubt as to its general similarity to that of the Raptores among the birds, as suggested to me by Dr. Wortman (see fig.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This lesson has students trace the steps of a paleontologist from determining where to look for dinosaur fossils to studying the completed dinosaur skeleton for clues about the dinosaur's behavior, diet, and anatomy."
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.As such, the current understanding of dinosaur behavior relies on speculation, and will likely remain controversial for the foreseeable future.^ We may be sure that it had no bony armor like the crocodile, for remains of any such armor could not fail to be preserved with the skeletons, as it always is in fossil crocodiles or turtles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, for our project, we are going to be the heroes and figure out what happened to the dinosaurs so that we can prevent such a huge catastrophic event from happening in the future.
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.However, there is general agreement that some behaviors which are common in crocodiles and birds, dinosaurs' closest living relatives, were also common among dinosaurs.^ Most paleontologists now agree that birds are the dinosaurs’ closest living relatives.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also indications of aquatic habits in some of the giant dinosaurs which render it probable that a considerable part of their life was led in the water.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first potential evidence of herding behavior was the 1878 discovery of 31 Iguanodon dinosaurs which were then thought to have perished together in Bernissart, Belgium, after they fell into a deep, flooded sinkhole and drowned.^ The real construction of the Iguanodon was gradually built up by later discoveries, and in 1877 an extraordinary find in a coal mine at Bernissart in Belgium brought to light no less than seventeen skeletons more [80] or less complete.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These were the first of a long series of discoveries which through scientific and popular descriptions have made the Horned Dinosaurs familiar to the world.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At first, I thought it looked like they had just shoved a pair of twin beds together, though closer inspection revealed the truth.

[57] Other mass-death sites have been subsequently discovered. Those, along with multiple trackways, suggest that gregarious behavior was common in many dinosaur species. .Trackways of hundreds or even thousands of herbivores indicate that duck-bills (hadrosaurids) may have moved in great herds, like the American Bison or the African Springbok.^ It is a large herbivorous dinosaur of the closing period of the Age of Reptiles and is known to palaeontologists as Trachodon or more popularly as the 'duck-billed dinosaur.'
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The mouth was expanded to form a broad duck-like bill which during life was covered with a horny sheath, as in birds and turtles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sauropod tracks document that these animals traveled in groups composed of several different species, at least in Oxfordshire, England,[58] although there is not evidence for specific herd structures.^ In the last three years we have discovered very considerable differences of structure which make it appear that these animals, while of the same or nearly the same linear dimensions, did not enter into direct competition either for food or for territory.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These fierce animals had the same remote ancestry as the giant dinosaurs, but had gradually acquired entirely different habits and appearance.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[59] Dinosaurs may have congregated in herds for defense, for migratory purposes, or to provide protection for their young. .There is evidence that many types of dinosaurs, including various theropods, sauropods, ankylosaurians, ornithopods, and ceratopsians, formed aggregations of immature individuals.^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Through an investigation of various dinosaurs, both as a class and individually, students explore the relationship between physical features and survival."
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^ Pelves of Dinosaurs illustrating the two chief types (Saurischia, Ornithischia) and their variations.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.One example is a site in Inner Mongolia that has yielded the remains of over twenty Sinornithomimus, from one to seven years old.^ New localities have been found and old localities re-explored in recent years, yielding specimens equal to or better than any heretofore discovered.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The plan, however, fell through, and the greater part of this magnificent collection remained in storage in the basement of Memorial Hall in Fairmount Park, for the next twenty years.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Read Isaiah 53, written seven centuries before the birth of Christ, for just one example.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This assemblage is interpreted as a social group that was trapped in mud.[60] .The interpretation of dinosaurs as gregarious has also extended to depicting carnivorous theropods as pack hunters working together to bring down large prey.^ This hypothetical bird-catcher seems to have been designed to spring upon a delicately built prey, the structure being the very antipode of that of the large carnivorous dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The large modern carnivora prey upon herbivores of medium or smaller size, which they are active enough to surprise or run down.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fossils secured along the banks were packed and loaded aboard the large scow and floated down the river to the railway station.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[61][62] .However, this lifestyle is uncommon among the modern relatives of dinosaurs (crocodiles and other reptiles, and birdsHarris's Hawk is a well-documented exception), and the taphonomic evidence suggesting pack hunting in such theropods as Deinonychus and Allosaurus can also be interpreted as the results of fatal disputes between feeding animals, as is seen in many modern diapsid predators.^ Many of the bones of other herbivorous dinosaurs found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry were similarly scored and bitten off, and the teeth of Allosaurus were also found close to them.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But this is not the only feature in which they came nearer to birds than do the other Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[63]
Jack Horner's 1978 discovery of a Maiasaura ("good mother dinosaur") nesting ground in Montana demonstrated that parental care continued long after birth among the ornithopods.[64] .There is also evidence that other Cretaceous-era dinosaurs, like Patagonian titanosaurian sauropods (1997 discovery), also nested in large groups.^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Model of Tyrannosaurus group for the Cretaceous Dinosaur Hall.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The earlier groups of Beaked Dinosaurs are found in both Europe and America, and in the Cretacic the Duck-billed and Armored groups are represented in both regions.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[65] The Mongolian oviraptorid Citipati was discovered in a chicken-like brooding position in 1993, which may mean it was covered with an insulating layer of feathers that kept the eggs warm.[66] .Parental care is also implied by other finds.^ Most of you have learned that there are times when findings in your organ implies that something may be wrong with one or more of the patient's other organs.

.For example, the fossilized remains of a grouping of Psittacosaurus has been found, consisting of one adult and 34 juveniles; in this case, the large number of juveniles may be due to communal nesting.^ We may be sure that it had no bony armor like the crocodile, for remains of any such armor could not fail to be preserved with the skeletons, as it always is in fossil crocodiles or turtles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fossil trunk of a coniferous tree was found in Wyoming, which was filled with groups of wood-living shells similar to the living Teredo.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Telmatosaurus of the Gosau formation in Austria also belongs to this group, and fragmentary remains have been found in the upper Cretacic of Belgium, England and France.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[67] .Additionally, a dinosaur embryo (pertaining to the prosauropod Massospondylus) was found without teeth, indicating that some parental care was required to feed the young dinosaur.^ Many of the bones of other herbivorous dinosaurs found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry were similarly scored and bitten off, and the teeth of Allosaurus were also found close to them.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the remains recently found in German East Africa indicate an animal exceeding either Brontosaurus or Diplodocus in bulk.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also indications of aquatic habits in some of the giant dinosaurs which render it probable that a considerable part of their life was led in the water.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[68] Trackways have also confirmed parental behavior among ornithopods from the Isle of Skye in northwestern Scotland.[69] .Nests and eggs have been found for most major groups of dinosaurs, and it appears likely that dinosaurs communicated with their young, in a manner similar to modern birds and crocodiles.^ These conclusions can be transferred to dinosaur leg length, stride length, and speed since these dinosaurs walked with their feet well under the body like modern mammals and birds.
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Artist's rendering of two Centrosaurus, herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous fauna of North America
.The crests and frills of some dinosaurs, like the marginocephalians, theropods and lambeosaurines, may have been too fragile to be used for active defense, and so they were likely used for sexual or aggressive displays, though little is known about dinosaur mating and territorialism.^ They, or some of them, may have been viviparous like the Ichthyosaurus.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Students are used to seeing animals, and they have probably also learned some things about dinosaurs or seen dinosaur reproductions in museums, movies, or elsewhere.
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^ "Students have probably already studied dinosaurs in school, but they may not have learned much about the process by which paleontologists locate, excavate, and study dinosaurs.
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Head wounds from bites suggest that theropods, at least, engaged in active aggressive confrontations.[70] .The nature of dinosaur communication also remains enigmatic, and is an active area of research.^ After your research is complete, you and your team will select a site to begin a dinosaur dig in search of remains."
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For example, recent studies suggest that the hollow crests of the lambeosaurines may have functioned as resonance chambers used for a wide range of vocalizations.[71][72]
.From a behavioral standpoint, one of the most valuable dinosaur fossils was discovered in the Gobi Desert in 1971. It included a Velociraptor attacking a Protoceratops,[73] providing evidence that dinosaurs did indeed attack each other.^ Most of you have learned that there are times when findings in your organ implies that something may be wrong with one or more of the patient's other organs.

^ This lesson has students trace the steps of a paleontologist from determining where to look for dinosaur fossils to studying the completed dinosaur skeleton for clues about the dinosaur's behavior, diet, and anatomy."
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^ Includes a good animation of how a dinosaur became a fossil and how the fossil is discovered.
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[74] .Additional evidence for attacking live prey is the partially healed tail of an Edmontosaurus, a hadrosaurid dinosaur; the tail is damaged in such a way that shows the animal was bitten by a tyrannosaur but survived.^ This trochanter is absent from the thigh bones of land-inhabiting dinosaurs with short tails, such as Stegosaurus and Triceratops .
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This renders it probable that they were the prey of the smaller pneumatic-built dinosaurs such as the present animal.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this Brontosaurus skeleton several of the bones, especially the spines of the tail vertebrae, when found in the rock, looked as if they had been scored and bitten off, as though by some carnivorous animal which had either attacked the Brontosaurus when alive, or had feasted upon the carcass.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[74] .Cannibalism amongst some species of dinosaurs was confirmed by tooth marks found in Madagascar in 2003, involving the theropod Majungasaurus.^ The great variety of species that has been found in recent years shows that these Horned Dinosaurs were a [113] numerous and varied race of which as yet we know only a few.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, we found some of the types of dinosaurs that have since become famous.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[75]
.Based on current fossil evidence from dinosaurs such as Oryctodromeus, some herbivorous species seem to have led a partially fossorial (burrowing) lifestyle,[76] and some bird-like species may have been arboreal (tree-climbing), most notably primitive dromaeosaurids such as Microraptor[77] and the enigmatic scansoriopterygids.^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here are the largest of the giant dinosaurs closely mingled with the remains of the smaller but powerful carnivorous dinosaurs which preyed upon them, also those of the slow and [138] heavy-moving armored dinosaurs of the period, as well as of the lightest and most bird-like of the dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We may be sure that it had no bony armor like the crocodile, for remains of any such armor could not fail to be preserved with the skeletons, as it always is in fossil crocodiles or turtles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[78] However, most dinosaurs seem to have relied on land-based locomotion. .A good understanding of how dinosaurs moved on the ground is key to models of dinosaur behavior; the science of biomechanics, in particular, has provided significant insight in this area.^ THE DINOSAUR ART OF JOE TUCCIARONE http://members.aol.com/Dinoplanet/joe.html Realistic paintings of dinosaurs give a good idea of how each looked.
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^ These lessons will go beyond naming dinosaurs and give students a broad understanding of how we know about the great beasts.
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^ Includes a good animation of how a dinosaur became a fossil and how the fossil is discovered.
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.For example, studies of the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on dinosaurs' skeletal structure have investigated how fast dinosaurs could run,[79] whether diplodocids could create sonic booms via whip-like tail snapping,[80] and whether sauropods could float.^ You will investigate: the different types of dinosaurs what dinosaurs ate the special characteristics of the different dinosaurs how they survived You will make a poster to present to the class orally.
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^ Because the chemical makeup of proteins changes through evolution, scientists can study protein sequences to learn more about how dinosaurs evolved.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students will investigate how climate has changed in specific world regions since the time of the dinosaurs and will write paragraphs explaining their findings."
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[81]

Physiology

Tyrannosaurus rex skull and upper vertebral column, Palais de la Découverte, Paris
A vigorous debate on the subject of temperature regulation in dinosaurs has been ongoing since the 1960s. Originally, scientists broadly disagreed as to whether dinosaurs were capable of regulating their body temperatures at all. More recently, dinosaur endothermy has become the consensus view, and debate has focused on the mechanisms of temperature regulation.
.After dinosaurs were discovered, paleontologists first posited that they were ectothermic creatures: "terrible lizards" as their name suggests.^ But real-life paleontologists can learn about the behavior of dinosaurs only by examining the fossilized bones they left behind.
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^ "Students have probably already studied dinosaurs in school, but they may not have learned much about the process by which paleontologists locate, excavate, and study dinosaurs.
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^ In this activity students will use multiple combining forms added to the suffix "-saurus" (Greek for lizard) to form the name of a "dinosaur" which they will then draw."
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.This supposed cold-bloodedness implied that dinosaurs were relatively slow, sluggish organisms, comparable to modern reptiles, which need external sources of heat in order to regulate their body temperature.^ As junior paleontologists, your task is research your period, collecting information on the climate of that time, type of organisms that lived, and the modern relatives that have close connections to them.
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^ "Students will compare two kinds of dinosaurs based upon the structure of the pelvis: bird-hipped and reptile-hipped."
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^ The impressions appear to have been left by horny scutes or scales, not overlapping like the scales on the body of most modern reptiles, but more like the scutes on the head of a lizard.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Dinosaur ectothermy remained a prevalent view until Robert T. "Bob" Bakker, an early proponent of dinosaur endothermy, published an influential paper on the topic in 1968.
.Modern evidence indicates that dinosaurs thrived in cooler temperate climates, and that at least some dinosaur species must have regulated their body temperature by internal biological means (perhaps aided by the animals' bulk).^ Students are used to seeing animals, and they have probably also learned some things about dinosaurs or seen dinosaur reproductions in museums, movies, or elsewhere.
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^ Nevertheless by some such means as this, these enormous animals could have obtained sufficient food in the water to support their great bulk.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Evidence of endothermy in dinosaurs includes the discovery of polar dinosaurs in Australia and Antarctica (where they would have experienced a cold, dark six-month winter), the discovery of dinosaurs whose feathers may have provided regulatory insulation, and analysis of blood-vessel structures within dinosaur bone that are typical of endotherms.^ "Students have probably already studied dinosaurs in school, but they may not have learned much about the process by which paleontologists locate, excavate, and study dinosaurs.
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^ Finally, students examine recent evidence that challenges the prevailing theory that all dinosaurs were cold-blooded."
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^ DINOQUEST SAHARA http://www.nationalgeographic.com/dinoquest/ Details a four-month search of four sites in Niger for dinosaur bones.
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.Skeletal structures suggest that theropods and other dinosaurs had active lifestyles better suited to an endothermic cardiovascular system, while sauropods exhibit fewer endothermic characteristics.^ Usually with the more imperfect skeletons, a skull, a limb or some other characteristic parts may be placed on exhibition but the remainder of the specimen is stored in the study collections.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sections: Exhibits & Museums, Other Dinosaur Sites, and Lesson Plans and Activities for Teachers.
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It is certainly possible that some dinosaurs were endothermic while others were not. Scientific debate over the specifics continues.[82]
Eubrontes, a dinosaur footprint in the Lower Jurassic Moenave Formation at the St. George Dinosaur Discovery Site at Johnson Farm, southwestern Utah
.Complicating the debate is the fact that warm-bloodedness can emerge based on more than one mechanism.^ Despite what you were taught in training, patients have more than just one organ.

^ Among discoveries of a highly suggestive, almost romantic kind, perhaps none is more remarkable than the one I shall now describe.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most discussions of dinosaur endothermy tend to compare them with average-sized birds or mammals, which expend energy to elevate body temperature above that of the environment.^ "Students will compare two kinds of dinosaurs based upon the structure of the pelvis: bird-hipped and reptile-hipped."
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^ The flying Reptiles or Pterosaurians, partly took the place of birds, and most of them were of small size.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This group of dinosaurs is most remarkable for the massive bony armor plates, crests or spines covering the body and tail.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Small birds and mammals also possess insulation, such as fat, fur, or feathers, which slows down heat loss. .However, large mammals, such as elephants, face a different problem because of their relatively small ratio of surface area to volume (Haldane's principle).^ The problem is that because it's such a large, widely used EMR, they can't make changes for just one user.

^ The hinder parts of the skeleton however, were relatively small.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.This ratio compares the volume of an animal with the area of its skin: as an animal gets bigger, its surface area increases more slowly than its volume.^ This animal, a contemporary of the Tyrannosaurus and duck-billed dinosaurs was more effectively though less grotesquely armored than its more ancient relative.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.At a certain point, the amount of heat radiated away through the skin drops below the amount of heat produced inside the body, forcing animals to use additional methods to avoid overheating.^ Because of various insurance requirements, I am forced to use a certain lab (call them "Mission" Laboratories) for almost all my patients.

^ A book that has gone through hundreds of translations, often slanted and edited to prove the point of a certain religion, be it Judaism or Christianity.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the case of elephants, they have little hair as adults, have large ears which increase their surface area, and have behavioral adaptations as well (such as using the trunk to spray water on themselves and mud-wallowing).^ The problem is that because it's such a large, widely used EMR, they can't make changes for just one user.

^ In the distant water a large number of animals are disporting themselves.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In general it may be answered that the surface of North America has been pretty well explored by government surveys and scientific expeditions and the geologic age of the larger areas determined.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

These behaviors increase cooling through evaporation.
.Large dinosaurs would presumably have had to deal with similar issues; their body size suggest they lost heat relatively slowly to the surrounding air, and so could have been what are called inertial homeotherms, animals that are warmer than their environments through sheer size rather than through special adaptations like those of birds or mammals.^ "As a prelude to studying evolution and adaptation, students should consider the ways in which animals use their special body characteristics to perform such actions as finding food, eating, and walking.
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^ They were probably much like the modern lizards in size, appearance and habitat: [2] .
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They want to learn everything about dinosaurs and will remember the large names with ease at the amazement of their parents."
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.However, so far this theory fails to account for the numerous dog- and goat-sized dinosaur species, or the young of larger species.^ The great variety of species that has been found in recent years shows that these Horned Dinosaurs were a [113] numerous and varied race of which as yet we know only a few.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Modern computerized tomography (CT) scans of a dinosaur's chest cavity (conducted in 2000) found the apparent remnants of a four-chambered heart, much like those found in today's mammals and birds.^ They were probably much like the modern lizards in size, appearance and habitat: [2] .
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The great carnivorous dinosaurs are much rarer than the herbivorous kinds, and these three skeletons are the most complete that have ever been found.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here are the largest of the giant dinosaurs closely mingled with the remains of the smaller but powerful carnivorous dinosaurs which preyed upon them, also those of the slow and [138] heavy-moving armored dinosaurs of the period, as well as of the lightest and most bird-like of the dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[83] The idea is controversial within the scientific community, coming under fire for bad anatomical science[84] or simply wishful thinking.[85] .The question of how this find reflects on metabolic rate and dinosaur internal anatomy may be moot, though, regardless of the object's identity: both modern crocodilians and birds, the closest living relatives of dinosaurs, have four-chambered hearts (albeit modified in crocodilians), and so dinosaurs probably had them as well.^ Students will investigate how climate has changed in specific world regions since the time of the dinosaurs and will write paragraphs explaining their findings."
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^ "Students have probably already studied dinosaurs in school, but they may not have learned much about the process by which paleontologists locate, excavate, and study dinosaurs.
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^ As junior paleontologists, your task is research your period, collecting information on the climate of that time, type of organisms that lived, and the modern relatives that have close connections to them.
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[86]

Soft tissue and DNA

Scipionyx samniticus fossil showing tissue impressions, at the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, in Milan, Italy
.One of the best examples of soft-tissue impressions in a fossil dinosaur was discovered in Petraroia, Italy.^ Meanwhile, Schweitzer’s research has been hijacked by “young earth” creationists, who insist that dinosaur soft tissue couldn’t possibly survive millions of years.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The finding amazed colleagues, who had never imagined that even a trace of still-soft dinosaur tissue could survive.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schweitzer, one of the first scientists to use the tools of modern cell biology to study dinosaurs, has upended the conventional wisdom by showing that some rock-hard fossils tens of millions of years old may have remnants of soft tissues hidden away in their interiors.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The discovery was reported in 1998, and described the specimen of a small, very young coelurosaur, Scipionyx samniticus. .The fossil includes portions of the intestines, colon, liver, muscles, and windpipe of this immature dinosaur.^ Includes a good animation of how a dinosaur became a fossil and how the fossil is discovered.
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[43]
.In the March 2005 issue of Science, the paleontologist Mary Higby Schweitzer and her team announced the discovery of flexible material resembling actual soft tissue inside a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex leg bone from the Hell Creek Formation in Montana.^ View in the Hell Creek badlands in central Montana, where the Tyrannosaurus skeleton was found.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Had the Tyrannosaurs and Triceratops looked down, they would have found trilobite fossils beneath their feet that were already five hundred million years old!"
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After recovery, the tissue was rehydrated by the science team.[44]
.When the fossilized bone was treated over several weeks to remove mineral content from the fossilized bone-marrow cavity (a process called demineralization), Schweitzer found evidence of intact structures such as blood vessels, bone matrix, and connective tissue (bone fibers).^ In one of these slides we found several small mammal jaws and teeth not known before from Canada, associated with fossil clam shells of Eocene age.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Scrutiny under the microscope further revealed that the putative dinosaur soft tissue had retained fine structures (microstructures) even at the cellular level. The exact nature and composition of this material, and the implications of Schweitzer's discovery, are not yet clear; study and interpretation of the material is ongoing.[44]
Newer research, published in PloS One (30 July 2008), has challenged the claims that the material found is the soft tissue of Tyrannosaurus. Thomas Kaye of the University of Washington and his co-authors contend that what was really inside the tyrannosaur bone was slimy biofilm created by bacteria that coated the voids once occupied by blood vessels and cells.[87] The researchers found that what previously had been identified as remnants of blood cells, because of the presence of iron, were actually framboids, microscopic mineral spheres bearing iron. .They found similar spheres in a variety of other fossils from various periods, including an ammonite.^ Theobromine and other compounds found in chocolate are structurally similar to other psychoactive compounds such as caffeine.

^ The great variety of species that has been found in recent years shows that these Horned Dinosaurs were a [113] numerous and varied race of which as yet we know only a few.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fossil trunk of a coniferous tree was found in Wyoming, which was filled with groups of wood-living shells similar to the living Teredo.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

In the ammonite they found the spheres in a place where the iron they contain could not have had any relationship to the presence of blood.[88]
.The successful extraction of ancient DNA from dinosaur fossils has been reported on two separate occasions, but, upon further inspection and peer review, neither of these reports could be confirmed.^ Numerous articles in the American Journal of Science descriptive of new Dinosaurs or announcing results of his studies on these fossils.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Students will compare two kinds of dinosaurs based upon the structure of the pelvis: bird-hipped and reptile-hipped."
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^ Since these lines were written the Museum has secured finely preserved skeletons of two or more kinds of Carnivorous Dinosaurs from the Belly River formation in Canada.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[89] .However, a functional visual peptide of a theoretical dinosaur has been inferred using analytical phylogenetic reconstruction methods on gene sequences of related modern species such as reptiles and birds.^ "Students will compare two kinds of dinosaurs based upon the structure of the pelvis: bird-hipped and reptile-hipped."
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^ "Goal: To use Internet resources to explore topics related to dinosaurs."
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^ Where only parts of one side are missing the corresponding parts of the other side are used for model; where both sides are missing, other individuals or nearly related species may serve as a guide.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[90] In addition, several proteins, including hemoglobin,[91] have putatively been detected in dinosaur fossils.[92]

Feathers and the origin of birds

The possibility that dinosaurs were the ancestors of birds was first suggested in 1868 by Thomas Henry Huxley.[93] .After the work of Gerhard Heilmann in the early 20th century, the theory of birds as dinosaur descendants was abandoned in favor of the idea of their being descendants of generalized thecodonts, with the key piece of evidence being the supposed lack of clavicles in dinosaurs.^ One of the skeletons is temporarily placed in the centre of the Quaternary Hall, space for it in the present Dinosaur Hall being lacking.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This hypothetical bird-catcher seems to have been designed to spring upon a delicately built prey, the structure being the very antipode of that of the large carnivorous dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[94] However, as later discoveries showed, clavicles (or a single fused wishbone, which derived from separate clavicles) were not actually absent;[12] they had been found as early as 1924 in Oviraptor, but misidentified as an interclavicle.[95] .In the 1970s, John Ostrom revived the dinosaur–bird theory,[96] which gained momentum in the coming decades with the advent of cladistic analysis,[97] and a great increase in the discovery of small theropods and early birds.^ After doing some research on your dinosaur and analyzing the dinosaur extinction theories, you should be able to come up with a theory as to how your dinosaur became extinct."
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^ Small replicas of these early attempts at restoring dinosaurs may still be seen in some of the older museums in this country and abroad.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Understand that discoveries about dinosaurs have a long history and that each paleontologist adds his or her work to a body of fossil evidence used to support theories about dinosaurs.
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[18] .Of particular note have been the fossils of the Yixian Formation, where a variety of theropods and early birds have been found, often with feathers of some type.^ The Jurassic dinosaur formations skirt the Rockies and outlying mountain ranges but are often turned up on edge and poorly exposed, or barren of fossils.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, we found some of the types of dinosaurs that have since become famous.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In somewhat older formations of Cretacic age are found remains [112] of smaller kinds, some of them ancestors of these latest survivors, others collaterally related.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[12] .Birds share over a hundred distinct anatomical features with theropod dinosaurs, which are now generally accepted to have been their closest ancient relatives.^ This animal, a contemporary of the Tyrannosaurus and duck-billed dinosaurs was more effectively though less grotesquely armored than its more ancient relative.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But this is not the only feature in which they came nearer to birds than do the other Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[98] They are most closely allied with maniraptoran coelurosaurs.[12] A minority of scientists, most notably Alan Feduccia and Larry Martin, have proposed other evolutionary paths, including revised versions of Heilmann's basal archosaur proposal,[99] or that maniraptoran theropods are the ancestors of birds but themselves are not dinosaurs, only convergent with dinosaurs.[100]

Feathers

The famous Berlin Specimen of Archaeopteryx lithographica
Archaeopteryx, the first good example of a "feathered dinosaur", was discovered in 1861. The initial specimen was found in the Solnhofen limestone in southern Germany, which is a lagerstätte, a rare and remarkable geological formation known for its superbly detailed fossils. Archaeopteryx is a transitional fossil, with features clearly intermediate between those of modern reptiles and birds. .Brought to light just two years after Darwin's seminal The Origin of Species, its discovery spurred the nascent debate between proponents of evolutionary biology and creationism.^ Ten years ago, an orange cat was pissing off his original owners so thoroughly that they brought him back to the shelter where they got him.

.This early bird is so dinosaur-like that, without a clear impression of feathers in the surrounding rock, at least one specimen was mistaken for Compsognathus.^ These conclusions can be transferred to dinosaur leg length, stride length, and speed since these dinosaurs walked with their feet well under the body like modern mammals and birds.
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[101]
.Since the 1990s, a number of additional feathered dinosaurs have been found, providing even stronger evidence of the close relationship between dinosaurs and modern birds.^ These conclusions can be transferred to dinosaur leg length, stride length, and speed since these dinosaurs walked with their feet well under the body like modern mammals and birds.
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^ "During this series of activities, students will determine the relationship between leg length, stride length, and speed in humans and bipedal dinosaurs.
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^ "Through an investigation of various dinosaurs, both as a class and individually, students explore the relationship between physical features and survival."
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Most of these specimens were unearthed in the lagerstätte of the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, northeastern China, which was part of an island continent during the Cretaceous. .Though feathers have been found in only a few locations, it is possible that non-avian dinosaurs elsewhere in the world were also feathered.^ "A team of paleontologists has just found eight complete dinosaur skeletons from all over the world.
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^ HADROSAURUS FOULKII: THE WORLDS FIRST DINOSAUR SKELETON http://www.levins.com/hadrosaurus.html Details the first dinosaur skeleton found and mounted for display in Haddonfield, NJ in 1858.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ HADROSAURUS FOULKII: THE WORLD’S FIRST DINOSAUR SKELETON http://www.levins.com/hadrosaurus.html Details the first dinosaur skeleton found and mounted for display in Haddonfield, NJ in 1858.
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.The lack of widespread fossil evidence for feathered non-avian dinosaurs may be due to the fact that delicate features like skin and feathers are not often preserved by fossilization and thus are absent from the fossil record.^ Perhaps it was scaly like the skin of lizards and snakes, for the horny scales of the body are not preserved in fossil skeletons of these reptiles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ FOSSILS: UNCOVERING THE FACTS – LESSON PLAN http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/Lessons.cfm?DocID=94 An accompanying lesson to Fossils and Dinosaurs for grades 3-5.
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^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

To this point, protofeathers (thin, filament-like structures) are known from dinosaurs at the base of Coelurosauria, such as compsognathids like Sinosauropteryx and tyrannosauroids (Dilong),[102] but barbed feathers are known only among the coelurosaur subgroup Maniraptora, which includes oviraptorosaurs, troodontids, dromaeosaurids, and birds.[12][103] .The description of feathered dinosaurs has not been without controversy; perhaps the most vocal critics have been Alan Feduccia and Theagarten Lingham-Soliar, who have proposed that protofeathers are the result of the decomposition of collagenous fiber that underlaid the dinosaurs' integument,[104][105][106] and that maniraptoran dinosaurs with barbed feathers were not actually dinosaurs, but convergent with dinosaurs.^ Numerous articles in the American Journal of Science descriptive of new Dinosaurs or announcing results of his studies on these fossils.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The database includes descriptions of most known dinosaurs and is searchable by country of find.
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[100][105] However, their views have for the most part not been accepted by other researchers, to the point that the question of the scientific nature of Feduccia's proposals has been raised.[107]

Skeleton

.Because feathers are often associated with birds, feathered dinosaurs are often touted as the missing link between birds and dinosaurs.^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sections: Dinosaurs Metabolism, Dinosaurs Lifestyles, The Dinosaur Bird-link, Dinosaur Extinction, Links and a Table of the Discussions.
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^ Sections: Dinosaurs’ Metabolism, Dinosaurs’ Lifestyles, The Dinosaur Bird-link, Dinosaur Extinction, Links and a Table of the Discussions.
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.However, the multiple skeletal features also shared by the two groups represent another important line of evidence for paleontologists.^ Find out that paleontologists often support one theory over another until additional fossil evidence either confirms or disproves the theory.
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Areas of the skeleton with important similarities include the neck, pubis, wrist (semi-lunate carpal), arm and pectoral girdle, furcula (wishbone), and breast bone. .Comparison of bird and dinosaur skeletons through cladistic analysis strengthens the case for the link.^ Sections: Dinosaurs Metabolism, Dinosaurs Lifestyles, The Dinosaur Bird-link, Dinosaur Extinction, Links and a Table of the Discussions.
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^ Sections: Dinosaurs’ Metabolism, Dinosaurs’ Lifestyles, The Dinosaur Bird-link, Dinosaur Extinction, Links and a Table of the Discussions.
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^ Sections include: Dinosaur Myths, Dinosaur FAQs, T-rex, Pterosaurs, Dinosaurs Down South, What Killed Them?, Dinosaur DNA, Were They Warm-Blooded?, From Birds to Dinosaurs?, Thieves and Dealers and Dinosaur Links.
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Soft anatomy

.Large meat-eating dinosaurs had a complex system of air sacs similar to those found in modern birds, according to an investigation which was led by Patrick O'Connor of Ohio University.^ This hypothetical bird-catcher seems to have been designed to spring upon a delicately built prey, the structure being the very antipode of that of the large carnivorous dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A difficulty in the bird-catching theory, namely, that the teeth are not as sharp as one would expect to find them in a flesh-eater, is somewhat offset by the similarity of the teeth to those of [149] the bird-eating monitor lizards ( Varanus ), which are not especially sharp.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The brain cast of Allosaurus indicates a brain of similar type and somewhat inferior grade to that of the modern crocodile or lizard, and far below the bird or mammal in intelligence.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The lungs of theropod dinosaurs (carnivores that walked on two legs and had bird-like feet) likely pumped air into hollow sacs in their skeletons, as is the case in birds.^ Skeleton of Ornitholestes a small carnivorous dinosaur of the Jurassic period.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The great carnivorous dinosaurs are much rarer than the herbivorous kinds, and these three skeletons are the most complete that have ever been found.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here are the largest of the giant dinosaurs closely mingled with the remains of the smaller but powerful carnivorous dinosaurs which preyed upon them, also those of the slow and [138] heavy-moving armored dinosaurs of the period, as well as of the lightest and most bird-like of the dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

"What was once formally considered unique to birds was present in some form in the ancestors of birds", O'Connor said.[108] .In a paper published in the online journal Public Library of Science ONE (September 29, 2008), scientists described Aerosteon riocoloradensis, the skeleton of which supplies the strongest evidence to date of a dinosaur with a bird-like breathing system.^ Numerous articles in the American Journal of Science descriptive of new Dinosaurs or announcing results of his studies on these fossils.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following description of the Brontosaurus skeleton in the American Museum was first published in the American Museum Journal of April, 1905: [11] .
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

CT-scanning revealed the evidence of air sacs within the body cavity of the Aerosteon skeleton.[109][110]
.Another piece of evidence that birds and dinosaurs are closely related is the use by both of gizzard stones.^ Where only parts of one side are missing the corresponding parts of the other side are used for model; where both sides are missing, other individuals or nearly related species may serve as a guide.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Various features in the anatomy of the head, shoulder-blades and hind limbs are equally suggestive of birds, and it seems probable that the earliest ancestors of the birds were very closely related to the ancestors of this group of Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.These stones are swallowed by animals to aid digestion and break down food and hard fibers once they enter the stomach.^ In the last three years we have discovered very considerable differences of structure which make it appear that these animals, while of the same or nearly the same linear dimensions, did not enter into direct competition either for food or for territory.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless by some such means as this, these enormous animals could have obtained sufficient food in the water to support their great bulk.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Remains of these animals have also been found in India, in German East Africa, in Madagascar, and in South America, so that they were evidently widely distributed.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.When found in association with fossils, gizzard stones are called gastroliths.^ In one of these slides we found several small mammal jaws and teeth not known before from Canada, associated with fossil clam shells of Eocene age.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[111]

Reproductive biology

.A discovery of features in a Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton recently provided more evidence that dinosaurs and birds evolved from a common ancestor and, for the first time, allowed paleontologists to establish the sex of a dinosaur.^ Understand that paleontologists can learn more about dinosaurs through new scientific techniques."
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^ Partial skeletons of this animal are shown in the Dinosaur Hall; a more complete one is in the National Museum.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For this reason although less gigantic than the Brontosaurus or Tyrannosaurus, less grotesque perhaps, than the Stegosaurus, they are more interesting than any other dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

When laying eggs, female birds grow a special type of bone between the hard outer bone and the marrow of their limbs. This medullary bone, which is rich in calcium, is used to make eggshells. .The presence of endosteally-derived bone tissues lining the interior marrow cavities of portions of the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen's hind limb suggested that T. rex used similar reproductive strategies, and revealed the specimen to be female.^ I have therefore hazarded the view that even some of these enormous dinosaurs were capable of raising themselves on their hind limbs, lightly resting on the middle portion of the tail.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The hind limbs are nine feet in length when extended, about equal to the length of the body and neck, and the bones are massively proportioned.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[112] .Further research has found medullary bone in the theropod Allosaurus and the ornithopod Tenontosaurus.^ Many of the bones of other herbivorous dinosaurs found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry were similarly scored and bitten off, and the teeth of Allosaurus were also found close to them.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Because the line of dinosaurs that includes Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus diverged from the line that led to Tenontosaurus very early in the evolution of dinosaurs, this suggests that dinosaurs in general produced medullary tissue.^ DINOSAURIA ON-LINE http://www.dinosauria.com/ Includes Journal of Dinosaur Paleontology, Dino-Store, Dino-Dispatches, DOL Dino-Omnipedia, Dinosaur Picture Gallery, Links and more.
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^ In contrast with the Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus this skeleton represents the smaller and more agile carnivorous dinosaurs which preyed upon the lesser herbivorous reptiles of the period.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Crania of Tyrannosaurus and Allosaurus; Integument of the Iguanodont Dinosaur Trachodon , Mem.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Medullary bone has been found in specimens of sub-adult size, which suggests that dinosaurs reached sexual maturity rather quickly for such large animals.[113]

Behavioral evidence

.A recently discovered troodont fossil demonstrates that some dinosaurs slept with their heads tucked under their arms.^ But if so we might expect from the analogy of the lizard that the scales of the head would be ossified and preserved in the fossil; and there is nothing of this kind in the Carnivorous Dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Includes a good animation of how a dinosaur became a fossil and how the fossil is discovered.
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^ DISCOVERING DINOSAURS http://dinosaurs.eb.com/dinosaurs/index2.html A examination of how our views of dinosaurs have changed from 1820 to the present as more fossils are found.
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[114] This behavior, which may have helped to keep the head warm, is also characteristic of modern birds.

Extinction

.Non-avian dinosaurs suddenly became extinct approximately 65 million years ago.^ Thought to be extinct for 65 million years, the coelacanth was found in 1938.
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^ They learn what fossils have been found in Antarctica, and what those fossils indicate about the climate and location of the continent millions of years ago.
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^ The age when dinosaurs inhabited Earth (about 250 million years ago to about 65 million years ago) is called the Mesozoic age.
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.Many other groups of animals also became extinct at this time, including ammonites (nautilus-like mollusks), mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, pterosaurs, most birds, and many groups of mammals.^ They were the dominant land animals of their time, just as the quadrupeds were during the Age of Mammals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The articulations of the foot bones show that the animal rested upon the ends of the metapodials, as birds and many mammals do, not upon the sole of the foot like crocodiles or lizards.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Life size restorations of these and other extinct animals were erected in the grounds of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, London, and in Central Park, New York.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[4] .This mass extinction is known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event.^ Includes the several viewpoints (such as on the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction).
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.The nature of the event that caused this mass extinction has been extensively studied since the 1970s; at present, several related theories are supported by paleontologists.^ Find out that paleontologists often support one theory over another until additional fossil evidence either confirms or disproves the theory.
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^ Understand that discoveries about dinosaurs have a long history and that each paleontologist adds his or her work to a body of fossil evidence used to support theories about dinosaurs.
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^ "You will gather, synthesize, evaluate, and discuss evidence, theories and research and collaborate on a newsletter called the Extinction Event of the Mesozoic Era -Update 2000.
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.Though the general consensus is that an impact event was the primary cause of dinosaur extinction, some scientists cite other possible causes, or support the idea that a confluence of several factors was responsible for the sudden disappearance of dinosaurs from the fossil record.^ DINOSAUR EXTINCTION PAGE http://web.ukonline.co.uk/a.buckley/dino.htm Details several theories about how dinosaurs became extinct, from the possible to the outlandish.
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^ After doing some research on your dinosaur and analyzing the dinosaur extinction theories, you should be able to come up with a theory as to how your dinosaur became extinct."
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^ HOW DO SCIENTISTS FIND DINOSAUR FOSSILS? - LESSON PLAN http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/17/g35/serenofossils.html A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on dinosaur fossils.
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.At the peak of the Mesozoic, there were no polar ice caps, and sea levels are estimated to have been from 100 to 250 meters (300 to 800 ft) higher than they are today.^ They have been called the Giant Reptiles, for those we know most about were gigantic in size, but there were also numerous smaller kinds, the smallest no larger than a cat.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Enough is known to assure us that they will yield faunæ no less extensive [124] and remarkable than our own.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mesozoic wants this park to be properly researched, so there are NO problems.
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The planet's temperature was also much more uniform, with only 25 °C (45 °F) separating average polar temperatures from those at the equator. On average, atmospheric temperatures were also much higher; the poles, for example, were 50 °C (90 °F) warmer than today.[115][116]
The atmosphere's composition during the Mesozoic was vastly different as well. Carbon dioxide levels were up to 12 times higher than today's levels, and oxygen formed 32 to 35% of the atmosphere, as compared to 21% today. However, by the late Cretaceous, the environment was changing dramatically. Volcanic activity was decreasing, which led to a cooling trend as levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide dropped. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere also started to fluctuate and would ultimately fall considerably. Some scientists hypothesize that climate change, combined with lower oxygen levels, might have led directly to the demise of many species. .If the dinosaurs had respiratory systems similar to those commonly found in modern birds, it may have been particularly difficult for them to cope with reduced respiratory efficiency, given the enormous oxygen demands of their very large bodies.^ These conclusions can be transferred to dinosaur leg length, stride length, and speed since these dinosaurs walked with their feet well under the body like modern mammals and birds.
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^ Quadrupedal dinosaurs with elephantine feet, short neck, small head, body and tail armored with massive bony plates and often with large bony spines.
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^ That the gristle of the bone or cartilage was very palatable is attested not only by the toothmarks upon these bones, but by many similar markings found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[4]

Impact event

The Chicxulub Crater at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula; the impactor that formed this crater may have caused the dinosaur extinction.
.The asteroid collision theory, which was brought to wide attention in 1980 by Walter Alvarez and colleagues, links the extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous period to a bolide impact approximately 65.5 million years ago.^ Their sway endured for a long era, estimated at nine millions of years, and about three times as long as the period which has elapsed since their disappearance.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Its time is measured in geologic epochs and periods, in millions of years instead of centuries.
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^ In a preceding chapter it was shown that the chief formations in which dinosaur remains have been found belong to the end of the Jurassic and the end of the Cretacic periods.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Alvarez et al. proposed that a sudden increase in iridium levels, recorded around the world in the period's rock stratum, was direct evidence of the impact.[117] The bulk of the evidence now suggests that a 5 to 15 kilometers (3 to 9 mi) wide bolide hit in the vicinity of the Yucatán Peninsula, creating the approximately 180 kilometers (110 mi) Chicxulub Crater and triggering the mass extinction.[118][119] Scientists are not certain whether dinosaurs were thriving or declining before the impact event. Some scientists propose that the meteorite caused a long and unnatural drop in Earth's atmospheric temperature, while others claim that it would have instead created an unusual heat wave.
.Although the speed of extinction cannot be deduced from the fossil record alone, various models suggest that the extinction was extremely rapid.^ "In this lesson, students model geologic principles related to relative dating and the fossil record.
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^ During this tour students learn about geologic time, fossils, ancestral relationships, cladograms, variation, natural selection, and extinction."
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.The consensus among scientists who support this theory is that the impact caused extinctions both directly (by heat from the meteorite impact) and also indirectly (via a worldwide cooling brought about when matter ejected from the impact crater reflected thermal radiation from the sun).^ "In this lesson, students will learn about the discovery of a transitional animal and discuss its impact on the theory of evolution.
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^ Understand that discoveries about dinosaurs have a long history and that each paleontologist adds his or her work to a body of fossil evidence used to support theories about dinosaurs.
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In September 2007, U.S. researchers led by William Bottke of the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, and Czech scientists used computer simulations to identify the probable source of the Chicxulub impact. .They calculated a 90% probability that a giant asteroid named Baptistina, approximately 160 kilometers (100 mi) in diameter, orbiting in the asteroid belt which lies between Mars and Jupiter, was struck by a smaller unnamed asteroid about 55 kilometers (35 mi) in diameter about 160 million years ago.^ Students are used to seeing animals, and they have probably also learned some things about dinosaurs or seen dinosaur reproductions in museums, movies, or elsewhere.
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^ They learn what fossils have been found in Antarctica, and what those fossils indicate about the climate and location of the continent millions of years ago.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
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^ MAPS OF ANCIENT EARTH NEW! http://www.dinosauria.com/dml/maps.htm Colored maps of ancient Earth from 500 million years ago to 50 million years ago.
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The impact shattered Baptistina, creating a cluster which still exists today as the Baptistina family. .Calculations indicate that some of the fragments were sent hurtling into earth-crossing orbits, one of which was the 10 kilometers (6 mi) wide meteorite which struck Mexico's Yucatan peninsula 65 million years ago, creating the Chicxulub crater.^ They learn what fossils have been found in Antarctica, and what those fossils indicate about the climate and location of the continent millions of years ago.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
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^ The age when dinosaurs inhabited Earth (about 250 million years ago to about 65 million years ago) is called the Mesozoic age.
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^ "After tons of research, scientists, or paleontologists, (scientists who study dinosaurs) have found out that dinosaurs went extinct some 64-66 million years ago, but that is the only factual information they could be sure of.
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[120]
A similar but more controversial explanation proposes that "passages of the [hypothetical] solar companion star Nemesis through the Oort comet cloud would trigger comet showers."[121] One or more of these comets then collided with the Earth at approximately the same time, causing the worldwide extinction. As with the impact of a single asteroid, the end result of this comet bombardment would have been a sudden drop in global temperatures, followed by a protracted cool period.[121]

Deccan Traps

.Before 2000, arguments that the Deccan Traps flood basalts caused the extinction were usually linked to the view that the extinction was gradual, as the flood basalt events were thought to have started around 68 million years ago and lasted for over 2 million years.^ They learn what fossils have been found in Antarctica, and what those fossils indicate about the climate and location of the continent millions of years ago.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ The age when dinosaurs inhabited Earth (about 250 million years ago to about 65 million years ago) is called the Mesozoic age.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ Thought to be extinct for 65 million years, the coelacanth was found in 1938.
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.However, there is evidence that two-thirds of the Deccan Traps were created in only 1 million years about 65.5 million years ago, and so these eruptions would have caused a fairly rapid extinction, possibly over a period of thousands of years, but still longer than would be expected from a single impact event.^ Their sway endured for a long era, estimated at nine millions of years, and about three times as long as the period which has elapsed since their disappearance.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They learn what fossils have been found in Antarctica, and what those fossils indicate about the climate and location of the continent millions of years ago.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ "Had the Tyrannosaurs and Triceratops looked down, they would have found trilobite fossils beneath their feet that were already five hundred million years old!"
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[122][123]
The Deccan Traps could have caused extinction through several mechanisms, including the release into the air of dust and sulphuric aerosols, which might have blocked sunlight and thereby reduced photosynthesis in plants. In addition, Deccan Trap volcanism might have resulted in carbon dioxide emissions, which would have increased the greenhouse effect when the dust and aerosols cleared from the atmosphere.[123] Before the mass extinction of the dinosaurs, the release of volcanic gases during the formation of the Deccan Traps "contributed to an apparently massive global warming. Some data point to an average rise in temperature of 8 °C (14 °F) in the last half million years before the impact [at Chicxulub]."[122][123]
In the years when the Deccan Traps theory was linked to a slower extinction, Luis Alvarez (who died in 1988) replied that paleontologists were being misled by sparse data. While his assertion was not initially well-received, later intensive field studies of fossil beds lent weight to his claim. Eventually, most paleontologists began to accept the idea that the mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous were largely or at least partly due to a massive Earth impact. .However, even Walter Alvarez has acknowledged that there were other major changes on Earth even before the impact, such as a drop in sea level and massive volcanic eruptions that produced the Indian Deccan Traps, and these may have contributed to the extinctions.^ There are definite ideas as to what happened, such as disease, the greenhouse effect, a volcano, or maybe it was because of the impact of a giant asteroid!
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^ Typically dozens or even hundreds of features are examined before a cladogram is produced.
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[124]

Failure to adapt to changing conditions

Lloyd et al. (2008) noted that, in the Mid Cretaceous, the flowering, angiosperm plants became a major part of terrestrial ecosystems, which had previously been dominated by gymnosperms such as conifers. .Dinosaur coprolites – fossilized dung – indicate that, while some ate angiosperms, most herbivorous dinosaurs mainly ate gymnosperms.^ The great carnivorous dinosaurs are much rarer than the herbivorous kinds, and these three skeletons are the most complete that have ever been found.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also indications of aquatic habits in some of the giant dinosaurs which render it probable that a considerable part of their life was led in the water.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have also listed the recently published text books which give the most authoritative treatment of the dinosaurs, and two or three popular books dealing with fossil vertebrates.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Statistical analysis by Lloyd et al. concluded that, contrary to earlier studies, dinosaurs did not diversify very much in the Late Cretaceous.^ Related to Stegosaurus , equally huge, but very different in proportions and character of its armor was the Ankylosaurus of the late Cretacic.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The earlier groups of Beaked Dinosaurs are found in both Europe and America, and in the Cretacic the Duck-billed and Armored groups are represented in both regions.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the latest Cretaceous formation, the Lance or Triceratops beds, all the duck-billed dinosaurs are much alike, and are referred to the single genus Trachodon .
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Lloyd et al. suggested that dinosaurs' failure to diversify as ecosystems were changing doomed them to extinction.[34]

Possible Paleocene survivors

.Non-avian dinosaur remains are occasionally found above the K-T boundary.^ When the first remains of these amphibious Dinosaurs were found in the Oxford Clays of England, they were considered by Richard Owen to be related to the Crocodiles, and named Opisthocoelia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a preceding chapter it was shown that the chief formations in which dinosaur remains have been found belong to the end of the Jurassic and the end of the Cretacic periods.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Remains of Dinosaurs have been found in all the continents, but chiefly in Europe and North America.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 2001, paleontologists Zielinski and Budahn reported the discovery of a single hadrosaur leg-bone fossil in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and described it as evidence of Paleocene dinosaurs.^ Only a few months previously he had discovered fossil bones in the red beds of New Mexico, the since famous Permian deposits.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The announcement of these discoveries promptly brought Mr. David Baldwin, Professor Marsh's collector in New Mexico, to the scene.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The formation in which the bone was discovered has been dated to the early Paleocene epoch, approximately 64.5 million years ago.^ Although collected by the crude methods of early days, it consisted of the greater part of the skeleton of a single individual, with the bones in wonderfully fine preservation, considering that they had been buried for say eight million years.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dinosaur bones are found mostly in the great delta formations, and since those were accumulated chiefly in the early stages of great continental elevations, it follows that our acquaintance with Dinosaurs is mostly limited to those living at certain epochs during the Age of Reptiles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Its time is measured in geologic epochs and periods, in millions of years instead of centuries.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.If the bone was not re-deposited into that stratum by weathering action, it would provide evidence that some dinosaur populations may have survived at least a half million years into the Cenozoic Era.^ Their sway endured for a long era, estimated at nine millions of years, and about three times as long as the period which has elapsed since their disappearance.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not one of the twelve-foot squares into which the quarry was plotted lacked its covering of bones, and in some cases the bones were two or three deep.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Northern world they survived until the Comanchic or Lower [73] Cretaceous Period, but in the southern continents they may have lived on into the Upper Cretaceous or true Cretacic.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[125] .Other evidence includes the finding of dinosaur remains in the Hell Creek Formation up to 1.3 meters (51 in) above (40000 years later than) the K-T boundary.^ The real construction of the Iguanodon was gradually built up by later discoveries, and in 1877 an extraordinary find in a coal mine at Bernissart in Belgium brought to light no less than seventeen skeletons more [80] or less complete.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the dinosaurs on the other hand we find that—setting [54] aside Brontosaurus and its allies as aquatic—the predaceous kinds equalled or exceeded the largest of the herbivorous sorts.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jurassic dinosaur formations skirt the Rockies and outlying mountain ranges but are often turned up on edge and poorly exposed, or barren of fossils.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Similar reports have come from other parts of the world, including China.[126] Many scientists, however, dismiss the "Paleocene dinosaurs" as re-worked, i.e. washed out of their original locations and then re-buried in much later sediments,[127][128] or find that, if correct, the presence of a handful of dinosaurs in the early Paleocene would not change the underlying facts of the extinction.[127]

History of discovery

.Dinosaur fossils have been known for millennia, although their true nature was not recognized.^ It is probable that the Dinosaurs are not really a natural group or order of reptiles, although they have been generally so considered.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ European palaeontologists, especially Huxley and Seeley in England, had also recognized their true relationships, and Seeley's term Cetiosauria has precedence over Sauropoda, although the latter is in common use.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Chinese, whose modern word for dinosaur is konglong (恐龍, or "terrible dragon"), considered them to be dragon bones and documented them as such.^ This trochanter is absent from the thigh bones of land-inhabiting dinosaurs with short tails, such as Stegosaurus and Triceratops .
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

For example, Hua Yang Guo Zhi, a book written by Zhang Qu during the Western Jin Dynasty, reported the discovery of dragon bones at Wucheng in Sichuan Province.[129] Villagers in central China have long unearthed fossilized "dragon bones" for use in traditional medicines, a practice that continues today.[130] .In Europe, dinosaur fossils were generally believed to be the remains of giants and other creatures killed by the Great Flood.^ It is very remarkable that three distinct kinds of these great dinosaurs lived at the same time in the same general region, as proved by the fact that their remains are freely commingled in the quarry.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other continents, except in Europe, there has been but little exploration for dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Remains of Dinosaurs have been found in all the continents, but chiefly in Europe and North America.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Scholarly descriptions of what would now be recognized as dinosaur bones first appeared in the late 17th century in England.^ These were the first of a long series of discoveries which through scientific and popular descriptions have made the Horned Dinosaurs familiar to the world.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the first remains of these amphibious Dinosaurs were found in the Oxford Clays of England, they were considered by Richard Owen to be related to the Crocodiles, and named Opisthocoelia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first dinosaur specimen found at Bone-Cabin Quarry.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Part of a bone, now known to have been the femur of a Megalosaurus,[131] was recovered from a limestone quarry at Cornwell near Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, England, in 1676. The fragment was sent to Robert Plot, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and first curator of the Ashmolean Museum, who published a description in his Natural History of Oxfordshire in 1677. He correctly identified the bone as the lower extremity of the femur of a large animal, and recognized that it was too large to belong to any known species.^ The following description of the Trachodon group is by Mr. Barnum Brown and first appeared in the American Museum Journal for April 1908: [16] .
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The description of this unique skeleton by Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn first appeared in the Museum Journal for January 1911.
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^ Our very first discovery in the Bone-Cabin Quarry gave us the hint that Diplodocus was distinguished by relatively long, slender limbs, and that it may be popularly known as the "long-limbed dinosaur."
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.He therefore concluded it to be the thigh bone of a giant human similar to those mentioned in the Bible.^ The broad expanded lip of bone known as the fourth trochanter, on the inner posterior face of the femur or thigh bone was for the attachment of powerful tail muscles similar to those which enable the crocodile to move its tail from side to side with such dexterity.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1699, Edward Lhuyd, a friend of Sir Isaac Newton, was responsible for the first published scientific treatment of what would now be recognized as a dinosaur when he described and named a sauropod tooth, "Rutellum implicatum"[132][133], that had been found in Caswell, near Witney, Oxfordshire.^ I have also listed the recently published text books which give the most authoritative treatment of the dinosaurs, and two or three popular books dealing with fossil vertebrates.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the first remains of these amphibious Dinosaurs were found in the Oxford Clays of England, they were considered by Richard Owen to be related to the Crocodiles, and named Opisthocoelia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These were the first of a long series of discoveries which through scientific and popular descriptions have made the Horned Dinosaurs familiar to the world.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[134]
.Between 1815 and 1824, the Rev William Buckland, a professor of geology at Oxford University, collected more fossilized bones of Megalosaurus and became the first person to describe a dinosaur in a scientific journal.^ Numerous articles in the American Journal of Science descriptive of new Dinosaurs or announcing results of his studies on these fossils.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These were the first of a long series of discoveries which through scientific and popular descriptions have made the Horned Dinosaurs familiar to the world.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the first remains of these amphibious Dinosaurs were found in the Oxford Clays of England, they were considered by Richard Owen to be related to the Crocodiles, and named Opisthocoelia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[131][135] The second dinosaur genus to be identified, Iguanodon, was discovered in 1822 by Mary Ann Mantell – the wife of English geologist Gideon Mantell. Gideon Mantell recognized similarities between his fossils and the bones of modern iguanas. He published his findings in 1825.[136][137]
.The study of these "great fossil lizards" soon became of great interest to European and American scientists, and in 1842 the English paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term "dinosaur". He recognized that the remains that had been found so far, Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, shared a number of distinctive features, and so decided to present them as a distinct taxonomic group.^ Fragmentary remains of this huge carnivorous dinosaur were found in England nearly a century ago, and the descriptions by Dean Buckland and Sir Richard Owen and the restorations due to the imaginative chisel of Waterhouse Hawkins, have made it familiar to most English readers.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ European palaeontologists, especially Huxley and Seeley in England, had also recognized their true relationships, and Seeley's term Cetiosauria has precedence over Sauropoda, although the latter is in common use.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps it was scaly like the skin of lizards and snakes, for the horny scales of the body are not preserved in fossil skeletons of these reptiles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the backing of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the husband of Queen Victoria, Owen established the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, to display the national collection of dinosaur fossils and other biological and geological exhibits.^ As a result of the Canadian work the Museum is enriched by a magnificent collection of Cretaceous fossils some of which are new to science.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the American Museum of Natural History, a partial skeleton is exhibited in the wall case to the left of the entrance of the Dinosaur Hall, and in an A-case near by are skulls of Diplodocus and Morosaurus and a model of the skull of Brontosaurus .
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Several skulls and incomplete skeletons on exhibition and other skeletons not yet prepared add to the Museum collection of this group.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1858, the first known American dinosaur was discovered, in marl pits in the small town of Haddonfield, New Jersey (although fossils had been found before, their nature had not been correctly discerned). The creature was named Hadrosaurus foulkii. .It was an extremely important find: Hadrosaurus was one of the first nearly complete dinosaur skeletons found (the first was in 1834, in Maidstone, Kent, England), and it was clearly a bipedal creature.^ No land animals have ever approached these giant dinosaurs in size, and naturally the first point of interest is the architecture of the skeleton.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Subsequently the finding of complete skeletons in this country led Cope and Marsh to place them with the true Dinosaurs and the latter named them Sauropoda.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the skeletons is temporarily placed in the centre of the Quaternary Hall, space for it in the present Dinosaur Hall being lacking.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was a revolutionary discovery as, until that point, most scientists had believed dinosaurs walked on four feet, like other lizards.^ In appearance most of these small dinosaurs must have suggested long-legged bipedal lizards, running and walking on their hind limbs, with the long tail stretched out behind to balance the body.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With blunt-pointed teeth and blunt claws, quadrupedal, with elephant-like limbs and feet, long neck and small head.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The sharp teeth, compressed and serrated like a palaeolithic spear point, and the powerful sharp-pointed curved claws on the feet, prove the carnivorous habits of these dinosaurs.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Foulke's discoveries sparked a wave of dinosaur mania in the United States.
Othniel Charles Marsh, 19th century photograph
Edward Drinker Cope, 19th century photograph
.Dinosaur mania was exemplified by the fierce rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, both of whom raced to be the first to find new dinosaurs in what came to be known as the Bone Wars.^ Subsequently the finding of complete skeletons in this country led Cope and Marsh to place them with the true Dinosaurs and the latter named them Sauropoda.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At or about this time carnivorous dinosaurs of slightly smaller size are known to have inhabited New Jersey; a fragmentary skeleton of one secured by Professor Cope in 1869 was described as Laelaps (= Dryptosaurus ).
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first dinosaur specimen found at Bone-Cabin Quarry.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The feud probably originated when Marsh publicly pointed out that Cope's reconstruction of an Elasmosaurus skeleton was flawed: Cope had inadvertently placed the plesiosaur's head at what should have been the animal's tail end.^ The head was absurdly small for so huge an animal, and the stiff thick tail projected backward but was not long enough to reach the ground.
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^ Subsequently the finding of complete skeletons in this country led Cope and Marsh to place them with the true Dinosaurs and the latter named them Sauropoda.
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^ In the preceding chapter we have attempted to point out the place in nature that the Dinosaurs occupied and the conditions under which they lived.
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The fight between the two scientists lasted for over 30 years, ending in 1897 when Cope died after spending his entire fortune on the dinosaur hunt. .Marsh 'won' the contest primarily because he was better funded through a relationship with the US Geological Survey.^ But the great cycles of the geologic periods are of a scope far too vast for their changes to be perceptible to us except through their influence upon the course of evolution.
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.Unfortunately, many valuable dinosaur specimens were damaged or destroyed due to the pair's rough methods: for example, their diggers often used dynamite to unearth bones (a method modern paleontologists would find appalling).^ Many of the bones of other herbivorous dinosaurs found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry were similarly scored and bitten off, and the teeth of Allosaurus were also found close to them.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first dinosaur specimen found at Bone-Cabin Quarry.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Despite their unrefined methods, the contributions of Cope and Marsh to paleontology were vast: Marsh unearthed 86 new species of dinosaur and Cope discovered 56, a total of 142 new species. .Cope's collection is now at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, while Marsh's is on display at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University.^ Dragons of the prime That tare each other in their slime ' NEW YORK AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 1915 .
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^ As a result of the Canadian work the Museum is enriched by a magnificent collection of Cretaceous fossils some of which are new to science.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the American Museum of Natural History, a partial skeleton is exhibited in the wall case to the left of the entrance of the Dinosaur Hall, and in an A-case near by are skulls of Diplodocus and Morosaurus and a model of the skull of Brontosaurus .
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[138]
Since 1897, the search for dinosaur fossils has extended to every continent, including Antarctica. .The first Antarctic dinosaur to be discovered, the ankylosaurid Antarctopelta oliveroi, was found on Ross Island in 1986, although it was 1994 before an Antarctic species, the theropod Cryolophosaurus ellioti, was formally named and described in a scientific journal.^ These were the first of a long series of discoveries which through scientific and popular descriptions have made the Horned Dinosaurs familiar to the world.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the first remains of these amphibious Dinosaurs were found in the Oxford Clays of England, they were considered by Richard Owen to be related to the Crocodiles, and named Opisthocoelia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first dinosaur specimen found at Bone-Cabin Quarry.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Current dinosaur "hot spots" include southern South America (especially Argentina) and China.^ The Beaked Dinosaurs are more limited in their distribution, for none of them so far as at present known reached Australia or South America.
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.China in particular has produced many exceptional feathered dinosaur specimens due to the unique geology of its dinosaur beds, as well as an ancient arid climate particularly conducive to fossilization.^ He naturally explored the same beds at Cañon City, immediately below the dinosaur deposits, and soon found the still very problematical Hallopus skeleton, at their very top, a specimen which after nearly forty years remains unique of its kind.
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The "dinosaur renaissance"

The field of dinosaur research has enjoyed a surge in activity that began in the 1970s and is ongoing. This was triggered, in part, by John Ostrom's discovery of Deinonychus, an active predator that may have been warm-blooded, in marked contrast to the then-prevailing image of dinosaurs as sluggish and cold-blooded. Vertebrate paleontology has become a global science. .Major new dinosaur discoveries have been made by paleontologists working in previously unexploited regions, including India, South America, Madagascar, Antarctica, and most significantly China (the amazingly well-preserved feathered dinosaurs in China have further consolidated the link between dinosaurs and their conjectured living descendants, modern birds).^ The Sauropods or Amphibious Dinosaurs have been found in Europe, North America, India, Madagascar, Patagonia, and Africa, sufficient to show that their distribution was world wide with the possible exception of Australia, and probable exception of most oceanic islands (few of the modern oceanic islands existed at that time although there may well have been many others no longer extant).
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^ We can exclude feathers from consideration, for these dinosaurs have no affinities to birds, and there is no evidence for feathers in any dinosaur.
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^ Here are the largest of the giant dinosaurs closely mingled with the remains of the smaller but powerful carnivorous dinosaurs which preyed upon them, also those of the slow and [138] heavy-moving armored dinosaurs of the period, as well as of the lightest and most bird-like of the dinosaurs.
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The widespread application of cladistics, which rigorously analyzes the relationships between biological organisms, has also proved tremendously useful in classifying dinosaurs. Cladistic analysis, among other modern techniques, helps to compensate for an often incomplete and fragmentary fossil record.

Cultural depictions

.By human standards, dinosaurs were creatures of fantastic appearance and often enormous size.^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
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As such, they have captured the popular imagination and become an enduring part of human culture. Entry of the word "dinosaur" into the common vernacular reflects the animals' cultural importance: in English, "dinosaur" is commonly used to describe anything that is impractically large, slow-moving, obsolete, or bound for extinction.[5]
.Public enthusiasm for dinosaurs first developed in Victorian England, where in 1854, three decades after the first scientific descriptions of dinosaur remains, the famous dinosaur sculptures were unveiled in London's Crystal Palace Park.^ Three opinions as to the habitat of Amphibious Dinosaurs have been held by scientific authorities.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These were the first of a long series of discoveries which through scientific and popular descriptions have made the Horned Dinosaurs familiar to the world.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the first remains of these amphibious Dinosaurs were found in the Oxford Clays of England, they were considered by Richard Owen to be related to the Crocodiles, and named Opisthocoelia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The Crystal Palace dinosaurs proved so popular that a strong market in smaller replicas soon developed. .In subsequent decades, dinosaur exhibits opened at parks and museums around the world, ensuring that successive generations would be introduced to the animals in an immersive and exciting way.^ "Dinosaur" is a general term which covers as wide a variety in size and appearance as "Quadruped" among modern animals.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The visitor who is introduced to the dinosaurs through the medium of books and pictures or of the skeletons exhibited in the great museums, finds it hard—well nigh impossible—to realize their existence.
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[139] .Dinosaurs' enduring popularity, in its turn, has resulted in significant public funding for dinosaur science, and has frequently spurred new discoveries.^ As a result of the Canadian work the Museum is enriched by a magnificent collection of Cretaceous fossils some of which are new to science.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Numerous articles in the American Journal of Science descriptive of new Dinosaurs or announcing results of his studies on these fossils.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These were the first of a long series of discoveries which through scientific and popular descriptions have made the Horned Dinosaurs familiar to the world.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the United States, for example, the competition between museums for public attention led directly to the Bone Wars of the 1880s and 1890s, during which a pair of feuding paleontologists made enormous scientific contributions.^ Nearly all the individual works in the collection are in the public domain in the United States.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation (and you!
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[140]
The popular preoccupation with dinosaurs has ensured their appearance in literature, film and other media. Beginning in 1852 with a passing mention in Charles Dickens' Bleak House,[141] dinosaurs have been featured in large numbers of fictional works. .Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 book The Lost World, the iconic 1933 film King Kong, 1954's Godzilla and its many sequels, the best-selling 1990 novel Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton and its 1993 film adaptation are just a few notable examples of dinosaur appearances in fiction.^ It is evidently "the dinosaur" of Sir Conan Doyle's "Lost World" but the vivid description which the great English novelist gives of its appearance and habits, based probably upon the Hawkins restoration, is not at all in accord with inferences from what is now known of these animals.
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.Authors of general-interest non-fictional works about dinosaurs, including some prominent paleontologists, have often sought to use the animals as a way to educate readers about science in general.^ It may only be used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.
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^ General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Dinosaurs are ubiquitous in advertising; numerous companies have referenced dinosaurs in printed or televised advertisements, either in order to sell their own products or in order to characterize their rivals as slow-moving, dim-witted or obsolete.[142]

See also

Notes and references

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  3. ^ a b Will the real dinosaurs stand up?, BBC, September 17, 2008
  4. ^ a b c d MacLeod, N, Rawson, PF, Forey, PL, Banner, FT, Boudagher-Fadel, MK, Bown, PR, Burnett, JA, Chambers, P, Culver, S, Evans, SE, Jeffery, C, Kaminski, MA, Lord, AR, Milner, AC, Milner, AR, Morris, N, Owen, E, Rosen, BR, Smith, AB, Taylor, PD, Urquhart, E & Young, JR (1997). "The Cretaceous–Tertiary biotic transition". Journal of the Geological Society 154 (2): 265–292. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.154.2.0265. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3721/is_199703/ai_n8738406/print. 
  5. ^ a b "Definition of dinosaur" Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary. Accessed 26 May 2007.
  6. ^ Owen, R. (1842). "Report on British Fossil Reptiles." Part II. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Plymouth, England.
  7. ^ "Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek". http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/lexindex?lookup=deino/s&lang=greek&doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0169&formentry=0. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  8. ^ Farlow, J.O., and Brett-Surman, M.K. (1997). "Preface". in Farlow, J.O., and Brett-Surman, M.K. (eds.). The Complete Dinosaur. Indiana University Press. pp. ix-xi. ISBN 0-253-33349-0. 
  9. ^ "dinosaur – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dinosaur. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
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General references

  • Kevin Padian, and Philip J. Currie. (1997). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-226810-5. (Articles are written by experts in the field).
  • Paul, Gregory S. (2000). The Scientific American Book of Dinosaurs. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-26226-4.
  • Paul, Gregory S. (2002). Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6763-0.
  • Weishampel, David B. (2004). The Dinosauria. University of California Press; 2nd edition. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.

External links

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    ^ Skulls of Dinosaurs, illustrating the principal types— Anchisaurus after Marsh, the others from American Museum specimens.
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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Dinosaur is a 2000 animated feature film produced by Walt Disney Pictures featuring anthropomorphic dinosaurs.^ The "Discover World" portion of the museum features a fine collection of dinosaur exhibits including a fully animated robotic model of an Allosaurus.
  • Dinosaur Attractions Vacation Ideas 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC koa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Features five lifelike animated scale models, as well as "death pose" dinosaur skeletons and a working fossil preparation lab.
  • Dinosaur Attractions Vacation Ideas 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC koa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A paper published in Science last June presents microscope pictures of medullary bone from ostrich and emu side by side with dinosaur bone, showing near-identical features.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Directed by Eric Leighton and Ralph Zondag. Written by Ralph Zondag, John Harrison, and Robert Nelson Jacobs.
Krone: Stay out of my way!

Zini: [whilst combing his head back with his hand] You'll want a little help from the 'love monkey'.
.
Plio: [narrating] Some things start out big, and some things start out small, very small.
^ Some species grow very big and some species grow very small," Dr Gee explained.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some were big (hold hands high) Some were small (hold hands low) Some were gigantic--(stretch arms out wide) V-e-r-y tall!

^ Some of these, previously thought to be the remains of a small ape, may turn out to be something else.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But sometimes the smallest thing can make the biggest changes of all.

Zini: This "monster"'s got no teeth! What's he gonna do? Gum us to death?

Zini: "Hey, sweetie. If you'll be my bride, I'll groom ya." That is good. Oh, that's good. "Girls, I'm known as the 'professor of love' and school's in session." Yeah, I still got it.
Aladar: I hope it's not contagious.
Zini: I'm a raging epidemic of romance.

Eema: Walkin' backwards, huh? .Well, let me know if that gets you there any faster.^ If you do not receive it via email, please let us know.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ I let him know we were there and showed him the letter of apology.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Aladar: He's my grandfather -- couple of times removed.
Zini: Try a couple of species removed.

Zini: Hey, enough with the beauty sleep! .You're ravishing already!^ If you're planning to leave your wife of thirty years, and if you wait until just after Christmas to tell her about it, and if you already have plans for New Years with your new girlfriend...


Eema: [About to cross the desert.] If you smell something sizzlin', it could be me.

Baylene: Oh, joy. Blisters!
Eema: I got blisters ON my blisters.
.Yar: You don't wanna know where *I* got blisters...^ It's really quite rude to assume things about the beliefs of others when you don't know them at all, regardless of how they may be portrayed.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a patient of mine goes to the ER, I don't know about it, and I don't get a report, I should call you.

^ Proving that I don't know everything does not make you right.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Plio: We can't just leave him here!
Eema: We can if we move fast enough!

[They enter a cave.]
Aladar: It's dark, but at least it's dry.
Eema: I like dry. It's the dark part I'm having trouble with.

Yar: If I could sleep THAT deep, I'd be in paradise.
Eema: If you could sleep THAT deep, honey, you'd be dead.

[The group reaches the Nesting Grounds, featuring a large lake.]
Plio: Our new home...
Zini: AND IT COMES WITH A POOL!

Zini: [Surrounded by female lemurs.] Anyone up for a game of "monkey in the middle"?

[Closing narration.]
.Plio: No one knows what changes, big or small, lie ahead.^ Part B: If it isn't fun, see Part A. Eighth Law : Half of what it taught in medical school is wrong, but no one knows which half.

^ No one knows exactly how many types of dinosaurs inhabited the planet.
  • Howstuffworks "How Dinosaurs Work" 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DINOSAURS FIVE Five big dinosaurs, five and no more (five fingers up) One chased a butterfly, and then there were four.

.One thing is certain -- our journey's not over.^ One of the most favorite things to do was to tie large paper sacks around our feet and stomp around to music, these were are dino feet !

.We can only hope that in some small way our time here will be remembered.^ Although Earth had long since ceased to be the home for their civilizations, later, a small number of Dinoids were here for a long time as powerful leaders of the newer human beings.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Yar: Hey, old girl, you're wandering off a bit.
Eema: [panting] That's all I need: a monkey on my back.

[Aladar dashes off to warn of the landslide.]
Eema: Kron'll eat you alive!
Aladar: Let him try. [Aladar dashes off.]
Eema: [sighing] I hope Kron's in a listening mood...

Eema: Move over, everybody. Bringin' in babies is what *I* do best!
.Yar: I'd say it's been a few years since you've hatched an egg.^ You say that soft tissue from the t rex was 68 million years old.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes she sits at the door after they've left and barks a few more times, as if to say, "And STAY out!"

^ One parent told me a few days later that their son bathed for over an hour just to see that dinosaur hatch from the "egg."

.Eema: You're right -- so let me practice on your head!^ Cheapass Games- 1996; 2-6 A simple race game that lets you use your own plastic dinosaurs for pieces.
  • 93 Dinosaur Board Games - updated 11/7/09 19 January 2010 8:50 UTC spotlightongames.com [Source type: General]

^ By doing this Mary, you will stand head & shoulders above your colleagues & Christians will admire you even more for your bravery.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What kind of idiot are you to put it all on Facebook, where your kids can see everything you're doing (and therefore find it all the more difficult to believe you when you deny everything)?


[Aladar's baby urinates on Yar.]
Yar: Yep. .You're your father's son.^ By you; by your father; and by many more other people than you probably realized.

^ As for those overstuffed manila envelopes, they held all the cards and letters sent to you and your father after she died.

^ What kind of idiot are you to put it all on Facebook, where your kids can see everything you're doing (and therefore find it all the more difficult to believe you when you deny everything)?


Aladar:[about his newborn son] Hey, little guy! .He looks just like me!^ At first, I thought it looked like they had just shoved a pair of twin beds together, though closer inspection revealed the truth.

Neera: Meet your dad. He's not as crazy as he looks.

Aladar: [as he is pushed and shoved by the thirsty herd trying to make their way to the water sarcastically] That's it! Keep pushing thats very helpful.

[after the lemur children hop away after playing with Aladar]
Plio: [sarcastically] Heh. It's a shame you don't like kids.
Aladar: [sarcastically] Ugh. Nasty little vermin.
.
Aladar: Look, Neera, if we watch out for each other, we all stand a chance of reaching your nesting grounds.
^ Look out, kids-- (Reach arms out.

^ The height of the head in the standing position reaches from 18 to 20 feet above the ground; the knee joint alone reaches 6 feet above the ground.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We don’t go to all this effort to dig this stuff out of the ground to then destroy it in acid,” says dinosaur paleontologist Thomas Holtz Jr., of the University of Maryland.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Neera: You sound so sure.
Aladar: I'm not. But, it's all I know.

Yar: Babies grow up! .You keep that thing, one day, we'll turn our backs, it'll be picking us out of its teeth!^ TEN DINOSAURS (Start w/ one number higher than the number of children you have so everyone will have a turn to remove a dinosaur.

^ You must research to find out about both types of fossils.” Note: We found one broken link on this site.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

^ And what do you know, one day he could roar, He roared all day till his throat was sore.

Things like THAT eat things like US as SNACKS!

Kron: [sarcastically] Hm. Let the weak set the pace? Now there's an idea.

Zini: I believe you asked for a wakeup call at the dawn of time.

[about Aladar]
Neera: That, children... is a jerkosaurus.

Bruton: Why is he doing this? Pushing them on with false hope?
Plio: It's hope that's gotten them this far.
Bruton: But why doesn't he let them accept their fate? I've accepted mine.
Plio: And what is your fate?
Bruton: To die here. It's the way things are.
Plio: Only if you give up, Bruton. It's your CHOICE, not your fate.

Aladar: [despairing] We're not meant to survive.
Baylene: Oh, yes we were! We're HERE, aren't we? .And how DARE you waste that good fortune by simply giving up?^ THE DINOSAUR ART OF JOE TUCCIARONE http://members.aol.com/Dinoplanet/joe.html Realistic paintings of dinosaurs give a good idea of how each looked.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ Realistic paintings of dinosaurs give a good idea of how each looked.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]

^ Dinosaurs, dinosaurs, how many do you see?.....etc Three at the river, (three fingers up) One swims away, (index down) Two dinosaurs (two fingers up) Can stay and play.

Shame on you. Shame on you! SHAME on you! .The worst of it is, you allowed an old fool like me to believe I was needed...^ This to me is firm evidence that the earth is not millions of years old, but more like 6,000 years old, as some of you suggest.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But if you genuinely believe that the Earth is only 6000 years old, you ought to believe that _nothing_ is millions of years old, that you yourself and everyone else has never seen anything that old...
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

that I still had a purpose... and do you know what? You were right. And I'm going to go on believing it. And I, for one, am not going to die here!
.
Neera: You really like kids, don't you?
^ But the scientists are really interested in adding more information to their site that kids would like.
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC cumbavac.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS FOR TEACHERS & STUDENTS 11 September 2009 4:22 UTC www.atlanticava.org [Source type: General]
  • WEB SITES ON DINOSAURS & FOSSILS 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

Aladar: Well, the thin ones are a little chewy.

Yar: Oh, well. Poor Zini. The clan still has one bachelor.
[Plio looks at Aladar]
Plio: No, we have two.

[after a meteor devastates Lemur Island]
.Suri: [crying] They're all gone.^ I haven't had much success telling people about it - they're all believers of the lies of evolution,etc.
  • DINOSAURS LIVED WITH MAN 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Aladar: I heard that in his day, that old monkey was quite a swinger.
Zini: You talkin' about Yar?
Aladar: To hear him tell it, he put the 'prime' in 'primate.'
.
Suri: [she, Aladar, and all the other lemurs on the island are watching fireballs fall down from the sky.] What are they?
^ It's really quite rude to assume things about the beliefs of others when you don't know them at all, regardless of how they may be portrayed.
  • Dinosaur Shocker | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They probably ranged all over North America, and different kinds inhabited other continents as well.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of Dinosaurs, by William Diller Matthew 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then they use all the scrap construction paper from other projects to make the spikes and bingo boppers or markers to color the steggie.

Aladar: I don't know

Simple English

Dinosaurs
Fossil range: Upper TriassicUpper Cretaceous
File:Triceratops
Triceratops skeleton
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Subclass: Diapsida
Infraclass: Archosauromorpha
Superorder: Dinosauria
Owen 1842
Orders and suborders

Dinosaurs, a type of Archosaur reptile, were the dominant land animals of the Mesozoic era.

The word 'dinosaur' comes from Greek, meaning 'terrible lizard,[1] and was coined by the English biologist Richard Owen in 1842.[2]

Dinosaurs appear in the fossil record in the Upper Triassic, 230 million years ago. By the early Jurassic they dominated most environments on land. They continued until the sudden K/T extinction event 65 million years ago.[3]

Birds are the descendants of theropod dinosaurs; all the terrestrial dinosaurs are extinct.[4]

Contents

Types of dinosaurs

Dinosaurs were a varied group of animals. Paleontologists have identified over 500 different genera.[5]

Some, herbivores, ate plants. Others, carnivores, ate meat. The largest dinosaurs were plant-eaters, such as Apatosaurus and Brachiosaurus. They were the largest animals to ever walk on dry land. Other plant-eaters had special weapons, to help them fight off the meat-eaters. For example, Triceratops had three horns on its head shield, Ankylosaurus was covered in boney plates, and Stegosaurus had spikes on its tail.

Most meat-eaters were bipedal (walked on their back legs), though not as we do. Their body was more towards the horizontal, balanced at the back by their tail. Some were very large, like Tyrannosaurus and Spinosaurus, but some were small, like Compsognathus. It was the smaller sized meat-eaters that may have evolved into birds. The first fossil bird, Archaeopteryx, had a skeleton which looked much like that of a dinosaur.

There were large flying reptiles that lived at the same time as dinosaurs, the pterosaurs. They, like dinosaurs, came from a broader group of reptiles called the Archosaurs. There were also various kinds of large reptiles that could swim, like ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and mosasaurs. They were more distant relatives of the Archosaurs.

Dinosaur origins

The Archosaurs evolved into two main clades: those related to crocodiles, and those related to dinosaurs.

Dinosaur classification

Locomotion

File:Sprawling and erect hip joints -
Hip joints and hindlimb postures

Dinosaurs inherited from their Archosaur ancestors their advanced locomotory system, whereby the legs are held underneath the body, rather than sprawled. This erect posture enabled them to breath easily, with more stamina and activity than other reptiles.

More than that, it seems that dinosaurs were primitively bipedal: their probable ancestors were small bipedal Archosaurs. The date of the early dinosaur genus Eoraptor at 230 million years ago is important. Eoraptor probably resembles the common ancestor of all dinosaurs;[6] its traits suggest that the first dinosaurs were small, bipedal predators.[7] The discovery of primitive, dinosaur-like ornithodirans,[8] in Middle Triassic strata supports this view. Analysis of their fossils suggests that the animals were indeed small, bipedal predators.

If the dinosaurs were primitively bipedal, then all the later quadruped forms must have reverted from their bipedal ancestors. They returned to a four-legged stance as their size grew.

Extinction

Scientists think the extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous were caused by one or more catastrophic events, such as massive asteroid or meteorite impacts (like the Chicxulub impact), or increased volcanic activity. Several impact craters and massive volcanic activity, such as that in the Deccan Traps in India, have been dated to the approximate time of the extinction event. These geological events may have reduced sunlight and hindered photosynthesis, leading to a massive disruption in Earth's ecology.[9]

Dinosaurs in fiction

Books about dinosaurs have been popular, especially with children, but adults have also enjoyed these kinds of books. In Edwardian times, Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a novel about a plateau filled with dinosaurs which he called The Lost World.

Several movies are about dinosaurs, such as Jurassic Park.

[[File:|thumb|right|Tyrannosaurus and human size difference]]

Other pages

References

  1. "Dinosaurs - What's in a name?". Children's BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/find_out/guides/animals/dinosaurs/newsid_1610000/1610428.stm. Retrieved 2009-10-03. 
  2. "Richard Owen". Natural History Museum. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/science-of-natural-history/biographies/richard-owen/index.html. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  3. "Dino Timeline". Natural History Museum. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/jdsml/nature-online/dino-directory/timeline.dsml?disp=gall&per_id=&sort=Genus. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  4. Norris, Scott. "T. rex protein "confirms" bird-dinosaur Link". National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080424-trex-mastodon.html. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  5. Wang S.C. and Dodson P. (2006). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Estimating the diversity of dinosaurs"]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103 (37): 13601–13605. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606028103. PMID 16954187. 
  6. Sereno PC (1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The evolution of dinosaurs"]. Science 284 (5423): 2137–2147. doi:10.1126/science.284.5423.2137. PMID 10381873. 
  7. Sereno, P.C.; Forster, Catherine A.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Monetta, Alfredo M. (1993). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and the early evolution of Dinosauria"]. Nature 361: 64–66. doi:10.1038/361064a0. 
  8. A clade of Archosaurs ancestral to all dinosaurs and pterosaurs.
  9. MacLeod N, Rawson PF, Forey PL, Banner FT, Boudagher-Fadel MK, Bown PR, Burnett JA, Chambers, P, Culver S, Evans SE, Jeffery C, Kaminski MA, Lord AR, Milner AC, Milner AR, Morris N, Owen E, Rosen BR, Smith AB, Taylor PD, Urquhart E, Young JR (1997). "The Cretaceous–Tertiary biotic transition". Journal of the Geological Society 154 (2): 265–292. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.154.2.0265. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3721/is_199703/ai_n8738406/print. 
Look up Dinosauria in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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