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Diphenhydramine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-(diphenylmethoxy)-N,N-dimethylethanamine
Identifiers
CAS number 58-73-1
ATC code D04AA32 D04AA33, R06AA02
PubChem 3100
DrugBank APRD00587
ChemSpider 2989
Chemical data
Formula C17H21NO 
Mol. mass 255.355 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 86% bound to plasma protein
Protein binding 98 to 99%
Metabolism Various cytochrome P450 liver enzymes: CYP2D6 (80%), 3A4 (10%)[1]
Half life 2.4-9.3 hrs[2]
Excretion 94% through the urine, 6% through feces [3]
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. A(AU) B(US)
Legal status Over-the-counter
Routes Oral, parenteral (IM), parenteral (IV), topical, suppository
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
Indicated for:
Other uses:
Contraindications:
  • Use in neonates and premature infants
  • Use in nursing mothers
  • Use as a local anesthetic
  • Use in people with hypersensitivity to diphenhydramine hydrochloride and other antihistamines of similar chemical structure
Non-medical use/abuse:
  • Used as a deliriant/hallucinogen
Side effects:
Severe:
Atypical sensations:
  • Feelings of heaviness, hearing disturbance
  • Hypertension in sensitive individuals
Ear, nose, and throat:
  • Dryness of the nose and throat, heartburn
  • Increased or decreased appetite
  • Dryness of the eyes, redness of the eyes, yellowing of the eyes
  • Constipation, nausea
  • Hepatotoxicity in extremely large dosages
  • restlessness, extrapyramidal side-effects, restless-leg syndrome, confusion, clouded thinking, drowsiness, hallucinations, delirium, euphoria, short-term memory loss
  • Agitation, anxiety, emotional lability, depression, excitability (especially in children), paranoia
  • Decreased respiration
  • Urinary retention, sexual dysfunction, vaginal dryness, decreased libido
Miscellaneous:
  •  ?
.Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (pronounced /ˌdaɪfɛnˈhaɪdrəmiːn/) is a first generation antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.^ Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (pronounced /ˌdaɪfɛnˈhaɪdrəmiːn/ ) is a first generation antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies and may act as an antiemetic , sedative and hypnotic .
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction Diphenhydramine is an ethanolamine-derivative, first generation antihistamine.
  • Diphenhydramine HCl Oral: AHFS Detailed Monograph 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diphenhydramine is widely used as an over-the-counter antihistamine.
  • Identification of Human Cytochrome P450 Isozymes Involved in Diphenhydramine N-Demethylation — DMD 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC dmd.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Like most other antihistamines, the drug also has a powerful hypnotic effect, and for this reason is often used as a non-prescription sleep aid and a mild anxiolytic.^ Cough Syrup Other Drugs that Can Be Found in Ecstasy (MDMA) Tabs This article contains information on various drugs that can possibly appear in black market preparations of ecstasy, and the potential side-effects they can produce when used in conjunction with the drug.

^ For self-medication as a nighttime sleep aid, children 12 years of age and older may receive the dosage used in adults.
  • Diphenhydramine HCl Oral: AHFS Detailed Monograph 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people experience more bad effects than others; some don't get any hallucinations at all, though more than likely you will hallucinate.
  • The Lycaeum -- Dramamine FAQ 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Original source]

The drug also acts as an antiemetic. .It is produced and marketed under the trade name Benadryl by McNeil-PPC (a division of Johnson & Johnson) in the U.S. and Canada, and Dimedrol in other countries.^ Diphenhydramine hydrochloride is an antihistamine sold under various trade names, including Benadryl.
  • Diphenhydramine | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Dramamine is also available in the form of Gravol in Canada and other countries.
  • The Lycaeum -- Dramamine FAQ 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is also found in the name-brand products Nytol, Unisom, Tylenol PM, and Advil PM though some Unisom products contain doxylamine instead.^ What are some brand name medicines containing these drugs?
  • The Lycaeum -- Dramamine FAQ 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is also found in the name-brand products Nytol , Unisom , and Advil PM though some Unisom products contain doxylamine instead.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples of products having diphenhydramine as the only active ingredient include Unisom gelcaps (the tablet form contains doxylamine , a different active ingredient), Tylenol Simply Sleep, Nytol , and Sominex (the version sold in the US — that sold in the UK uses promethazine ).
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

It is available as an over-the-counter (OTC) or prescribed HCl injectable. .It may also be used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side effects of many antipsychotics, such as the tremors that haloperidol can cause.^ To do so may increase the risk of side effects.

^ The high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects with potent selective D 2 dopamine receptor antagonists, such as fluphenazine and haloperidol, coupled with the clinical success of clozapine with its wide spectrum of pharmacological activity, initiated the search for a new generation of "atypical" antipsychotics with minimal extrapyramidal side effects.
  • History of Modern Psychopharmacology: A Personal View With an Emphasis on Antidepressants -- Domino 61 (5): 591 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?

.Additionally, injectable diphenhydramine can be used for life threatening reactions (anaphylaxis) to allergens such as bee stings, peanuts, or latex rather than risking the side effects of epinephrine.^ Diphenhydramine has also been used as an anxiolytic because of these sedating side effects.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, injectable diphenhydramine can be used for life threatening reactions ( anaphylaxis ) to allergens such as bee stings, peanuts, or latex rather than risking the side effects of epinephrine .
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ To do so may increase the risk of side effects.

It is a member of the ethanolamine class of antihistaminergic agents.
Diphenhydramine was one of the first known antihistamines, invented in 1943 by Dr. George Rieveschl, a former professor at the University of Cincinnati.[4] .In 1946, it became the first prescription antihistamine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).^ Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine synthesized in the 1940s ( Loew et al., 1946 ) and has been widely used as an over-the-counter drug ( Kay and Quig, 2001 ; Food and Drug Administration, 2002 ).
  • Identification of Human Cytochrome P450 Isozymes Involved in Diphenhydramine N-Demethylation — DMD 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC dmd.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CrossRef Medline ↵ Food and Drug Administration ( 2002 ) Labeling of diphenhydramine-containing drug products for over-the-counter human use.
  • Identification of Human Cytochrome P450 Isozymes Involved in Diphenhydramine N-Demethylation — DMD 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC dmd.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, since diphenhydramine is available without prescription ( Food and Drug Administration, 2002 ), it is possible that it is taken with various drugs.
  • Identification of Human Cytochrome P450 Isozymes Involved in Diphenhydramine N-Demethylation — DMD 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC dmd.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.The brand Benadryl is currently trademarked in the United States by Johnson & Johnson; however, many drug store chains and retail outlets sell less-costly generic versions.^ CONCLUSIONS: The contributions of many basic scientists, the crucial observations of clinicians, and the desire of the drug industry to make money have resulted in the currently available psychopharmacological treatments.
  • History of Modern Psychopharmacology: A Personal View With an Emphasis on Antidepressants -- Domino 61 (5): 591 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it adds to the weight of the molecule, which means that the drug is less potent.
  • Diphenhydramine - DanceSafe Online Information Booth 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.dancesafe.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Lycaeum -- Dramamine FAQ 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Diphenhydramine, which is more widely known in the United States as Benadryl, is a drug which is manufactured by McNeil-PPC, a subdivision of Johnson and Johnson.

Contents

Pharmacological action

.Diphenhydramine works by blocking the effect of histamine at H1 receptor sites.^ Actions: Blocks histamine receptors, has some sedative effects.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Actions: Blocks histamine receptors, antiemetic.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antihistamines generally, and Diphenydramine Hcl specifically, act by antagonizing histamine at the site of the H1 histamine receptor.
  • The Lycaeum -- Dramamine FAQ 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Original source]

.This results in effects such as the increase of vascular smooth muscle contraction, thus reducing the redness, hyperthermia and edema that occurs during an inflammatory reaction.^ Actions: Increases cardiac contractile force, increases cardiac output, reduces edema associated with congestive heart failure, slows AV conduction.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Side Effects: Physical and mental impairment, Parkinson-like reactions have been known to occur, especially in children.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aminophylline Class: Xanthine bronchodilator Actions: Smooth muscle relaxant, causes bronchodilation, has mild diuretic properties, increases heart rate.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, by blocking the H1 receptor on peripheral nociceptors, diphenhydramine decreases their sensitization and consequently reduces itching that is associated with an allergic reaction.^ Actions: CNS depressant, causes peripheral vasodilation, decreases sensitivity to pain.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diphenhydramine was used in two-thirds of patients for sedation or prevention of allergic reactions prior to blood transfusion.
  • Foggy head with diphenhydramine - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Actions: Blocks acetylcholine receptors, increases heart rate, decreases gastrointestinal secretions.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is why diphenhydramine is a popular choice for treatment of the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, hives, motion sickness, and insect bites and stings.^ It is used to treat the symptoms of an allergic reaction and motion sickness.

^ This is why diphenhydramine is a popular choice for treatment of the symptoms of allergic rhinitis , hives , motion sickness , and insect bites and stings.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ In still another embodiment, the present invention is directed to a method of treating the symptoms of one or more diseases or conditions in which diphenhydramine is therapeutically effective, including but not limited to allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, upper respiratory tract infections, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, and the common cold, comprising administering the ODT composition of the present invention.
  • ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS COMPRISING DIPHENHYDRAMINE - Patent application 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the 1960s it was found that diphenhydramine inhibits reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin.^ In the 1960s it was found that diphenhydramine inhibits reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin .
  • Diphenhydramine: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ For the uninitiated, diphenhydramine is a histamine antagonist, an antimuscarinic anticholinergic agent, and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, among other things.
  • FAKOOM!com 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC fakoom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors as Antidepressants Although most pharmacologists by the 1960s thought the primary mode of action of tricyclic antidepressants was to inhibit norepinephrine reuptake, some reexamined the actions of diverse antihistamines on the reuptake of various biogenic amines, especially serotonin.
  • History of Modern Psychopharmacology: A Personal View With an Emphasis on Antidepressants -- Domino 61 (5): 591 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.This discovery led to a search for viable antidepressants with similar structures and fewer side effects, culminating in the invention of fluoxetine (Prozac), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).^ This discovery led to a search for viable antidepressants with similar structures and fewer side effects, culminating in the invention of fluoxetine (Prozac), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors as Antidepressants Although most pharmacologists by the 1960s thought the primary mode of action of tricyclic antidepressants was to inhibit norepinephrine reuptake, some reexamined the actions of diverse antihistamines on the reuptake of various biogenic amines, especially serotonin.
  • History of Modern Psychopharmacology: A Personal View With an Emphasis on Antidepressants -- Domino 61 (5): 591 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Concurrent use of drugs that are known to inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6, such as serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors, was also a contraindication to enrollment.
  • Effect of Dextromethorphan, Diphenhydramine, and Placebo on Nocturnal Cough and Sleep Quality for Coughing Children and Their Parents -- Paul et al. 114 (1): e85 -- Pediatrics 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[6][7] A similar search had previously led to the synthesis of the first SSRI zimelidine from brompheniramine, also an antihistamine.
.Diphenhydramine also acts as a sodium channel blocker, which is responsible for its actions as a local anesthetic.^ Contraindications : Use in neonates and premature infants Use in nursing mothers Use as a local anesthetic Use in people with hypersensitivity to diphenhydramine hydrochloride and other antihistamines of similar chemical structure .
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Diphenhydramine also has local anesthetic properties, and has been used for patients allergic to common local anesthetics like lidocaine .
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

[8]

Common use and dosage

.As an antihistamine, the recommended dose for adults is 25–50 mg diphenhydramine every 4–6 hours, not to exceed 50-100 mg every 4–6 hours.^ Dosage: 50-100 mg.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dosage: 25-50 mg.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As an antihistamine, the recommended dose for adults is 25–50 mg diphenhydramine every 4–6 hours, not to exceed 50-100 mg every 4–6 hours.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

[9]
.Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine drug.^ Introduction Diphenhydramine is an ethanolamine-derivative, first generation antihistamine.
  • Diphenhydramine HCl Oral: AHFS Detailed Monograph 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine drug.
  • Diphenhydramine: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Diphenhydramine was one of the first known antihistamines, invented in 1943 by Dr. George Rieveschl , a former professor at the University of Cincinnati .
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

.Despite being one of the oldest antihistamines on the market it is more effective than even some of the latest prescription drugs.^ Despite being one of the oldest antihistamines on the market it is more effective than even some of the latest prescription drugs.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Some people experience more bad effects than others; some don't get any hallucinations at all, though more than likely you will hallucinate.
  • The Lycaeum -- Dramamine FAQ 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some newer swings even oscillate in a circular motion rather than the traditional back and forth motion.

[10] .Consequently, it is frequently used when an allergic reaction requires fast, effective reversal of the often dangerous effects of a massive histamine release.^ Consequently, it is frequently used when an allergic reaction requires fast, effective reversal of the often dangerous effects of a massive histamine release.
  • Diphenhydramine: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ It is used to treat the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

^ It works by blocking the action of histamine, an important chemical released during allergic reactions.
  • Benadryl Side-Effects, Benadryl Interactions and Benadryl Patient Reviews- iGuard.org 20 September 2009 3:11 UTC www.iguard.org [Source type: General]

.Diphenhydramine has sedative properties and is widely used in nonprescription sleep aids with a maximum recommended dose of 50 mg (as the hydrochloride salt) being mandated by the U.S. FDA. In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and other countries, a 50-100 mg recommended dose is permitted.^ Diphenhydramine is widely used as an over-the-counter antihistamine.
  • Identification of Human Cytochrome P450 Isozymes Involved in Diphenhydramine N-Demethylation — DMD 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC dmd.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dosage: 50-100 mg.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Be sure to mention any of the following: other diphenhydramine products (even those that are used on the skin), other medications for colds, hay fever, or allergies; medications for anxiety, depression or seizures; muscle relaxants; narcotic medications for pain; sedatives; sleeping pills; and tranquilizers.
  • Diphenhydramine | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.The drug is an ingredient in several products sold as sleep aids, either alone or in combination with other ingredients such as acetaminophen (paracetamol).^ The drug is an ingredient in several products sold as sleep aids, either alone or in combination with other ingredients such as acetaminophen (paracetamol).
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients were not excluded when analgesic medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen were administered on either night of the study.
  • Effect of Dextromethorphan, Diphenhydramine, and Placebo on Nocturnal Cough and Sleep Quality for Coughing Children and Their Parents -- Paul et al. 114 (1): e85 -- Pediatrics 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The medication is also found in combination medicines sold over the counter, such as Tylenol PM. Sominex contains ben...
  • Diphenhydramine | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

An example of the latter is Tylenol PM. .Examples of products having diphenhydramine as the only active ingredient include Unisom gelcaps (the tablet form contains doxylamine, a different active ingredient), Tylenol Simply Sleep, Nytol, and Sominex (the version sold in the US — that sold in the UK uses promethazine).^ Examples of products having diphenhydramine as the only active ingredient include Unisom gelcaps (the tablet form contains doxylamine , a different active ingredient), Tylenol Simply Sleep, Nytol , and Sominex (the version sold in the US — that sold in the UK uses promethazine ).
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ FIG. 4 shows dissolution profiles for diphenhydramine hydrochloride and phenylephrine from ODT formulations of Example 3D. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0015] The term "drug", "active" or "active pharmaceutical ingredient" as used herein includes any pharmaceutically acceptable and therapeutically effective compound (e.g., diphenhydramine), as well as pharmaceutically acceptable salts, stereoisomers and mixtures of stereoisomers, solvates (including hydrates), and/or esters thereof.
  • ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS COMPRISING DIPHENHYDRAMINE - Patent application 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The diphenhydramine-containing granules of the present invention can also include other pharmaceutically acceptable ingredients, for example, fillers or diluents.
  • ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS COMPRISING DIPHENHYDRAMINE - Patent application 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Both types are also sold as generic or store brands.
.There are also topical formulations of diphenhydramine available, including creams, lotions, gels, and sprays.^ Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Topical cream .

^ Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Topical solution, spray .

^ Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Menthol Topical gel .

They are used to relieve itching, and have the advantage of causing much less systemic effect (i.e. drowsiness) than oral forms.[citation needed]

Side effects

.Like many other first-generation antihistamines, diphenhydramine is a potent anticholinergic agent.^ Introduction Diphenhydramine is an ethanolamine-derivative, first generation antihistamine.
  • Diphenhydramine HCl Oral: AHFS Detailed Monograph 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine drug.
  • Diphenhydramine: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Like many other first-generation antihistamines, diphenhydramine is a potent anticholinergic agent.
  • Diphenhydramine: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

.This leads to profound drowsiness as a very common side-effect.^ Side Effects: Respiratory depression, drowsiness.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This leads to profound drowsiness as a very common side-effect.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Some side effects such as twitching may be delayed until the drowsiness begins to cease and the person is in more of an awakening mode.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

.Diphenhydramine has also been used as an anxiolytic because of these sedating side effects.^ CrossRef Medline Web of Science ↵ Hindmarch I and Shamsi Z ( 1999 ) Antihistamines: models to assess sedative properties, assessment of sedation, safety and other side-effects.
  • Identification of Human Cytochrome P450 Isozymes Involved in Diphenhydramine N-Demethylation — DMD 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC dmd.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because promethazine had significant central nervous system side effects in man, these actions were explored in various pharmacological assays, including Macht’s rat rope climbing test.
  • History of Modern Psychopharmacology: A Personal View With an Emphasis on Antidepressants -- Domino 61 (5): 591 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine, and its sedative effects are used frequently in the elderly.
  • Foggy head with diphenhydramine - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

.However, other side effects include possibilities of motor impairment (ataxia), dry mouth and throat, flushed skin, rapid or irregular heartbeat (tachycardia), blurred vision at nearpoint owing to lack of accommodation (cycloplegia), abnormal sensitivity to bright light (photophobia), pupil dilation (mydriasis), urinary retention, constipation, difficulty concentrating, short-term memory loss, visual disturbances, hallucinations, irregular breathing, dizziness, irritability, itchy skin, confusion, decreased body temperature (generally in the hands and/or feet), erectile dysfunction, excitability, and delirium[11].^ Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, and constipation.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Side Effects: Dizziness, hypotension, headache.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Side Effects: Drying of mucous membranes.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some side effects such as twitching may be delayed until the drowsiness begins to cease and the person is in more of an awakening mode.^ Older adults may be more likely to have side effects from this medication.
  • Alahist LQ, Aldex-CT, Diphenmax D, D-Tann, Dytan-D, Robitussin Night Time Cough & Cold, Robitussin Night Time Cough & Cold Pediatric, Triaminic Night Time Cold & Cough (diphenhydramine and phenylephrine) Drug Side Effects, Interactions, and Medication Information on eMedicineHealth. 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some side effects such as twitching may be delayed until the drowsiness begins to cease and the person is in more of an awakening mode.
  • Diphenhydramine: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ More results for 'temazepam side effects' .

.Diphenhydramine also has local anesthetic properties, and has been used for patients allergic to common local anesthetics like lidocaine.^ Diphenhydramine should be used with caution in elderly patients, and not as a routine sleep aid because of possible cognitive impairment.
  • Foggy head with diphenhydramine - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Diphenhydramine HCl should not be used if you are allergic to this drug.
  • The Lycaeum -- Dramamine FAQ 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Diphenhydramine was used in two-thirds of patients for sedation or prevention of allergic reactions prior to blood transfusion.
  • Foggy head with diphenhydramine - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

[12]
Diphenhydramine can induce and/or exacerbate the symptoms of Restless Legs Syndrome.
.The most common cardiac dysrhythmias associated with diphenhydramine overdose are sinus tachycardia, elongated S-T segment interval, and premature ventricular contraction.^ Chronic ingestion and overdose have been linked to dependence, 68 psychosis, 62 , 69 , 70 cardiac dysrhythmias and a prolonged QT interval, 62 , 71 – 74 rhabdomyolysis, 75 , 76 seizures, 62 , 70 and death.
  • Effect of Dextromethorphan, Diphenhydramine, and Placebo on Nocturnal Cough and Sleep Quality for Coughing Children and Their Parents -- Paul et al. 114 (1): e85 -- Pediatrics 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
Diphenhydramine is similar in its effects to dimenhydrinate, its 8-chlorotheophylline salt, although the latter is approximately 60% the potency in terms of required dosage and is slightly less sedating.
.Some patients have an allergic reaction to diphenhydramine in the form of hives.^ Some patients have an allergic reaction to diphenhydramine in the form of hives.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ This is why diphenhydramine is a popular choice for treatment of the symptoms of allergic rhinitis , hives , motion sickness , and insect bites and stings.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction : hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Benadryl Allergy & Cold, Benadryl Allergy & Sinus Headache, Sudafed PE Severe Cold (acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, and phenylephrine) Drug Side Effects, Interactions, and Medication Information on eMedicineHealth. 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alahist LQ, Aldex-CT, Diphenmax D, D-Tann, Dytan-D, Robitussin Night Time Cough & Cold, Robitussin Night Time Cough & Cold Pediatric, Triaminic Night Time Cold & Cough (diphenhydramine and phenylephrine) Drug Side Effects, Interactions, and Medication Information on eMedicineHealth. 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][14]
.Since 2002, the US FDA requires special labeling warning against using multiple products that contain diphenhydramine.^ It is important that you put your used needles and syringes in a special sharps container.

^ Use a specially marked spoon or container to measure your medicine.

^ Do not use this medicine on large areas of the body or with other products that contain diphenhydramine.

[15] .Diphenhydramine has been shown to build tolerance against its sedation effectiveness very quickly, with placebo-like results after a third day of common dosage.^ Diphenhydramine and dextromethorphan are not superior to placebo in providing nocturnal symptom relief for children with cough and sleep difficulty as a result of an upper respiratory infection.
  • Effect of Dextromethorphan, Diphenhydramine, and Placebo on Nocturnal Cough and Sleep Quality for Coughing Children and Their Parents -- Paul et al. 114 (1): e85 -- Pediatrics 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Soon after this I felt very tired, like I hadn't slept for days.
  • The Lycaeum -- Dramamine FAQ 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.Paradoxical reactions to diphenhydramine are documented, particularly amongst children, and it may cause excitation instead of sedation.^ Diphenhydramine was used in two-thirds of patients for sedation or prevention of allergic reactions prior to blood transfusion.
  • Foggy head with diphenhydramine - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

[17] [18]
.Because of potential for more severe side effects, diphenhydramine is on the "Beers list" to avoid in the elderly.^ The physical side effects of a high dose of diphenhydramine are way more pleasant than those of datura, in my opinion.
  • OTC Drugs - Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) - The Psychedelic Experience - Shroomery Message Board 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This list may not describe all possible side effects.

^ Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine, and its sedative effects are used frequently in the elderly.
  • Foggy head with diphenhydramine - Everybody - Health Information for New Zealanders 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.everybody.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

(See NCQA’s HEDIS Measure: Use of High Risk Medications in the Elderly, http://www.ncqa.org/Portals/0/Newsroom/SOHC/Drugs_Avoided_Elderly.pdf).
.Benadryl Itch Stopping Gel contains additional ingredients including camphor.^ Please make sure your Benadryl is pure Diphenhydramine.  There are some Benadryls that contain other ingredients that may be lethal for dogs!  And some that do not contain any Diphenhydramine at all!
  • can i give my dog benadryl for itchy paws? - Q&A 20 September 2009 3:11 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Strips Benadryl Itch Stopping Cream, Extra Strength Review Read this Benadryl Itch Stopping Cream, Extra Strength review and find out what it did for me instead!

^ Generic Medications Benadryl Extra Strength Itch Stopping Gel: The Best Way to Use It Every year someone in my family gets sunburn.

It is dangerous when swallowed.[19]

Recreational use

.Diphenhydramine is used both clinically and/or recreationally in conjunction with opioids to relieve itching and act as an analgesia potentiator.^ I've used both datura and diphenhydramine so I'm absolutely positive I'd rather take the diphenhydramine.
  • OTC Drugs - Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) - The Psychedelic Experience - Shroomery Message Board 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.It is used recreationally as a deliriant, depressant, or as a potentiator of alcohol and some opiates.^ It is used recreationally as a hallucinogen , deliriant , depressant , or as a potentiator of alcohol and some opiates.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Diphenhydramine is used both clinically and/or recreationally in conjunction with opioids to relieve itching and act as an analgesia potentiator .
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.Diphenhydramine is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, and as a result can cause increases in blood levels of drugs that are CYP2D6 substrates.^ Actions: Causes uptake of glucose by the cells, decreases blood glucose level, promotes glucose storage.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

.Diphenhydramine can also have an additive effect with other CNS depressants.^ Precautions: May exaggerate the effects of other CNS depressants.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Perhaps no other area of psychosomatic medicine provides more evidence that the psyche has profound effects on the soma and vice versa as mental depression.
  • History of Modern Psychopharmacology: A Personal View With an Emphasis on Antidepressants -- Domino 61 (5): 591 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[21] .Due to its interaction with a broad array of medications, combining diphenhydramine with other medications without medical supervision could have unanticipated and potentially hazardous results.^ Due to its interaction with a broad array of medications, combining diphenhydramine with other medications without medical supervision could have unanticipated and potentially hazardous results.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ These compositions are useful in treating the symptoms of one or more diseases or conditions in which diphenhydramine (alone or in combination with one or two other drugs) is a therapeutically effective, e.g.
  • ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS COMPRISING DIPHENHYDRAMINE - Patent application 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Several Americans have been detained by the Zambian Drug Enforcement Commission for possession of Benadryl and other over-the-counter medications containing Diphenhydramine.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

.Many users report a side effect profile consistent with atropine intoxication.^ You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

^ Water Intoxication Affordable Remedies for Mosquito Bites Mosquito bites are an unfortunate side effect of summer.

^ Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible: .

.January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This is due to antagonism of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in both the central and autonomic nervous system which inhibits various signal transduction pathways.^ Monitor for central nervous system toxicity.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because promethazine had significant central nervous system side effects in man, these actions were explored in various pharmacological assays, including Macht’s rat rope climbing test.
  • History of Modern Psychopharmacology: A Personal View With an Emphasis on Antidepressants -- Domino 61 (5): 591 -- Psychosomatic Medicine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.psychosomaticmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Side Effects: Local venous irritation, central nervous system depression.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

In the CNS, diphenhydramine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, exerting effects within the visual and auditory cortex..March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Other CNS effects occur within the limbic system and hippocampus, causing confusion and temporary amnesia.^ Precautions: May exaggerate the effects of other CNS depressants.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

.Toxicology also manifests in the autonomic nervous system, causing urinary retention, pupil dilation, tachycardia, irregular urination, and dry skin and mucous membranes.^ Toxicology also manifests in the autonomic nervous system , causing urinary retention , pupil dilation, tachycardia , irregular urination , and dry skin and mucous membranes .
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Side Effects: Drying of mucous membranes.
  • Drug Reference 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ssgfx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is due to antagonism of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in both the central and autonomic nervous system which inhibits various signal transduction pathways.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

Considerable overdosage can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack), serious ventricular dysrhythmias, coma and death.[citation needed]
.Such a side-effect profile is thought to give ethanolamine-class antihistamines a relatively low abuse liability.^ Benadryl (diphenhydramine) Causes Xerostomia/Dry Mouth/Cotton Mouth Even over-the-counter medicines such as Benadryl can cause unwanted side effects.

^ The Alprazolam Information Quiz has been designed to educate people about important aspects of the drug such as Alprazolam side effects and other important facts about Alprazolam medication.

^ Xerostomia is one such side effect that you may experience from Benadryl.

.The specific antidote for diphenhydramine poisoning is physostigmine, usually given by IV in hospital.^ It is usually given by a health care professional in a hospital or clinic setting.

[citation needed]
Diphenhydramine is among the prohibited and controlled substances in the Republic of Zambia.[22] .Travelers are advised not to bring this drug into the country.^ Travelers are advised not to bring this drug into the country.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

.Several Americans have been detained by the Zambian Drug Enforcement Commission for possession of Benadryl and other over-the-counter medications containing Diphenhydramine.^ Several Americans have been detained by the Zambian Drug Enforcement Commission for possession of Benadryl and other over-the-counter medications containing Diphenhydramine.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to its interaction with a broad array of medications, combining diphenhydramine with other medications without medical supervision could have unanticipated and potentially hazardous results.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The Alprazolam Information Quiz has been designed to educate people about important aspects of the drug such as Alprazolam side effects and other important facts about Alprazolam medication.

[23]
It is also strictly prescription-only in most of the former Soviet Union. .While most prescription medications are regularly dispensed without prescriptions, diphenhydramine is firmly associated with intravenous opiate use, will not be sold, and possession may cause complications with law enforcement.^ Prescription Information ( PDF ) DiphenhydrAMINE University of Maryland Medical Center - Includes comprehensive dosage recommendations Diphenhydramine entry for recreational use at Drugs-Wiki Man 'took own life' in courtroom - suicide by Diphenhydramine - BBC News .
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to its interaction with a broad array of medications, combining diphenhydramine with other medications without medical supervision could have unanticipated and potentially hazardous results.
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common cardiac dysrhythmias associated with diphenhydramine overdose are sinus bradycardia , elongated S-T segment interval, and premature ventricular contraction .
  • Diphenhydramine @ Top40-Charts.info 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Showing Diphenhydramine (DB01075)". DrugBank. http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01075. Retrieved 5 September 2009. 
  2. ^ "Drug information of Benadryl syr from Johnson & Johnson". MIMS Malaysia. http://www.mims.com/Page.aspx?menuid=mng&name=Benadryl+syr&brief=false&CTRY=MY. Retrieved 5 September 2009. 
  3. ^ Garnett, WR (1986). "Diphenhydramine". Am Pharm (NS26(2)): 35–40. 
  4. ^ Hevesi D (2007-09-29). "George Rieveschl, 91, Allergy Reliever, Dies". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/29/business/29rieveschl.html?ref=health. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  5. ^ Ritchie J (2007-09-24). "UC prof, Benadryl inventor dies". Business Courier of Cincinnati. http://www.bizjournals.com/cincinnati/stories/2007/09/24/daily52.html. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  6. ^ Domino, Edward F. History of Modern Psychopharmacology: A Personal View With an Emphasis on Antidepressants. Psychosomatic Medicine 61:591-598 (1999).
  7. ^ http://meeting.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/134/4/c4002
  8. ^ Kim YS, Shin YK, Lee C, Song J (October 2000). "Block of sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons by diphenhydramine". Brain Research 881 (2): 190–8. PMID 11036158. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006899300028602. 
  9. ^ "Diphenhydramine". Drugs and Human Performance FACT SHEETS. U.S. Department of Transportation. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/research/job185drugs/diphenhydramine.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  10. ^ Raphael GD, Angello JT, Wu MM, Druce HM (April 2006). "Efficacy of diphenhydramine vs desloratadine and placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis". Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology 96 (4): 606–14. PMID 16680933. 
  11. ^ "Diphenhydramine Side Effects". Drugs.com. http://www.drugs.com/sfx/diphenhydramine-side-effects.html. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  12. ^ Smith DW, Peterson MR, DeBerard SC (August 1999). "Local anesthesia. Topical application, local infiltration, and field block". Postgraduate medicine 106 (2): 57–60, 64–6. doi:10.3810/pgm.1999.08.650. PMID 10456039. 
  13. ^ Heine A (November 1996). "Diphenhydramine: a forgotten allergen?". Contact dermatitis 35 (5): 311–2. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1996.tb02402.x. PMID 9007386. 
  14. ^ Coskey RJ (February 1983). "Contact dermatitis caused by diphenhydramine hydrochloride". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 8 (2): 204–6. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(83)70024-1. PMID 6219138. 
  15. ^ Food and Drug Administration, HHS (2002). "Labeling of Diphenhydramine-Containing Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use". Federal Register 67 (235): 72555–9. PMID 12474879. http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/120602a.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  16. ^ Richardson, GS; Roehrs TA; Rosenthal L; Koshorek G; Roth T. (October 2002). "Tolerance to daytime sedative effects of H1 antihistamines.". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 22 (5): 511–5. doi:10.1097/00004714-200210000-00012. PMID 12352276. 
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ de Leon J, Nikoloff DM (February 2008). "Paradoxical excitation on diphenhydramine may be associated with being a CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer: three case reports". CNS Spectr 13 (2): 133–5. PMID 18227744. 
  19. ^ [www.consumermedsafety.org/alerts.asp?p=2008_12_AL32 "Warning. Do NOT swallow Benadryl Itch Stopping Gel!]"]. ConsumerMedSafety. Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP). December 26, 2008. www.consumermedsafety.org/alerts.asp?p=2008_12_AL32. 
  20. ^ Carr KD, Hiller JM, Simon EJ (February 1985). "Diphenhydramine potentiates narcotic but not endogenous opioid analgesia". Neuropeptides 5 (4-6): 411–4. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(85)90041-1. PMID 2860599. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0143-4179(85)90041-1. 
  21. ^ "DiphenhydrAMINE: Drug Interactions.". http://www.umm.edu/altmed/drugs/diphenhydramine-043500.htm#Drug%20Interactions. 
  22. ^ "The Drug Enforcement Commission ZAMBIA: LIST OF PROHIBITED AND CONTROLLED DRUGS ACCORDING TO CHAPTER 96 OF THE LAWS OF ZAMBIA". http://www.deczambia.gov.zm/listofdrugs.html. 
  23. ^ "travel.state.gov: Zambia". http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1062.html. 

Sources

  • J.A. Lieberman, History of the use of antidepressants in primary care.^ Use with extra care - if at all - if you have a history of thyroid disease, heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes.
    • The Lycaeum -- Dramamine FAQ 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Original source]

    Primary Care Companion, J. Clinical Psychiatry, 2003; 5 (supplement 7).

External links


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