Diplom: Wikis

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Diplom (from Greek Δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in some European countries including Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Estonia, Croatia, Serbia, Ukraine, Belarus, Greece, Hungary and Finland (however, only for engineers). It can be compared to Bachelor's and Master's degrees in other countries.


The German Magister was originally a graduate degree, in 1899 a second first degree, the Diplom, was introduced when the Technische Hochschulen received university status. In East Germany, the Diplom was the only first degree and was also granted in disciplines such as medicine or law, which at West German universities were completed with a Staatsexamen.

With the implementation of the Bologna process, the Diplom and Magister are increasingly being replaced by Bachelor's and Master's degrees. Bachelor's degrees, rarely called Bakkalaureus, awarded in most cases after three to four years of study. Master's degrees are awarded in most cases after five years of study. Master's degrees are rarely called Magister, like the former German graduate degree, but they differ in structure.

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In Germany / Austria / Switzerland

In Austria and Germany, the Diplom may be obtained by either of the two types of universities. At a University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule), the diploma degree is described as Diplom (FH) and takes mostly four years. At a Universität the degree is mentioned as Diplom or rarely as Diplom (Univ.) and takes in most cases around four to five years. These years are called "regular study time" (Regelstudienzeit) and may be exceeded (which is usually the case). Dipl. is short for Diplom and is, combined with an abbreviation of the study field, often used as an academic title in front of a name (or behind).

In Switzerland, the Diplom was the typical first degree at the two federal institutes of technology and at the Swiss universities of applied sciences. Since 2004, these Swiss degrees are no longer offered since they are replaced by Bologna style Bachelor's and Master's degrees.

The Diplom is the first academic degree many post-secondary students receive, since there has traditionally been no actual equivalent to the Bachelor's degree in the German and Austrian educational systems. A student typically completes the initial period of study (called the Vordiplom) after two to three years. In many cases the Vordiplom is considered to be equivalent to a BSc or BA, but few students finish studying after achieving this, as it is not considered a "stand-alone" degree.

To complete the requirements for a Diplom, one must pass the examinations for the Hauptstudium (main study period) that follow the Vordiplom, complete one or sometimes more than one Studienarbeit (study research project), and write a Diplomarbeit (diploma thesis). The curriculum of diploma studies at a University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule) is, in contrast to a Universität, more application-oriented.

The Diplom is a prerequisite for preparing a doctorate (Doktorarbeit). It is usually accepted as admission into doctorate programs in other countries having an educational agreement with Germany, and in the European Union, it is generally accepted as the equivalent of a Master's Degree.

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Comparison with Bologna degrees

The following chart illustrates a comparison when the old degree (Diplom) and the new European degrees (Bachelor/Master) are obtained with some sample durations of studies.

It should also be noted for comparison purposes that at the time of the Bologna process, schools in most German states started changing from 13 school years to 12 or 13 years depending on the school. An exception are the states of Saxony and Thuringia, where Gymnasium lasts for 12 school years since German Reunification. Most of the students going for a Diplom therefore spent 13 years in school before starting their Diploma, while the younger Bachelor students nowadays may start one year earlier. However, in some states, such as Rhineland-Palatinate or Schleswig-Holstein, the first class which completes school after 12 years will graduate as late as 2016.

1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year 6th year 7th year 8th year 9th year
Vordiplom Diplom (FH) with excellent grades additional coursework Doctorate
Vordiplom Diplom (FH) Masters Doctorate
Vordiplom Diplom (Universität) Doctorate
Bachelors (Bologna only)[1] Masters Doctorate

Note: For the Diplom (FH) a student has to spend one to two obligatory semesters during his studies in a company where he/she does not study. These semesters are included in the table. The study time is therefore one to two semesters shorter. Bachelor studies have them included in the table too. For the Diplom (Universität) those semesters are sometimes not included in the table.

Also note: In Germany, a Diplom (Universität) student can enter a doctoral program directly (if the student meets the admission requirements). A Diplom (FH) student has to have excellent grades to directly enter a doctorate program [2]. A few German graduate schools, such as the Saarbrücken Graduate School of Computer Science or the Berlin Mathematical School also admit students with a Bachelor's degree and excellent grades to their doctorate programms.

In Greece

In Greece, a Diploma is a 5-year (10-semester) (Diplom Uni) (300E.C.T.S - I.S.C.E.D. 5A) degree, formatted similarly to the German Diplom, awarded to students of the Greek Polytechnic schools, such as the National Technical University of Athens.

While every institution has its own individual approaches, the curriculum usually consists of general knowledge and essential background subjects in the first five semesters. After the end of the fifth semester the student selects his academic area of interest and pursues a set of specialised courses for the next four semesters. The last semester is devoted to the preparation of a thesis on the student's chosen area of interest, which will be presented in a three-member panel.

Diplomas are considered equivalent to Masters and allow the holder to sit in the Technical Chamber of Greece exams without any prerequisite. It also allows the engineer to be considered for Doctorate studies, without any additional classes being taken.

The Higher Technological Educational Institutes (Ανώτατα Τεχνολογικά Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα - Α.T.E.I). After the 2001 Higher Education Reform Act (Ν. 2916/2001 - Ν. 3549/2007) the Technological Educational Institute constitute, a parallel, equivalent and complementary part of the public higher education in Greece. They confer 4-year [Bachelor's degree] (Diplom FH) (240E.C.T.S - I.S.C.E.D. 5A).

Grades range between 0 and 10, 5 being the passing mark. However, since grading practice differs amongst awarding institutions, a descriptive mark is used, which is more or less universal throughout Greece. For example, in the National Technical University of Athens, a grade in the diploma between 5 and 6.99 is "Good" (Καλώς), a grade between 7.00 and 8.99 is "Very Good" (Λίαν Καλώς) and a grade of 9.00 or more is "Excellent" (Άριστα).[3] In the University of Patras[4] the ranges are from 5 to 6.49 (Good), from 6.5 to 8.49 (Very Good) and from 8.5 to 10 (Excellent).

See also

References

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

German

Noun

Diplom n. (genitive Diploms, plural Diplome)

  1. diploma (higher education only, e.g., Master’s degree).

See also

  • Dipl.

Simple English

Diplom (from Greek Δίπλωμα diploma) is a high level degree awarded for learning. It is awarded in European countries such as Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Estonia, Croatia, Serbia, Ukraine, Belarus and Greece. It is a similar award to the Bachelor's and Master's degrees in other countries.

The Diplom was first awarded when the Technische Hochschulen became a university.

With diplom is slowly being replaced by a system that awards Bachelors and Masters degrees. Bachelors degrees, sometimes called Bakkalaureus in Germany, are thought of as a "small Diplom".

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Germany / Austria

The Diplom may be awarded by the two types of German University. At a University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule), the diploma degree is called a Diplom (FH) and normally takes four years to study and gain work experience. At a Universität the degree is called a Diplom or sometimes a Diplom (Univ.) and takes four or five years. These years are called "regular study time" (Regelstudienzeit) but study for the universität normally takes longer.

The Diplom is the first university award for many students. There has been no Bachelor's degree in the German/Austrian educational system.

To win the Diplom certificate, a student must pass the tests for the Hauptstudium (main study time) after the Vordiplom, then one or more Studienarbeit (study research projects), and then write a Diplomarbeit (diploma thesis). The curriculum of diplom studies at a University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule) is focused on using (applying) the science. The Universität is focused on learning.

A student must have a Diplom before studying for a PhD (Doctorate). The diplom qualifys a student to study for a doctrate in most other countries.

This chart is a guide to the number of years of university study needed in a diplom system to begin studying for a doctorate:

1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year 6th year 7th year 8th year 9th year
Vordiplom Diplom (FH) with best grades additional work Doctorate
Vordiplom Diplom (FH) Masters Doctorate
Vordiplom Diplom (Universität) Doctorate

Note: For the Diplom (FH) a student has to spend two years with a company where he or she does not study before studying for a doctorate. These years are shown as "additional work" in the table.

Also note: A Diplom student can begin the doctorate without the additional work if their work has been good enough.[1] Normally a Masters course is taken before a doctorate.

Other pages

  • Magister
  • DEA (former French degree)

References

Other websites


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