Diptera: Wikis


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Flies
Fossil range: 245–0 Ma
Middle Triassic - Recent
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Subclass: Pterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera
Superorder: Endopterygota
Order: Diptera
Linnaeus, 1758
Suborders
.True flies are insects of the order Diptera (di = two, and ptera = wing) on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax.^ Diptera or two-winged flies.

^ A family of parasitic two-winged insects.

^ A large group of insects, including mosquitoes, gnats and houseflies, that possess a single pair of wings.
  • Auckland Allergy Clinic – Allergies and Allergy Terminology 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.allergyclinic.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

.The presence of a single pair of wings distinguishes true flies from other insects with "flie" in their name, such as mayflies, dragonflies, damselflies, stoneflies, whiteflies, fireflies, alderflies, dobsonflies, snakeflies, sawflies, caddisflies, butterflies or scorpionflies.^ A method for studying the efficiency of traps for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other insects.
  • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nri.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus adult flies have only one pair of functional wings, hence their scientific name-- Diptera (di - two, pteron - wing).
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Nematocera include generally small, delicate insects with long antennae such as mosquitoes, crane-flies, midges and their relatives.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some true flies have become secondarily wingless, especially in the superfamily Hippoboscoidea, or among those that are inquilines in social insect colonies.^ Those insects that reveal their ornaments in flight (e.g., Calotarsa), fly in a slow dignified manner that allows their decorations to be seen (Sivinski & Petersson 1996).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ E. Genitalia It has been argued that the notorious complexity of some male insect genitalia, including those of certain Diptera, is in fact ornamentation, but ornamentation on a tactile level (Eberhard 1985).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Larvae highly varied: predators on aphids, in social insect nests, in decaying vegetation, aquatic (especially in polluted waters - rat-tailed maggots), herbivorous.
  • diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.cofc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diptera is a large order, containing an estimated 240,000 species of mosquitos, gnats, midges and others, although under half of these (about 120,000 species) have been described.^ There have been about 150,000 species of flies formally described by scientists; thus about 1 in every 10 animals described is a fly.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A large group of insects, including mosquitoes, gnats and houseflies, that possess a single pair of wings.
  • Auckland Allergy Clinic – Allergies and Allergy Terminology 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.allergyclinic.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Nutritional suitability of six algal species for rearing the pestiferous midge, Glyptotendipes paripes (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in the laboratory.

[1] .It is one of the major insect orders both in terms of ecological and human (medical and economic) importance.^ Age structure of insect populations of medical importance.
  • Mem�rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Age Structure of Adult Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.scielo.br [Source type: Academic]

^ I have sorted them into the major insect orders and passed on the different groups to the relevant curators.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ The major morphological feature which distinguishes flies from other insects is their reduced hind wings, termed halteres.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Diptera, in particular the mosquitoes (Culicidae), are of great importance as disease transmitters, acting as vectors for malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, encephalitis and other infectious diseases.^ Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae).
  • American Entomological Institute 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.amentinst.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several are very important disease vectors (malaria, yellow fever, filarasis, encephalitis).
  • diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.cofc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many species are particularly important as vectors of disease in man, other animals, and plants.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Anatomy and biology

Portrait of a housefly (Musca domestica)
An image of a house fly eye surface by using scanning electron microscope at 450× magnification
.Flies are well adapted for aerial movement, and typically have short and streamlined bodies.^ The female blow fly typically lays her eggs on the body of a recently killed animal.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second segment of the thorax, which bears the wings and contains the flight muscles, is greatly enlarged, with the other two segments being reduced to mere collar-like structures.^ Because of the reliance on the forewings for flight, the mesothorax has become enlarged to contain the enormous flight muscles, and the pro- and metathorax are correspondingly reduced.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As in some other structures discussed previously, it is not clear whether the terminal segments are enlarged to send a message or if the great size serves a mechanical function and is secondarily used in courtships.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A few other groups of insects have also convergently attained a similar two-winged form, such as male coccoids (Hemiptera-Sternorrhyncha).
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.The third segment bears the halteres, which help to balance the insect during flight.^ The halteres are small, club-like structures that function as balancing organs during flight.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

A further adaptation for flight is the reduction in number of the neural ganglia, and concentration of nerve tissue in the thorax, a feature that is most extreme in the highly dervied Muscomorpha infraorder.[2]
A scan of a house fly taken at 40 magnifications under a scanning electron microscope.
.Flies have a mobile head with eyes, and, in most cases, have large compound eyes on the sides of the head, with fives small ocelli on the top.^ Projections from the heads of acalypterate flies: a) Stalk-eyes on a male Achias sp.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Antlers, projections from the head capsule, occur, to one extent or another, in five families of flies (Wilkinson & Dodson 1996).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Like stalk-eyes, abdominal enlargements may evolve into “honest advertisements” if only the largest females can fly with the most swollen abdomens.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The antennae take a variety of forms, but are often short, to reduce drag while flying.^ Fly larvae have an enormous variety of feeding habits, and individual species often have very precise requirements.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Brachycera includes more compact, robust flies with short antennae.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Flies consume only liquid food, and their mouthparts and digestive tract show various modifications for this diet.^ The mouthparts of flies are also characteristically suctorial and many have large fleshy pads with drainage canals termed pseudotracheae for efficient liquid uptake.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They typically consume liquid food such as nectar and other plant exudates, or often decomposing organic matter.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I've been to HOW many shows at the Independent, and finally hit up Fly Bar beforehand only last week?
  • Fly Bar - Western Addition/NOPA - San Francisco, CA 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

.The most apparently primitive flies have piercing blade-like mandibles and fleshy palps, but these have become adapted into numerous different forms in different groups.^ Like stalk-eyes, abdominal enlargements may evolve into “honest advertisements” if only the largest females can fly with the most swollen abdomens.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Catching a big fish with an expertly placed fly can be one of the most satisfying feelings you're ever likely to experience.
  • Learn How To Fly Fish, Fly Fishing Tips, Casting Techniques, Fly Patterns, Fishing Knots 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.betterflyfishing.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally, I attempt to correlate certain forms of decoration with different types of mating systems in various taxa of flies.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

These include both the fine stilleto-like sucking mouthparts of mosquitos, and the fleshy proboscis of houseflies. .The gut typically includes large diverticulae, allowing the insect to store small quantities of liquid after a meal.^ The Nematocera include generally small, delicate insects with long antennae such as mosquitoes, crane-flies, midges and their relatives.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]

Reproduction and development

.The genitalia of female flies are rotated to a varying degree from the position found in other insects.^ A method for studying the efficiency of traps for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other insects.
  • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nri.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult female drain /moth flies most often lay their eggs in masses on the surface of gelatinous film found in drains and sewers.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major morphological feature which distinguishes flies from other insects is their reduced hind wings, termed halteres.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.In some flies this is a temporary rotation during mating, but in others, it is a permanent torsion of the organs that occurs during the pupal stage.^ Some flies have mouthparts modified for stabbing and piercing other insects, such as the predatory robber-flies (Asilidae) and dance flies (Empididae).
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At least some of the ornamented robber flies both forage for food and display to mates on substrates, e.g., tree trunks (Wilcox & Martin 1936).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mating behaviors are often complex and include movements of head and legs, organs ornamented in other taxa (e.g., section “Conclusion: the locations of ornaments”).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This torsion may lead to the anus being located below the genitals, or, in the case of 360° torsion, to the sperm duct being wrapped around the gut, despite the external organs being in their usual position.^ In most cases, these differences result from one sex, usually the male, being adapted to perceive pheromones or acoustic cues.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.When flies mate, the male initially flys on top of the female, facing in the same direction, but then turns round to face in the opposite direction.^ Male ornaments that appear to be solely directed to females are more widespread, but still are concentrated in the anterior regions of the body, the head, and fore and mid legs.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Just why does stroking a female’s head with tarsal plumes improve the reproductive success of a male robber fly?
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What may have originally been propaganda to intimidate rival males has come under scrutiny from females and is now used as a factor in mate choice.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In some species, this forces the male to lie on its back in order for its genitalia to remain engaged with those of the female, but in most cases, the torsion of the male genitals allows the male to mate while remaining upright.^ Females of most species deposit 20 to 40 larvae directly onto the host or substitute.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E. Genitalia It has been argued that the notorious complexity of some male insect genitalia, including those of certain Diptera, is in fact ornamentation, but ornamentation on a tactile level (Eberhard 1985).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most females feed during the warmer parts of the day, but some species prefer the hours at dawn or dusk.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This leads to flies having more reproduction abilities than most insects and at a much quicker rate.^ Its residual persistence tests, surface had more influence on the results than the environment, rate, or residual aging period.
  • http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/Labinsects/toxicology.htm 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The larvae of some species of flesh flies are beneficial in that they prey on eggs, nymphs or larvae of more harmful insects.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lufenuron was most active on masonite, with deposits on plywood being more active than on oily-frass masonite.
  • http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/Labinsects/toxicology.htm 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This is why the flies come in great populations due to their ability to mate effectively and in a short period of time during the mating season.^ There was wide variation in population numbers during short periods, and a continuous output of nulliparous females during all months.
  • Mem�rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Age Structure of Adult Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.scielo.br [Source type: Academic]

^ That's a pretty short time frame in terms of risk exposure due to climate change.
  • After Climategate, some insurers now doubt climate science? | SciGuy | Chron.com - Houston Chronicle 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why do males of the dance fly Empis borealis refuse to mate?
  • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www4.ncsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.The female lays her eggs as close to the food source as possible, and development is generally rapid, allowing the larva to consume as much food as possible in a short period of time before transforming into the adult.^ The larvae use earthworms as a food source.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each adult female phorid will lay approximately 500 eggs.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The female will lay about 20 eggs at a time and will lay about 40 eggs in a 12 hour period.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In extreme cases, the eggs hatch immediately after being laid, while a few flies are ovoviviparous, with the larva hatching inside the mother.^ Phorid flies develop by egg, larva, pupa and adult.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each adult female begins laying eggs a few days after hatching, laying a total of five to six batches of 75 to 100 small., white oval eggs.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eggs hatch from 1 to 3 days into yellowish-white maggots or larvae.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Larval flies, or maggots, have no true legs, and often little demarcation between the thorax and abdomen; in the more derived species, even the head is not clearly distinguishable from the rest of the body.^ An unusual oral exchange between a tachinid fly ( Myiopharus pirioni Aldrich) and a larval leaf beetle ( Procalus sp).
  • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Often confused with Horse flies, Deer flies are a little smaller in size.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE SCOOP: If you're looking to catch up with a friend, or have more a of a chill evening, Fly Bar is a good place to grab a drink or two.
  • Fly Bar - Western Addition/NOPA - San Francisco, CA 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

.In some species, there are small prolegs on some segments, but maggots are more commonly entirely limbless.^ It does seem odd that there are some UK species missing from the national collection but it has not been a collection priority for a while.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ The larvae of some species of flesh flies are beneficial in that they prey on eggs, nymphs or larvae of more harmful insects.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eyes and antennae are reduced, or even absent, and the abdomen also lacks appendages such as cerci.^ Why do dolichopodids seem to bear so many and such various ornaments, on antennae, faces, mouthparts, legs and abdomens?
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

This general lack of features is an adaptation to the extremely food rich environment, such as within rotting organic matter, or as an endoparasite.[2]
.The pupae take various forms, and in some cases develop inside a silk cocoon.^ Inside this case, the true pupa forms.When fully formed, the adult fly breaks open the end of the pupal case and emerges.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After emerging from the pupa, the adult fly rarely lives more than a few days, and serves mainly to reproduce and to disperse in search of new food sources.^ Adult flies emerge in ten to 14 days and the life cycle is repeated.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fly Slot Cars : Electric Dreams, New Slot Cars, Vintage Slot Cars; Scalextric, Fly, Carrera, Slot.it, Ninco, Proto Slot-Kit, 1/32 scale, 1/24 scale and more .
  • Fly Slot Cars : Electric Dreams, New Slot Cars, Vintage Slot Cars; Scalextric, Fly, Carrera, Slot.it, Ninco, Proto Slot-Kit, 1/32 scale, 1/24 scale and more 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.electricdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ A fast decrease in the number of pupae occurred on the seventh day owing to the formation of adults (Figure 7).
  • Homeopathy Forums - Forbidden medicine? - Page 1 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC forums.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

Classification

Fly cleaning.ogv
Cleaning
The Nematocera are usually recognized by their elongated bodies and feathery antennae as represented by mosquitoes and crane flies. The Brachycera tend to have a more roundly proportioned body and very short antennae. A more recent classification has been proposed in which the Nematocera is split into two suborders, the Archidiptera and the Eudiptera, but this has not yet gained widespread acceptance among dipterists.
  1. Suborder Nematocera (77 families, 35 of them extinct) – long antennae, pronotum distinct from mesonotum. .In Nematocera, larvae are either eucephalic or hemicephalic and often aquatic.
  2. Suborder Brachycera (141 families, 8 of them extinct) – short antennae, the pupa is inside a puparium formed from the last larval skin.^ The hardened larval skin which is left behind still exhibits most of the characteristics which are used in larval identification; thus determination can often be made on the basis of the skin alone.
    • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These larvae pass through 3 instars and pupate in the last larval skin.
    • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Inside this case, the true pupa forms.When fully formed, the adult fly breaks open the end of the pupal case and emerges.
    • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Brachycera are generally robust flies with larvae having reduced mouthparts.^ In general, the body shapes of flies fall into a few familiar categories, ranging from the willowy (e.g., Tipulidae) to the robust (e.g., Muscidae).
    • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

    1. Infraorders Tabanomorpha and Asilomorpha – these comprise the majority of what was the Orthorrhapha under older classification schemes. The antennae are short, but differ in structure from those of the Muscomorpha.
    2. Infraorder Muscomorpha – (largely the Cyclorrhapha of older schemes). Muscomorpha have 3-segmented, aristate (with a bristle) antennae and larvae with three instars that are acephalic (maggots).
Most of the Muscomorpha are further subdivided into the Acalyptratae and Calyptratae based on whether or not they have a calypter (a wing flap that extends over the halteres).
Beyond that, considerable revision in the taxonomy of the flies has taken place since the introduction of modern cladistic techniques, and much remains uncertain. The secondary ranks between the suborders and the families are more out of practical or historical considerations than out of any strict respect for phylogenetic classifications (some modern cladists tend to spurn the use of Linnaean rank names). .Nearly all classifications in use now, including this article, contain some paraphyletic groupings; this is emphasized where the numerous alternative systems are most greatly at odds.^ The fact that the specimens are all double bagged and in a sealed container with massive warning labels all over them should give some hint to how bad they are!
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ We have moved things around so that the collection just follows the numbering system of one of the most used catalogues.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ So it is with some sadness that I have now nearly packed it all up and am ready for our move to the Darwin Centre on Tuesday.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

See list of families of Diptera.
Dipterans belong to the taxon Mecopterida, that also contains Mecoptera, Siphonaptera, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and Trichoptera. Inside it, they are sometimes classified closely together with Mecoptera and Siphonaptera in the superorder Antliophora.[3]

Evolution

.Diptera are usually thought to derive from Mecoptera or a strictly related group.^ On selected family-group names in Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera), and related nomenclature M. SPIES ( Germany ) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

First true dipterans are known from the Middle Triassic, becoming widespread during the Middle and Late Triassic [4].

Flies in culture

.Flies have often been used in mythology and literature to represent agents of death and decay, such as the Biblical fourth plague of Egypt, or portrayed as nuisances (e.g., in Greek mythology, Myiagros was a god who chased away flies during the sacrifices to Zeus and Athena, and Zeus sent a fly to bite the horse Pegasus causing Bellerophon to fall back to Earth when he attempted to ride to Mount Olympus), though in a few cultures the connotation is not so negative (e.g., in the traditional Navajo religion, Big Fly is an important spirit being).^ During peak emergence, large numbers of midges fly into residential and industrial areas causing annoyance and damage.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often confused with Horse flies, Deer flies are a little smaller in size.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blow flies have played a role in medicine: species such as the green bottle fly and the black blow fly were once commonly used to clean open wounds in humans because the maggots tend to feed only on decayed tissue.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Emily Dickinson's poem "I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died" also makes reference to flies in the context of death. .In fact, many flies, such as the genus Hydrotaea are used in forensic cases to determine time of death for many corpses.^ Several of us have commented on this fact that when using malaise traps (tent like trap for catching small flying insects) there is always an abundance of them.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ House flies, flesh flies, bottle flies and blow flies breed in similar substances such as decaying organic materials, garbage,animal excrement or decaying animal corpse.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many areas such as the American Southwest, blow flies are the most common type of flies found in and around houses and other human habitations.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In William Golding's Lord of the Flies, the fly is a symbol of the children involved.
.Not surprisingly, in art and entertainment, flies are also used primarily to introduce elements of horror or the simply mundane; an example of the former is the 1958 science fiction film The Fly (remade in 1986), in which a scientist accidentally exchanges parts of his body with those of a fly.^ Killer flies: Truth is stranger than science fiction.
  • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Invasive Diptera: Using molecular markers to investigate cryptic species and the global spread of introduced flies.
  • FLYTREE: Publications & Products 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.inhs.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fly Bodies and Body Parts .
  • Fly Slot Cars : Electric Dreams, New Slot Cars, Vintage Slot Cars; Scalextric, Fly, Carrera, Slot.it, Ninco, Proto Slot-Kit, 1/32 scale, 1/24 scale and more 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.electricdreams.com [Source type: News]

.Examples of the latter include trompe l'oeil paintings of the fifteenth century such as Portrait of a Carthusian by Petrus Christus, showing a fly sitting on a fake frame [5], a 2001 art project by Garnet Hertz in which a complete web server was implanted into a dead fly [1], and various musical works (such as Yoko Ono's album Fly, U2's song "The Fly," Dave Matthews' song "The Fly" and Béla Bartók's "From the Diary of a Fly").^ Projected publication date: 200903 Dowling, Robert, 1827-1886.Portrait painters Australia Biography.Art, Australian Australia History.
  • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

.Damien Hirst's famous work titled A Thousand Years featured a severed cow's head contained in a box with thousands of flies and a bug zapper, creating an entire life cycle within a glass box.The ability of flies to cling to almost any surface has also inspired the title of Human Fly for stunt performers whose stunts involve climbing buildings, including both real life and fictional individuals.^ Adult flies emerge in ten to 14 days and the life cycle is repeated.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much of life, including flies, moves toward or away from light, an attribute that has interested both scientists and poets (“Ah sun-flower!
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 81, n. 3, p. 282 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Aside from the fictional and conceptual role flies play in culture, there are practical roles that flies can play (e.g., flies are reared in large numbers in Japan to serve as pollinators of sunflowers in greenhouses), especially the maggots of various species.^ During peak emergence, large numbers of midges fly into residential and industrial areas causing annoyance and damage.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blow flies have played a role in medicine: species such as the green bottle fly and the black blow fly were once commonly used to clean open wounds in humans because the maggots tend to feed only on decayed tissue.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worldwide, there are about 1200 species of blow flies, and in North America there are 80.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Maggots

Maggots being used to treat a wound
.Some types of maggots found on corpses have been found to be of great use to forensic scientists; specifically Forensic Entomology.^ CURTIS,J. 1825.    BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY: being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland.

.By their stage of development, these maggots (and other insects) can be used to give an indication of the time elapsed since death, as well as the place the organism died.^ These residual insecticides are applied outdoors to window frames, door frames, soffits and eaves as well as any other areas that are vulnerable to entry.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Results may have practical effects since, as time evolves, less adult females are produced, with subsequent less egg laying and less rate in the production of adult insects.
  • Homeopathy Forums - Forbidden medicine? - Page 1 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC forums.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Results may have practical effects since, as time evolves, less adult females are produced, with subsequent less egg laying and less rate in the production of adult insects Figure 6.
  • Homeopathy Forums - Forbidden medicine? - Page 1 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC forums.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

The lack of maggot presence is also telling in an investigation.
Maggot species can be identified using their DNA. .The size of the house fly maggot is 10–20 mm (⅜–¾ in).^ The Fruit fly is about one third the size of the house or filth fly.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the height of the summer season, a generation of flies (egg to adult) may be produced in 12–14 days.^ Mean number of Aedes Aegypti adults during 12-day incubation with regard to different homeopathic dynamizations of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oil.
  • Homeopathy Forums - Forbidden medicine? - Page 1 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC forums.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Days Ago 12:14 PM by Andy B .
  • North Eastern Fly Fishing 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.njflyfishing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seven- and 14-d-old adult offspring from each host plant were tested for susceptibility to acephate in 12 laboratory bioassays (2 colonies X 3 hosts X 2 ages).
  • http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/Labinsects/toxicology.htm 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Some other families of Insecta, such as Histeridae, feed on maggots. Thus, the lack of maggots would increase the estimated time of death.
.Other types of maggots are bred commercially, as a popular bait in angling, and a food for carnivorous pets such as reptiles or birds.^ In many areas such as the American Southwest, blow flies are the most common type of flies found in and around houses and other human habitations.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Maggots have been used in medicine to clean out necrotic wounds and in food production, particularly of cheeses designed to rot as part of their 'aging' process. (casu marzu).

References

  1. ^ B. M. Wiegmann & D. K. Yeates (1996). "Tree of Life: Diptera". http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/ftp/bwiegman/fly_html/diptera.html#about. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Hoell, H.V., Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd ed.. Oxford University Press. pp. 493–499. ISBN 0-19-510033-6. 
  3. ^ "Taxon: Superorder Antliophora". The Taxonomicon. http://www.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=102510. Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  4. ^ V. A. Blagoderov, E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski (2002). "Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies". in A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke. History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 1-4020-0026-X. http://palaeoentomolog.ru/New/diptera.html. 
  5. ^ "Portrait of a Carthusian, 1446". Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. October 2006. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/optg/hod_49.7.19.htm. 

Biology

  • Harold Oldroyd The Natural History of Flies. .New York: W. W. Norton.1965.
  • Eugène Séguy Diptera: recueil d'etudes biologiques et systematiques sur les Dipteres du Globe (Collection of biological and systematic studies on Diptera of the World).^ A systematic study of Phytalmia (Diptera, Tephritidae).
    • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Systematics of Robustagramm a, a new genus of New World Sphaeroceridae (Diptera).
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Systematics of Bitheca , a new genus of New World Sphaeroceridae (Diptera).
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    11 vols. Text figs. Part of Encyclopedie Entomologique, Serie B II: Diptera. 1924-1953.
  • Eugène Seguy. .La Biologie des Dipteres 1950. pp.^ Biology and life cycle of the family Chironomidae (Ciclo de Vide y Biologia de la Familia Chironomidae).

    609. 7 col + 3 b/w plates, 225 text figs.

Classification

.
  • Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E., and Zumbado, M. (Editors) 2009 Manual of Central American Diptera.^ Taxonoomy and biology of Central American Robber Flies with an illustrated key to genera (Diptera: Asilidae).
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ J.F. McAlpine, et al (Editors), Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Vol.
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ IN Manual of Central American Diptera, B.V. Brown, ed.
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    .Volume 1
    NRC Research Press, Ottawa ISBN 978-0-660-19833-0
  • Colless, D.H. & McAlpine, D.K.1991 Diptera (flies) , pp.^ AN: 44909292 ISBN: 9781742177618 ANL ANL contributed cataloguing Fruit-flies Control Victoria.Diptera Victoria.
    • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Contributions to the Systematics and Ecology of Aquatic Diptera - A Tribute to Ole A. Sæther."    THE CADDIS PRESS, pp.

    ^ Copenhagen, Denmark Cannings, R.A., 1997, Robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of the Yukon, Pp.
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    717-786. In: The Division of Entomology. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra (spons.), The insects of Australia.Melbourne Univ. .Press, Melbourne.
  • Griffiths, G.C.D. The phylogenetic classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha, withspecial reference to the structure of the male postabdomen. Ser.^ The male genital tract and aedeagal components of the Diptera with a discussion of their phylogenetic significance.
    • FLYTREE: Publications & Products 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.inhs.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A study of terminal abdominal structures of male Diptera (Two-winged flies).
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    Ent. 8, 340 pp. [Dr. W. Junk, N. V., The Hague] (1972).
  • Willi Hennig Die Larvenformen der Dipteren. 3. Teil. Akad.-Verlag, Berlin. 185 pp., 3 pls. .1948
  • Willi Hennig (1954) Flugelgeader und System der Dipteren unter Berucksichtigung der aus dem Mesozoikum beschriebenen Fossilien.^ Contributed By: Smithsonian Institution Libraries Tags: Diptera Dipteren aus Südarabien und von der Insel Sokótra / von Th.

    ^ [Schaeffer1916NewDipteraAsilidae.pdf] Schmidt, E., 1954, Auf der Spur von Kellemisch Betrachtungen an Libellen und anderen Insekten-Stiefkindern in Sud-Kleinasien, Sonderdruck aus Entomologische Zeitschrift, 64.
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Publication Info: Wien :Aus der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei,1910.

    Beitr. Ent. 4: 245-388 (1954).
  • F. Christian Thompson. ."Sources for the Biosystematic Database of World Diptera (Flies)" (PDF).^ Revision of the horse fly genera Lissimas and Cydistomyia (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini) of Australia I.M. MACKERRAS, D.M. SPRATT & D.K. YEATES (Australia) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Apiformyia , a new genus of Australian bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) with affinities to the New World Heterostylum Macquart DAVID K. YEATES (Australia) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cunomyia, a distinctive new hilarine fly genus from the Tasmanian World Heritage Area (Diptera: Empididae).
    • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www4.ncsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .United States Department of Agriculture, Systematic Entomology Laboratory.^ Invitational Seminar, Department of Entomology, Sind Agricultural University, Tandojam, Sind, Pakistan, January 17, 1983.

    ^ In: Biosystematic Database of World Diptera, a CD produced and circulated by F.C. Thompson of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States National Museum.
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pakistan, January 3-30, 1983, invited by the United Nations Development Program, to develop an aquatic entomology research and teaching program at the Sind Agricultural University, Tandojam, Sind.

    .http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/diptera/names/BDWDsour.pdf.
     
  • Willi Hennig: Diptera (Zweifluger).^ PANDORA electronic collection Publisher site http://www.environment.gov.auArchived at ANL http://nla.gov.au/nla.arc-113122 .
    • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Publisher site http://www.deewr.gov.auArchived at ANL http://nla.gov.au/nla.arc-97167 .
    • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ACT Health http://www.health.act.gov.au/c/health?a=sendfile&ft=p&fid=1238634638&sid .
    • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    Handb. Zool. Berl. 4 (2 ) (31):1-337. General introduction with key to World Families. In German.

Evolution

.
  • Blagoderov, V.A., Lukashevich, E.D. & Mostovski, M.B. 2002. Order Diptera.^ Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous 2779 specimens Diptera 585 Eucorethrina convexa Lukashevich Archizelmira kazachstanica Rohdendorf Mesosolva longivena Mostovski .

    In: Rasnitsyn, A.P. and Quicke, D.L.J. The History of Insects, Kluwer Publ., Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp. 227-240.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

DIPTERA (Sis, double, 7rTEpa, wings), a term (first employed in its modern sense by Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica, 1st ed., 1746, p. 306) used in zoological classification for one of the Orders into which the Hexapoda, or Insecta, are divided. .The relation of the Diptera (two-winged flies, or flies proper) to the other Orders is dealt with underHexapoda. The chief characteristic of the Diptera is expressed in the name of the Order, since, with the exception of certain aberrant and apterous forms, flies possess but a single pair of membranous wings, which are attached to the meso-thorax.^ Biological control of sciarid flies (Diptera: Sciaridae) with entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematode: Rhabditida), Including reference to other Diptera   .

^ On selected family-group names in Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera), and related nomenclature M. SPIES ( Germany ) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

Wing-covers and hind-wings are alike absent, and the latter are represented by a pair of little knobbed organs, the halteres or balancers, which have a controlling and directing function in flight. The other structural characters of the Order may be briefly summarized as: - mouth-parts adapted for piercing and sucking, or for suction alone, and consisting of a proboscis formed of the labium, and enclosing modifications of the other usual parts of the mouth, some of which, however, may be wanting; a thorax fused into a single mass; and legs with five-jointed tarsi. .The wings, which are not capable of being folded, are usually transparent, but occasionally pigmented and adorned with coloured spots, blotches or bands; the wing-membrane, though sometimes clothed with minute hairs, seldom bears scales; the wing-veins, which are of great importance in the classification of Diptera, are usually few in number and chiefly longitudinal, there being a marked paucity of cross-veins.^ Female mate choice is sometimes based on this nuptial gift and in certain cases the importance of the gift is so great that a sex-role reversal takes place.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are a number of other paths that might lead to ornamentation, any one of which could result in a world with only a single species being inhabited by ornamented animals.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

In a large number of Diptera an incision in the posterior margin of the wing, near the base, marks off a small lobe, the posterior lobe or alula, while connected with this but situated on the thorax itself there is a pair of membranous scales, or squamae, which when present serve to conceal the halteres. .The antennae of Diptera, which are also extremely important in classification, are thread-like in the more primitive families, such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), where they consist of a considerable number of joints, all of which except the first two, and sometimes also the last two, are similar in shape; in the more specialized families, such as the Tabanidae (horse-flies), Syrphidae (hover-flies) or Muscidae (house-flies, blue-bottles and their allies), the number of antennal joints is greatly reduced by coalescence, so that the antennae appear to consist of only three joints.^ Afroestricus , a new Afrotropical Ommatine (Diptera: Asilidae) genus with twenty species and two species groups A. G. SCARBROUGH (USA) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Two new species of Rhaphiomidas (Diptera: Mydidae) Rick Rogers & Matthew H. Van Dam (USA) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Two new species and new records of Psychoda Latreille (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae) from Brazil, with comments on supraspecific classification of the genus F. BRAVO, D. CORDEIRO & C. CHAGAS (Brazil) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

In these forms, however, the third joint is really a complex, which in many families bears in addition a jointed bristle (arista) or style, representing the terminal joints of the primitive antenna. .Although in the case of the majority of Diptera the body is more or less clothed with hair, the hairy covering is usually so short that to the unaided eye the insects appear almost bare; some forms, however, such as the bee-flies (Bombylius) and certain robber-flies (Asilidae) are conspicuously hairy.^ Robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of South Korea.
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accepted: 21 May 2007 Robber flies of South Korea IV. Species of the subfamily Stichopogoninae Hardy, 1930 (Diptera: Asilidae) CHARLES L. YOUNG (South Korea) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Various chapters (Disease Carriers, Ant-decapitating flies, Robber Flies, Bee Flies, Antlions) in Insects and Spiders of the World.
  • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Bristles are usually present on the legs, and in the case of many families on the body also; those on the head and thorax are of great importance in classification.^ Male ornaments that appear to be solely directed to females are more widespread, but still are concentrated in the anterior regions of the body, the head, and fore and mid legs.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Female mate choice is sometimes based on this nuptial gift and in certain cases the importance of the gift is so great that a sex-role reversal takes place.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The horizontal axis is divided into sections representing body locations, the head, thorax and abdomen.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Between 40,000 and 50,000 species of Diptera are at present known, but these are only a fraction of those actually in existence.^ Curiously, only American species of the latter genus, and not those from Europe, have tarsal elaborations (Hull 1962).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ New Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Panama, with a key to the known species ALLEN L. NORRBOM (USA) & CHESLAVO A. KORYTKOWSKI (Panama) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A new species of Myoleja Rondani (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Turkey with a key to the known species of the genus H.-Y. HAN (R. Korea) & M. K T T (Turkey) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

The species recognized as British number some 2700, but to this total additions are constantly being made. .As a rule flies are of small or moderate size, and many, such as certain blood-sucking midges of the genus Ceratopogon, are even minute; as extremes of size may be mentioned a common British midge, Ceratopogon varius, the female of which measures only 14 millimetre, and the gigantic Mydaidae of Central and South America as well as certain Australian robber-flies, which have a body 1-11n.^ Taxonoomy and biology of Central American Robber Flies with an illustrated key to genera (Diptera: Asilidae).
  • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of South Korea.
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accepted: 21 May 2007 Robber flies of South Korea IV. Species of the subfamily Stichopogoninae Hardy, 1930 (Diptera: Asilidae) CHARLES L. YOUNG (South Korea) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

long, with a wing-expanse of 3+ in. .In bodily form Diptera present two main types, either, as in the case of the more primitive and generalized families, they are gnator midge-like in shape, with slender bodies and long, delicate legs, or else they exhibit a more or less distinct resemblance to the common house-fly, having compact and stoutly built bodies and legs of moderate length.^ Susceptibility of house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae to entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae)   .

^ Predation by bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus ) on larval Chironomidae (Diptera) in relation to midge standing crop in two central Florida lakes.

^ A study of terminal abdominal structures of male Diptera (Two-winged flies).
  • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

.Diptera in general are not remarkable for brilliancy of coloration; as a rule they are dull and inconspicuous in hue, the prevailing bodytints being browns and greys; occasionally, however, more especially in species (Syrphidae) that mimic Hymenoptera, the body is conspicuously banded with yellow; a few are metallic, such as the species of Formosia, found in the islands of the East Indian Archipelago, which are among the most brilliant of all insects.^ A conspectus of New Zealand flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) with the description of a new genus and species F. CHRISTIAN THOMPSON (USA) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A new species of Hoplacephala Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from Namibia, with a discussion of generic monophyly T. PAPE (Denamrk) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A remarkable new species of Empidideicus (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae) from Madagascar NEAL L. EVENHUIS (USA) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

.The sexes in Diptera are usually alike, though in a number of families with short antennae the males are distinguished by the fact that their eyes meet together (or nearly so) on the forehead.^ E. Genitalia It has been argued that the notorious complexity of some male insect genitalia, including those of certain Diptera, is in fact ornamentation, but ornamentation on a tactile level (Eberhard 1985).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In most cases, these differences result from one sex, usually the male, being adapted to perceive pheromones or acoustic cues.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Metamorphosis in Diptera is complete; the larvae are utterly different from the perfect insects in appearance, and, although varying greatly in outward form, are usually footless grubs; those of the Muscidae are generally known as maggots.^ Finally, I attempt to correlate certain forms of decoration with different types of mating systems in various taxa of flies.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Susceptibility of house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae to entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae)   .

^ Field tests of insect-parasitic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) against larvae of manure-breeding flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on caged-layer poultry facilities   .

The pupa either shows the appendages of the perfect insect, though these are encased in a sheath and adherent to the body, or else it is entirely concealed within the hardened and contracted larval integument, which forms a barrel-shaped protecting capsule or puparium.
Diptera are divided into some sixty families, the exact classification of which has not yet been finally settled. The majority of authors, however, follow Brauer in dividing the order into two sections, Orthorrhapha and Cyclorrhapha, according to the manner in which the pupa-case splits to admit of the escape of the perfect insect. The general characteristics of the pupae in these two sections have already been described.
In the Orthorrhapha, in the pupae of which the appendages of the perfect insect are usually visible, the pupa-case generally splits in a straight line down the back near the cephalic end; in front of this longitudinal cleft there may be a small transverse one, the two together forming a T-shaped fissure. In the Cyclorrhapha on the other hand, in which the actual pupa is concealed within the hardened larval skin, the imago escapes through a circular orifice formed by pushing off or through the head end of the puparium. .The Diptera Orthorrhapha include the more primitive and less specialized families such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), Culicidae (gnats or mosquitoes), Chironomidae (midges), Mycetophilidae (fungus-midges), Tabanidae (horse-flies), Asilidae (robber-flies), &c.^ Evaluation of Agnique MMF in man-made ponds for the control of pestiferous chironomid midges (Chironomidae: Diptera).

^ Nutritional suitability of six algal species for rearing the pestiferous midge, Glyptotendipes paripes (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in the laboratory.

^ Revision of the horse fly genera Lissimas and Cydistomyia (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini) of Australia I.M. MACKERRAS, D.M. SPRATT & D.K. YEATES (Australia) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Diptera Cyclorrhapha on the other hand consist of the most highly specialized families, such as the Syrphidae (hover-flies), Oestridae (bot and warble flies), and Muscidae (sensu latiore - the house-fly and its allies, including tsetse-flies, flesh-flies, Tachininae, or flies the larvae of which are internal parasites of caterpillars, &c.^ A conspectus of New Zealand flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) with the description of a new genus and species F. CHRISTIAN THOMPSON (USA) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A taxonomic review of the Palpada ruficeps species group, with the description of a new flower fly from Colombia (Diptera: Syrphidae) XIMO MENGUAL (Spain) & F. CHRISTIAN THOMPSON (USA) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A new species of crane fly, Pedicia ( Pedicia ) goldsworthyi (Diptera: Pediciidae), from eastern North America M.J. PETERSEN (USA ) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

). .It is customary to divide the Orthorrhapha into the two divisions Nematocera and Brachycera, in the former of which the antennae are elongate and in a more or less primitive condition, as described above, while in the latter these organs are short, and, as already explained, apparently composed of only three joints.^ The top to bottom axis of the table is divided into sections representing the Nematocera, the orthorrhaphous Brachycera and the muscamorph Brachycera.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather there seems to be a concentration of intersexually selected ornaments in the more primitive Brachycera.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These feather like objects are employed in the various displays that make up the only complex courtship described in the Culicidae.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Within the divisions named - Orthorrhapha Nematocera, Orthorrhapha Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha - the constituent families are usually grouped into a series of "superfamilies," distinguished by features of structure or habit.^ On selected family-group names in Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera), and related nomenclature M. SPIES ( Germany ) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

.Certain extremely aberrant Diptera, which, in consequence of the adoption of a parasitic mode of life, have undergone great structural modification, are further remarkable for their peculiar mode of reproduction, on account of which the families composing the group are often termed Pupipara.^ On selected family-group names in Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera), and related nomenclature M. SPIES ( Germany ) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Evolution of extreme sexual dimorphisms: structural and behavioral convergence among broad-headed Drosophilidae (Diptera).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Combat between males of Pogonortalis doclea (Diptera, Platystomatidae) and its relation to structural modification.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In these forms the pregnant female, instead of laying eggs, as Diptera usually do, or even producing a number of minute living larvae, gives birth at one time but to a single larva, which is retained within the oviduct of the mother until adult, and assumes the pupal state immediately on extrusion.^ In: Biosystematic Database of World Diptera, a CD produced and circulated by F.C. Thompson of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States National Museum.
  • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

The Pupipara are also termed Eproboscidea (although they actually possess a well-developed and functional proboscis), and by some dipterists the Eproboscidea are regarded as a suborder .and contrasted as such with the rest of the Diptera, which are styled the suborder Proboscidea. By other writers Proboscidea and Eproboscidea are treated as primary divisions of the Cyclorrhapha. In reality, however, the families designated Eproboscidea (Hippoboscidae, Braulidae, Nycteribiidae and .Streblidae), are not entitled to be considered as constituting either a suborder, or even a main division of the Cyclorrhapha; they are simply Cyclorrhapha much modified owing to parasitism, and in view of the closely similiar mode of reproduction in the tsetseflies the special designation Pupipara should be abandoned. .Before leaving the subject of classification it may be noted in passing that in 1906 Professor Lameere, of Brussels, proposed a :scheme for the classification of Diptera which as regards both the limits of the families and their grouping into higher categories, differs considerably from that in current use.^ On selected family-group names in Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera), and related nomenclature M. SPIES ( Germany ) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A study of the possibilities of limiting the cabbage maggot population - Hylemia brassicae Bouche (Diptera, Anthomyiidae) - by parasitic nematodes of the family Steinernematidae   .

^ Accepted: 19 May 2005 Notes on the genus Homoneura from Guizhou, China (Diptera: Lauxaniidae) C.X. GAO (P.R. China) & D. YANG (P.R. China) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

Little light on the relationship and evolution of the various :families of Diptera is afforded by fossil forms, since as a rule the latter are readily referable to existing families. With the exception of a few species from the Solenhofen lithographic Oolite, fossil Diptera belong to the Tertiary Period, during which the members of this order attained a high degree of development. In amber, as proved by the deposits on the shores of the Baltic, the proverbial "fly" is more numerous than any other creatures, and with very few exceptions representatives of all the existing families have been found. .The famous Tertiary beds :at Florissant, Colorado, have yielded a considerable number ,or remarkably well-preserved Tipulidae (in which family are included the most primitive of existing Diptera), as also species belonging to other families, such as Mycetophilidae and even ,Oestridae. Diptera as an order are probably more widely distributed over the earth's surface than are the representatives of any similar division of the animal kingdom.^ This research also included studies on the impact of different control methodologies, such as the effects of pesticides and other control procedures on planktonic and benthic nontarget invertebrates in these ecosystems.

^ New Diptera of the family Asilidae with notes on known species.
  • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Entomol., XXXIX(3):176 Lavigne, R.J., 1968, Notes on two species of Asilus (Diptera: Asilidae) associated with animal burrows, with a redescription of Asilus gilvipes Hine, J. Kans.
  • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

.Flies seem capable of adapting themselves to extremes of cold equally as well as to those of heat, and species belonging to the order are almost invariably included in the collections brought back by members of Arctic expeditions.^ On the classification of Brazilian Culicidae with special reference to those capable of harboring the yellow fever virus.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

Others are met with in the most isolated localities; thus the Rev. A. E. Eaton discovered on the desolate shores of Kerguelen's 'Island apterous and semi-apterous Diptera (Tipulidae and jEph_ydridae) of a degraded type adapted to the climatic peculiarities of the locality. .Many bird parasites belonging to the Rippoboscidae have naturally been carried about the world by their hosts, while other species, such as the house-fly, blow-fly and drone-fly, have in like manner been disseminated by human agency.^ E. Antennae Many flies, such as mosquitoes and chironomid midges, bear sexually dimorphic antennae (see Sivinski & Petersson 1996).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the ornaments of R. scaurissima might bear a resemblance to the more mundane species carrying a nuptial gift, such as the chironomid Smittia sp.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are a number of other paths that might lead to ornamentation, any one of which could result in a world with only a single species being inhabited by ornamented animals.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

Most families and a large proportion of genera are :represented throughout the world, but in some cases (e.g. Glossina --see Tsetse-Fly) the distribution of a genus is limited to a continent. .As a rule the general facies as well as dimensions are remarkably uniform throughout a family, so that tropical species -often differ little in appearance from those inhabiting temperate regions.^ It has been suggested that when females choose a male trait in lekking species, “modifier genes” to generate variance in that trait might be selected as well (Pomiankowski & Moller 1995).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

Many instances of exaggerated and apparently unnatural structure nevertheless occur, as in the case of the genera Pangonia, Nemestrina, Achias, Diopsis and the family Celyphidae, .and, as might be expected, it is chiefly in tropical species that these peculiarities are found. .To a geographical distribution of the widest extent, Diptera add a range of habits of the most diversified nature; they are both animal and vegetable feeders, an enormous number of species acting, especially in the larval state, as scavengers in consuming putrescent or decomposing matter of both kinds.^ Distribution of Microstylum morosum and M. galactodes (Diptera: Asilidae): significant range extensions.
  • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A state [electronic resource] : wide baseline for the extent and distribution of native vegetation for Western Australia : project report / Client and Natural Resource Information, Department of Agriculture and Food W.A.[Canberra] : National Land and Water Resources Audit, 2007.
  • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ There are a number of other paths that might lead to ornamentation, any one of which could result in a world with only a single species being inhabited by ornamented animals.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The phytophagous species are attached to various parts of plants, dead or alive; and the carnivorous in like manner feed on dead or living flesh, or its products, many larvae being parasitic on living animals of various classes (in Australia the larva of a species of Muscidae is even a parasite of frogs), especially the caterpillars of Lepidoptera, which are destroyed in great numbers by Tachininae. The recent discovery of a bloodsucking maggot, which is found in native huts throughout the greater part of tropical and subtropical Africa, and attacks the inmates when asleep, is of great interest.^ Plant diseases Australia.Plant diseases Prevention.Livestock Diseases Australia Prevention.Communicable diseases in animals Australia.Communicable diseases in animals Prevention.
  • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

.It may confidently be asserted that, of insects which directly or indirectly affect the welfare of man, Diptera form the vast majority, and it is a moot point whether the good effected by many species in the rapid clearing away of animal and vegetable impurities, and in keeping other insect enemies in check, counterbalances the evil and annoyance wrought by a large section of the Order.^ Efficacy of two formulations of the insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen (Nylar or Sumilarv) against nuisance midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in man-made ponds.

The part played by certain blood-sucking Diptera in the dissemination of disease is now well known (see Mosquito and Tsetse-Fly), and under the term myiasis medical literature includes a lengthy recital of instances of the presence of Dipterous larvae in various parts of the living human body, and the injuries caused thereby. .That Diptera of the type of the common house-fly are often in large measure responsible for the spread of such diseases as cholera and enteric fever is undeniable, and as regards blood-sucking forms, in addition to those to which reference has already been made, it is sufficient to mention the vast army of pests constituted by the midges, sand-flies, horseflies, &c., from the attacks of which domestic animals suffer equally with man, in addition to being frequently infested with the larvae of the bot and warble flies (Gastrophilus, Oestrus and Hypoderma). Lastly, as regards the phytophagous forms, there can be no doubt that the destruction of grass-lands by "leatherjackets" (the larvae of crane-flies, or daddy-long-legs, - Tipula oleracea and T. paludosa), of divers fruits by Ceratitis capitata and species of Dacus, and of wheat and other crops by the Hessian-fly (Mayetiola destructor) and species of Oscinis, Chlorops, &c., is of very serious consequence.^ Bromley, S.W., 1935, Notes on Texas Robber Flies with the description of a new species of Proctacanthella (Asilidae: Diptera), Occas.
  • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptions of Danielsia Theobald, a genus recently resurrected from synonymy (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini), and its type species Dn.
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) in the collection of the Natal Museum: A review of C.H. Currans types, new synonyms, and new combinations IGOR YA. GRICHANOV (Russia) & MIKE B. MOSTOVSKI (South Africa) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

With many writers it is customary to treat the fleas as a suborder of Diptera, under the title Aphaniptera or Siphonaptera. .Since, however, although undoubtedly allied to the Diptera, they must have diverged from the ancestral stem at an early period, before the existing forms of Diptera became so extremely specialized, it seems better to regard the fleas as constituting an independent order (see FLEA).^ Corynoptera vagula Tuomikoski and allied species (Diptera: Sciaridae) P. VILKAMAA (Finland) & H. HIPPA (Sweden) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

(E. E. A.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

Greek δίπτερα < δι- + πτερόν, two wings.

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Diptera
  1. a taxonomic order, within superorder Endopterygota — the true flies
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Wikispecies has information on:

See also


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Sarcophaga carnaria

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Cladus: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Cladus: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Antliophora
Ordo: Diptera
Subordines: Nematocera - Brachycera

Name

Diptera

References

  • Amorim, D.S.; Yeates, D. 2006: Pesky gnats: ridding dipteran classification of the Nematocera. .Studia dipterologica, 13: 3-9.
  • Bertone, M.A.; Courtney, G.W.; Wiegmann, B.M. 2008: Phylogenetics and temporal diversification of the earliest true flies (Insecta: Diptera) based on multiple nuclear genes.^ EuscelidiaRevision.pdf] Dikow, T., 2003, Family-group names in the Asilidae (Diptera), Studia dipterologica, 10(2):459-471.
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Studia Dipterologica 13(2): 555-666.
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A literature-based checklist of Kansas robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae).
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Systematic entomology, 33: 668-687.
  • Bickel, D. 2009: Biogeography of Diptera in the southwest Pacific.^ In: Biosystematic Database of World Diptera, a CD produced and circulated by F.C. Thompson of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States National Museum.
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    Pp. 257-275 in: Pape, T.; Bickel, D.; Meier, R. (eds.) 2009: Diptera diversity: status, challenges and tools. Koninklijke Brill NV.
  • Bickel, D. 2009: Why Hilara is not amusing: the problem of open-ended taxa and the limits of taxonomic knowledge. Pp. 279-301 in: Pape, T.; Bickel, D.; Meier, R. (eds.) 2009: Diptera diversity: status, challenges and tools. .Koninklijke Brill NV.
  • Evenhuis, N.L.; Pape, T.; Pont, A.C. 2008: The problems of subsequent typification in genus-group names and use of the Zoological Record: a study of selected post-1930 Diptera genus-group names without type species designations.^ The problems of subsequent typification in genus-group names and use of the Zoological Record : a study of selected post-1930 Diptera genus-group names without type species designations Neal L. Evenhuis (USA) , THOMAS PAPE (Denmark) & ADRIAN C. PONT (UK) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The genus Diogmites in the United States of America with descriptions of new species (Diptera: Asilidae).
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Revision of European species of the Hilara 'quadrivittata' group (Diptera: Empididae).
    • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www4.ncsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Zootaxa, 1912: 1–44. Abstract & excerpt PDF
  • Pape, T.; Bickel, D.; Meier, R. (eds.^ (Diptera: Sciaridae), with a note on its spermatophore HEIKKI HIPPA (Sweden & PEKKA VILKAMAA (Finland) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Natarsia Fittkau (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from China M. CHENG & X.H. WANG (P.R. China) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ AUGUSTO LOUREIRO HENRIQUES & TIAGO KTTER KROLOW (Brazil) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ) 2009: Diptera diversity: status, challenges and tools. .Koninklijke Brill NV.
  • Stary, J. 2008: The wing stalk in Diptera, with some notes on the higher-level phylogeny of the order.^ New records of Namibian Bombyliidae (Diptera), with notes on some genera and descriptions of new species D.J. GREATHEAD (UK) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The morphology, higher-level phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea (Diptera) B.J. SINCLAIR (Germany) & J.M. CUMMING (Canada) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    .European journal of entomology, 105: 27–33.
  • Yeates, D.K.; Bickel, D.; McAlpine, D.K.; Colless, D.H. 2009: Diversity, relationships and biogeography of Australian flies.^ European Journal of Entomology.
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    Pp. 227-256 in: Pape, T.; Bickel, D.; Meier, R. (eds.) 2009: Diptera diversity: status, challenges and tools. .Koninklijke Brill NV.
  • Yeates, D.K.; Wiegmann, B.M.; Courtney, G.W.; Meier, R.; Pape, T. 2007: Phylogeny and systematics of Diptera: two decades of progress and prospects.^ Phylogeny and systematics of Diptera: Two decades of progress and prospects David K. Yeates (Australia), Brian M. Wiegmann (USA), Greg W. Courtney (USA), Rudolf Meier (Singapore) & Thomas Pape (Denmark) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Systematics and phylogeny of Dolichopodinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) S.E. BROOKS ( Canada ) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Yeates, D.K., M.E. Irwin, and B.M. Wiegmann, 2003, Ocoidae, a new family of asiloid flies (Diptera: Brachycera: Asiloidea), based on Ocoa chilensis gen.
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    Pp. 565-590 In: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. PDF

Vernacular names

Български: Двукрили
Česky: Dvoukřídlí
Српски / Srpski: Двокрилци
Dansk: Tovinger
Deutsch: Zweiflügler
Diné bizaad: Tsʼíʼii / Tséʼédǫ́ʼii
Eesti: Kahetiivalised
English: two winged flies, true flies, flies
Esperanto: Dipteroj
فارسی: دوبالان
한국어: 파리목
עברית: זבובאים
Lietuvių: Dvisparniai
Magyar: Kétszárnyúak
Nederlands: Tweevleugeligen
日本語: ハエ目 (双翅目)
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Tovinger
Polski: Muchówki
Português: Dípteros
Русский: Двукрылые
Suomi: Kaksisiipiset
Svenska: Tvåvingade
Türkçe: Çift kanatlilar
Українська: Двокрилі
中文: 雙翅目
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Diptera on Wikimedia Commons.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Fly, which are similar to those in the above article.








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