Direct-controlled municipality: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Direct-controlled municipality
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 直轄市
Simplified Chinese 直辖市
Korean name
Hangul 직할시
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Thành phố trực thuộc Trung ương

Direct-controlled municipality is the highest level classificiation for cities used by Republic of China (Taiwan), People's Republic of China, Korea and Vietnam with status equal to that of the provinces in the respective countries. The People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China, the Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in North Korea, the Republic of Korea in South Korea, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in Vietnam adopt this system with some variations.

South Korea official change the title of Directly-Governed Cities into Metropolitan Cities (Special City for Seoul) in 1991.

Geographically and culturally, many of the municipalities are enclaves in the middle of provinces. Some occur in strategic positions in between provinces.

Contents

China

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History

The first municipalities were the 11 cities of Nanjing, Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Qingdao, Chongqing, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Hankou (now part of Wuhan), Shenyang, and Harbin when the ROC government ruled the China. They were established in 1927 soon after they were designated as "cities" during the 1920s. Nominally Dalian was a municipality as well, although it was under Japanese Occupation. These cities were first called special municipalities/cities (Chinese: 特別市pinyin: tébíeshì)), but were later renamed Yuan-controlled municipalities (simplified Chinese: 院辖市traditional Chinese: 院轄市pinyin: yùanxíashì), then direct-controlled municipalities (simplified Chinese: 直辖市traditional Chinese: 直轄市pinyin: zhíxiáshì) by the Central Government.

After the Chinese Communists took over mainland China in 1949 and established the PRC, Anshan, Benxi, and Fushun were made municipalities as well, while Qingdao, Dalian, and Harbin were reduced to provincial municipalities.[1] Hankou was merged to Wuhan. Hence there remained 12 municipalities in mainland China, until Dalian was elevated in 1950. In November 1952, Nanjing was reduced to a provincial municipality.[2] In July 1953, Harbin was restored to municipality status, along with Changchun.[3] Except Beijing and Tianjin, which were under central control, all other municipalities were governed by the greater administrative areas.

In June 1954, 11 of the 14 municipalities were reduced to provincial municipalities; many of them became capitals of the provinces they were in. Only Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin were left, until Chongqing was restored in 1997 with a much enlarged area. Tianjin was also temporarily reverted to province-controlled status around the 1960s.

Two municipalities in Taiwan were created after the ROC government took control following World War II. Taipei was made a Yuan-controlled municipality in 1967. The same was done for Kaohsiung in 1979. Promotion of Taichung[4] and Tainan[5] from the provincial city to the third and fourth municipality has been proposed and passed in 2009[6]. Since 1994, Yuan-controlled municipalities have been officially called direct-control municipalities to emphasize their autonomy. Besides significant political, economic, and cultural development, the ROC law dictates that a municipality must have population of over 1,250,000.

List of defunct municipalities

Name Chinese (T) Chinese (S) Pinyin Postal map Region Present Annexation
Nanjing 南京 南京 Nánjīng Nanking East Jiangsu
Qingdao 青島 青岛 Qīngdǎo Tsingtao East Shandong
Xi'an 西安 西安 Xī'ān Sian Northwest Shaanxi
Guangzhou 廣州 广州 Guǎngzhōu Kwangchou (Canton) South Central Guangdong
Hankou (Wuhan) 漢口 汉口 Hànkǒu Hankow South Central Hubei
Shenyang 瀋陽 沈阳 Shěnyáng Shenyang (Mukden) Northeast Liaoning
Harbin 哈爾濱 哈尔滨 Hāěrbīn Harbin Northeast Heilongjiang
Dalian 大連 大连 Dàlián Dairen Northeast Liaoning
Anshan 鞍山 鞍山 Ānshān Anshan Northeast Liaoning
Benxi 本溪 本溪 Běnxī) Penhsi Northeast Liaoning
Fushun 撫順 抚顺 Fǔshùn Fushun Northeast Liaoning

People's Republic of China

Administrative divisions
of the People's Republic
of China
This article is part of the
Political divisions of China
series
Province level
Provinces
Autonomous regions
Municipalities
Special Administrative
Regions (SARs)
History of its political divisions
Prefecture level
Prefectures
Autonomous prefectures
Prefecture-level cities
Sub-provincial cities
Leagues
County level
Counties
Autonomous counties
County-level cities
Sub-prefecture-level cities
City districts
Banners
Autonomous banners
Township level
Townships (ethnic)
Sumu (ethnic)
Towns
Subdistricts
County districts
(defunct)
Village level
Villages
Neighborhoods

Position in hierarchy

Municipalities are the highest-ranked cities in the PRC. Some cities of lower levels may also refer to themselves as municipalities in the English language. Wikipedia's translation, however, refers to them using the following conventional terms:

Three levels of cities in the People's Republic of China on Mainland China:

  1. Municipalities
  2. Prefecture-level cities
  3. County-level cities

Administration

In mainland Chinese municipalities, the highest ranking government official is the Mayor. The mayor is also a delegate in the National People's Congress (the legislature).[7] and Deputy Secretary of the CPC Municipal Committee. However, the highest administrative authority in the municipality belongs to the Secretary of the CPC Municipal Committee or Party Secretary.

Current PRC municipalities

Map of direct-controlled municipalities divisions in the People's Republic of China
China municipalities numbered.svg
Direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China[8]
Map # Division name Trad. Simp. Hanyu Pinyin Postal Abbr. ISO[9] Region Population Density (/km²) Area (km²) Divisions
1 Beijing Běijīng Peking jīng CN-11 North 15,810,000 941 16,800 List
2 Tianjin Tiānjīn Tientsin jīn CN-12 North 11,519,000 980 11,305 List
3 Chongqing Chóngqìng Chungking CN-50 Southwest 31,442,300 382 82,300 List
4 Shanghai Shànghǎi Shanghai CN-31 East 18,450,000 2,622 6,341 List

Taiwan

This article is part of
a series on the
Administrative divisions
of the Republic of China
In effect
Provinces
(streamlined)
Municipalities
Counties
Provincial cities
County-controlled cities
Districts
Urban townships
Rural townships
Urban villages
Rural villages
Neighborhoods
Suspended
Regions
(also known as "Areas")
Special administrative
regions (SARs)
Leagues
Special banners
Bureaus
Management bureaus
Banners
Compare
Administrative levels
and divisions of the
People's Republic of China

Position in hierarchy

Municipalities are the highest-ranked cities in Taiwan. Some cities of lower levels may also refer to themselves as municipalities in the English language. Wikipedia's translation, however, refers to them using the following conventional terms:

Three levels of cities in the Republic of China on Taiwan:

  1. Municipalities
  2. Provincial cities
  3. County-controlled cities

Administration

In Taiwanese municipalities, the Mayor is the highest ranking official in charge. The Mayor is directly elected by the people registered in the municipality for a duration of four years. e.g. Mayor of Taipei.

Current ROC municipalities

Direct-controlled municipalities of the Republic of China[8]
Division name Trad. Simp. Hanyu Pinyin Abbr. Seal Population Density (/km²) Area (km²) Divisions
Taipei Táiběi běi Seal of Taipei.svg 2,622,933 9,650.24 271 List
Kaohsiung Gāoxióng Gāo Kaohsiung City seal.svg 1,519,711 9,894.42 154 List

Approved ROC municipalities in 2010

Direct-controlled municipalities of the Republic of China[8]
Division name Trad. Simp. Hanyu Pinyin Abbr. Population Area (km²) Map
Taipei Táiběi běi 2,622,933 271.7997 Taiwan ROC political division map Taipei City.svg
New Taipei Xīnběi xīn 3,849,492 2,052.5667 Taiwan ROC political division map New Taipei City.svg
Taichung Táizhōng zhōng 2,629,323 2,214.8968 Taiwan ROC political division map Taichung City (2010).svg
Tainan[10] Táinán nán 1,873,681 2,191.6531 Taiwan ROC political division map Tainan City (2010).svg
Kaohsiung Gāoxióng Gāo 2,769,072 2,946.2527 Taiwan ROC political division map Kaohsiung City (2010).svg

Proposals for ROC municipalities[11]

Proposals Changes June 2009
Population - Combine
Current Area
(km²) - Combine
Map (before) Map (after)
2-A Hsinchu City + Hsinchu County = Hsinchu City
(新竹市 + 新竹縣 = 新竹市)
915,012 1,531.6864 Taiwan ROC political division map Hsinchu City.svg Taiwan ROC political division map Hsinchu County.svg Taiwan ROC political division map Hsinchu City (propose).svg
2-B Chiayi City + Chiayi County = Chiayi City
(嘉義市 + 嘉義縣 = 嘉義市)
821,721 1,961.6956 Taiwan ROC political division map Chiayi City.svg Taiwan ROC political division map Chiayi County.svg Taiwan ROC political division map Chiayi City (propose).svg
2-C Taipei City + New Taipei City + Keelung City = Taipei City
(臺北市 + 新北市 + 基隆市 = 臺北市)
6,854,715 2,457.1244 Taiwan ROC political division map Taipei City.svg Taiwan ROC political division map Taipei County.svg Taiwan ROC political division map Keelung City.svg Taiwan ROC political division map Taipei City (propose).svg

Korea

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Position in hierarchy

Map of Directly Governed Cities in North Korea

Directly Governed Cities are the highest-ranked cities in North Korea.

Three levels of cities in North Korea:

  1. Directly Governed Cities
  2. Cities

Current North Korean Directly Governed Cities

Directly Governed Cities of North Korea
Note: North Korea uses a variant of the McCune-Reischauer romanization.
Romanization Chosŏn'gŭl Hancha Year of Split Province split from
P'yŏngyang Chikhalsi* 평양 직할시 平壤直轄市 1946 S. P'yŏngan
Rasŏn Chikhalsi (Rajin-Sŏnbong Chikhalsi) 라선 직할시 (라진-선봉 직할시) 羅先直轄市 (羅津-先鋒直轄市) 1993-2004, 2006 North Hamgyŏng

List of defunct Directly Governed Cities of North Korea

Romanization Chosŏn'gŭl Hancha Administered Years Province absorb into
Ch'ŏngjin 청진시 淸津市 1960-1967, 1977-1985 North Hamgyŏng
Hamhŭng 함흥시 咸興市 1960-1967 South Hamgyŏng
Kaesŏng 개성시 開城市 1951-1955 North Hwanghae
Namp'o 남포시 南浦市 1980-2004 South P'yŏng'an

Republic of Korea

Administrative divisions
of South Korea
Provincial level
Provinces
(道 도 do)
Special Self-governing Province
(特別自治道 특별자치도 teukbyeol-jachido)
Special city
(特別市 특별시 teukbyeol-si)
Metropolitan cities
(廣域市 광역시 gwangyeok-si)
Municipal level
Cities
(市 시 si)
Counties
(郡 군 gun)
Wards
(區 구 gu)
Towns
(邑 읍 eup)
Townships
(面 면 myeon)
Neighborhoods
(洞 동 dong)
Villages
(里 리 ri)

Position in hierarchy

Special City and Metropolitan Cities are the highest-ranked cities in South Korea.

Two levels of cities in South Korea:

  1. Special City or Metropolitan Cities
  2. Cities

Administration

In South Korean special city and metropolitan cities, the Mayor is the highest ranking official in charge. The Mayor is directly elected by the people registered in the city for a duration of four years. e.g. Mayor of Seoul.

Current South Korean special city and metropolitan cities

Map of special city and metropolitan cities in South Korea
Special City and Metropolitan Cities of South Korea
Note: South Korea uses the Revised Romanisation of Korean.
Romanization Hangul Hanja Year of Split Province split from
Seoul Teukbyeolsi 서울 특별시 See note below December, 1067 Yangju (then Namgyeong)
Busan Gwangyeoksi 부산 광역시 釜山廣域市 January 1, 1963 S. Gyeongsang
Daegu Gwangyeoksi 대구 광역시 大邱廣域市 July 1, 1981 N. Gyeongsang
Incheon Gwangyeoksi 인천 광역시 仁川廣域市 July 1, 1981 Gyeonggi
Gwangju Gwangyeoksi 광주 광역시 光州廣域市 November 1, 1986 S. Jeolla
Daejeon Gwangyeoksi 대전 광역시 大田廣域市 January 1, 1989 S. Chungcheong
Ulsan Gwangyeoksi 울산 광역시 蔚山廣域市 July 15, 1997 S. Gyeongsang
Notes
  • There is no hanja for "Seoul," but in Chinese, it is written by its Joseon Dynasty name Hanseong (漢城). The new Chinese name, 首爾/首尔, is a transcription based on the pronunciation of "Seoul". As a suffix, the character gyeong (京) is used, which means "capital".
  • Seoul was designated a "Special Free City" (Teukbyeol Jayusi; 특별 자유시; 特別自由市) separate from Gyeonggi Province on August 15, 1946; it became a "Special City" on August 15, 1949.

Proposed/Planned to become a metropolitan city and special autonomous city[12]

Romanization Hangul Hanja Type Year of Split Province split from Map
Suwon-Hwaseong-Osan 수원-화성-오산 시 水原-華城-烏山市 Metropolitan City 2010 Gyeonggi Suwon-Hwaseong-Osan Map.png
Namyangju-Guri 남양주-구리 시 南楊州-九里市 Metropolitan City 2010 Gyeonggi Namyangju-Guri Map.png
(Seongnam-Hanam)-Gwangju (성남-하남)-광주 시 (城南-河南)-廣州市 Metropolitan City 2010 Gyeonggi (Seongnam-Hanam) Gwangju Map.png
Uiwang-Anyang-Gunpo 의왕-안양-군포 시 義王-安養-軍浦市 Metropolitan City 2010 Gyeonggi Uiwang-Anyang-Gunpo Map.png
Cheongju-Cheongwon 청주-청원 시 淸州-淸原市 Metropolitan City 2010 Chungcheongbuk Cheongju-Cheongwon Map.png
Jinju-Sancheong 진주-산청 시 晉州-山淸市 Metropolitan City 2010 Gyeongsangnam Jinju-Sancheong Map.png
Changwon-Masan-Jinhae 창원-마산-진해 시 昌原-馬山-鎭海市 Metropolitan City 2010 Gyeongsangnam Changwon-Masan-Jinhae Map.png
Yeosu-Suncheon-Gwangyang[13] 여수-순천-광양 시 麗水-順天-光陽市 Metropolitan City 2010 Jeollanam Yeosu-Suncheon-Gwangyang Map.png
Mokpo-Muan[14] 목포-무안 시 木浦-務安市 Metropolitan City 2010 Jeollanam Mokpo-Muan Map.png
Jeonju-Wanju[15] 전주-완주 시 全州-完州市 Metropolitan City 2010 Jeollabuk Jeonju-Wanju Map.png
Sejong 세종시 世宗市 Special Autonomous City TBD Chungcheongnam Sejong-si SK.png

Vietnam

Map of Centrally-governed cities in Vietnam

Position in hierarchy

Centrally-governed cities are the highest-ranked cities in Vietnam.

Three levels of cities in Vietnam:

  1. Centrally-governed cities
  2. Provincial cities
  3. Town

Current Vietnamese Centrally-governed cities

Centrally-governed cities
Romanization Region
Hà Nội Hà Nội Kinh-Dong Bang Song Hong
Hồ Chí Minh City Đông Nam Bộ
Cần Thơ Tây Nam Bo – Đồng Bằng Sông Cửu Long
Đà Nẵng Nam Trung Bộ
Hải Phòng Hà Nội Kinh-Dong Bang Song Hong

References


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