Directorate-General for External Security: Wikis

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Directorate-General for External Security
Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure
DGSE 01.png
Partout où la nécessité fait loi
("In every place where necessity makes law")
Agency overview
Formed April 2, 1982
Preceding agency External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service
Jurisdiction Government of France
Headquarters 141 Boulevard Mortier, XXe arrondissement, Paris, France
Minister responsible Hervé Morin, Minister of Defence
Agency executive Erard Corbin de Mangoux, Director
Parent agency Ministry of Defence
Website
www.defense.gouv.fr/dgse

The Directorate-General for External Security (French: Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure, or DGSE) is France's external intelligence agency. Operating under the direction of the French ministry of defence, the agency works alongside the DCRI (the Central Directorate of Interior Intelligence) in providing intelligence and national security, notably by performing paramilitary and counterintelligence operations abroad. As with most other intelligence agencies, details of its operations and organization are not made public.[1]

Contents

History

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Origins

The DGSE can trace its roots back to 1947, when a central external intelligence agency, known as the SDECE, was founded to combine under one head a variety of separate agencies – some, such as the Deuxième Bureau, dating from the time of Napoleon III and some, such as the BCRA, from the Free French of World War II. It remained independent until the mid-1960s, when the SDECE was discovered to have been involved in the kidnapping and presumed murder of Mehdi Ben Barka, a Moroccan revolutionary living in Paris. Following this scandal, the agency was placed under the control of the French ministry of defence. It was restructured in 1981, eventually acquiring its current name (Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure) in April 1982.[1]

In 1992, most of the defence responsibilities of the DGSE, no longer suitable to the post-Cold War context, were transferred to the Military Intelligence Directorate (DRM), a new military agency.[2] Combining the skills and knowledge of five military groups, the DRM was created to close the intelligence gaps of the 1991 Gulf War.[3]

Cold war era rivalries

The SDECE and DGSE have been shaken by numerous scandals. In 1968, for example, Philippe Thyraud de Vosjoli, who had been an important officer in the French intelligence system for 20 years, asserted in published memoirs that the SDECE had been deeply penetrated by the Soviet KGB in the 1950s. He also indicated that there had been periods of intense rivalry between the French and American intelligence systems. In the early 1990s a senior French intelligence officer created another major scandal by revealing that the DGSE had conducted economic intelligence operations against American businessmen in France.[4]

Political controversies

The agency was conventionally run by French military personnel until 1999, when a former diplomat, Jean-Claude Cousseran, was appointed at its head. Cousseran had served as an ambassador to Turkey and Syria, as well as a strategist in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. As the new director, Cousseran reorganized the agency to improve the flow of information,[5] following a series of reforms drafted by Bruno Joubert, the agency's director of strategy at that time.[6]

This came during a period when the French government was upheld thanks to a cohabitation between left and right parties. Cousseran, who was close to the Socialist party, was therefore obliged to appoint Jean-Pierre Pochon, a member of the Gaullist RPR party, as the new head of the Intelligence Directorate. Being conscious of the political nature of the appointment, and wanting to steer around Pochon, Cousseron decided to place one of his friends in a top job alongside Pochon. Alain Chouet, a specialist in terrorism, particularly concerning Algerian and Iranian networks, took over as chief of the Security Intelligence Service. He had been on post in Damascus at a time when Cousseran was France's ambassador to Syria. Chouet began writing reports for Cousseran that by-passed his immediate superior, Pochon.[6]

Politics eventually took precedence over DGSE's intelligence function. Instead of informing the president's staff with reports directly concerning Chirac, Cousseran informed only Socialist prime minister Lionel Jospin just as he was making it clear that he would run against Chirac in the 2002 presidential election. Pochon learned of the maneuvers only in March 2002 and informed president Chirac's circle of the episode. He then had a furious argument with Cousseran and was informally told he wasn't wanted around the agency anymore. Pochon nonetheless remained director of intelligence, though he no longer turned up for work. He remained "ostracized" until the arrival of a new DGSE director, Pierre Brochand, in August 2002.[6]

Organization

Divisions

The DGSE includes the following services:

  • Directorate of Administration
  • Directorate of Strategy
  • Directorate of Intelligence
    • Political intelligence service
    • Security intelligence service[6]
  • Technical Directorate (Responsible for electronic intelligence and devices)
  • Directorate of Operations
    • Action Division (Responsible for clandestine operations)

Action Division

The action division (Division Action) is responsible for planning and performing clandestine operations. It also fulfills other security-related operations such as testing the security of nuclear power plants (as it was revealed in Le Canard Enchaîné in 1990) and military facilities such as the submarine base of the Île Longue, Bretagne. The division's headquarters are located at the fort of Noisy-le-Sec.

Installations

The DGSE headquarters, codenamed CAT (Centre Administratif des Tourelles), are located at 141 Boulevard Mortier in the XXe arrondissement in Paris, approximately 1 km northeast of the Père Lachaise Cemetery. The building is often referred to as La piscine ("the swimming pool") because of the nearby Piscine des Tourelles of the French Swimming Federation.

A project named "Fort 2000" was supposed to allow the DGSE headquarters to be moved to the fort of Noisy-le-Sec, where the Action Division was already stationed. However, the project was often disturbed and interrupted due to lacking funds, which were not granted until the 1994 and 1995 defence budgets. The allowed budget passed from 2 billion francs to one billion, and as the local workers and inhabitants started opposing the project, it was eventually canceled in 1996. The DGSE instead received additional premises located in front of the Piscine des Tourelles.

Size and importance

  • As of 2007 the DGSE employed a total of 4,620 agents. In 1999, the DGSE was known for employing a total of 2,700 civilians and 1,300 Officers or Non Commissioned Officers in its service.
  • It also benefits from an unknown number of voluntary correspondents (spies) both in France and abroad. These do not appear on the government's list of civil servants and are referred to with the title of "honorable correspondant" (honourable correspondent).
  • The DGSE is directly supervised by the Ministry of Defence.

Budget

The DGSE's budget is entirely official (it is voted upon and accepted by the French parliament). It generally consists of about €270M, in addition to which are added special funds from the Prime Minister (often used in order to finance certain operations of the Action Division). How these special funds are spent has always been kept secret.

Some known yearly budgets include:

  • 1991: FRF 0.9bn
  • 1992: FRF 1bn
  • 1997: FRF 1.36bn
  • 1998: FRF 1.29bn
  • 2007: EUR 450 million, plus 36 million in special funds.[7]
  • 2009: EUR 543.8 million, plus 48.9 million in special funds.[8]

According to Claude Silberzahn, one of its former directors, the agency's budget is divided in the following manner:[citation needed]

Directors

  • Pierre Marion (17 June 1981 - 10 November 1982)
  • Adm. Pierre Lacoste (10 November 1982 - 19 September 1985)
  • Gen. René Imbot (20 September 1985 - 1 December 1987)
  • Gen. François Mermet (2 December 1987 - 23 March 1989)
  • Claude Silberzahn (23 March 1989 - 7 June 1993)
  • Jacques Dewatre (7 June 1993 - 19 December 1999)
  • Jean-Claude Cousseran (19 December 1999 - 24 July 2002)
  • Pierre Brochand (24 July 2002 - 10 October 2008)
  • Erard Corbin de Mangoux (10 October 2008 - )

Activities

Range

SIGINT installations in the Domme commune.

Various tasks and roles are generally appointed to the DGSE:

Counter-intelligence on French soil is not conducted by the DGSE but by the Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur (DCRI).

Known operations

1970s

1980s

  • In 1977 and 1980, Libyan soldiers acting as DGSE agents made attempts to depose Libyan leader Colonel Kadhafi.[citation needed]
  • Working with the DST in the early 1980s, the agency exploited the source "Farewell", revealing the most extensive technological spy network uncovered in Europe and the United States to date. This network had allowed the Soviet Union to gather significant amounts of information about important technical advances in the West without the knowledge of Western intelligence agencies.
  • The DGSE exploited a network "Nicobar", which facilitated the sale of forty-three Mirage 2000 fighter jets by French defence companies to India for a total of more than $ 2 billion,[10] and the acquisition of information about the type of the armour used on Soviet T-72 tanks.
  • Operation Satanic, a mission aimed at preventing protests by Greenpeace against French nuclear testing in the Pacific through the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior in Auckland, New Zealand on July 10, 1985. New Zealand Police uncovered the plot and arrested two DGSE agents who pleaded guilty to manslaughter in the murder of a journalist who drowned in the sinking (and arson, for blowing up the ship). French relations with New Zealand were sorely strained and the incident had a major impact on New Zealand's foreign policy.

1990s

  • During the Rwandan Civil War, the DGSE had an active role in passing on disinformation, which resurfaced in various forms in French newspapers. The general trend of this disinformation was to present the renewed fighting in 1993 as something completely new (although a regional conflict had been taking place since 1990) and as a straightforward foreign invasion, the rebel RPF being presented merely as Ugandans under a different guise. The disinformation played its role in preparing the ground for increased French involvement during the final stages of the war.[11]
  • DGSE operatives have recently been credited for infiltrating and exposing the inner workings of Afghan training camps during the 1990s.[12] One of the spies employed by the agency later published a work under the pseudonym "Omar Nasiri", uncovering details of his life inside Al-Qaeda.[13] In a controversial article published by the Center for Research on Globalisation, Wayne Madsen claims to have obtained a leaked DGSE report which states that "the CIA and Britain's MI6 maintained effective control of an important Al-Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan as late as 1995, fully two years after the 1993 World Trade Center bombing."[14]

2000s

Notable agents

Notable DGSE agents
Name(s) Status and known actions
Marc Aubrière An officer who was kidnapped by Islamic militia in Somalia in 2009 and managed to escape.
Guillaume Didier An officer of the Action Division who disappeared in 2003 following the failure of a DGSE operation in Morocco.
Philippe de Dieuleveult A supposed DGSE agent who mysteriously disappeared during an expedition in Zaire in 1985.
Herve Jaubert A former French navy officer and DGSE agent who moved to Dubai in 2004 to build recreational submarines. Following allegations of fraud, his passport was confiscated in 2008. Jaubert escaped on a dinghy to India and resurfaced in Florida in the U.S. where he filed a lawsuit against Dubai World.[22]
Alain Mafart and Dominique Prieur Two DGSE officers who took part to the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior and who were subsequently arrested by New Zealand police.
Xavier Maniguet A former DGSE agent who also took part in the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior.
Pierre Martinet A former DGSE agent, who retired after having his cover blown while watching Islamist militants in London.[23] Martinet later wrote a book uncovering details of how the DGSE planned its assassination of political targets. He was subsequently sentenced to six months in prison for divulging defence secrets.
Bernard Nut A French army officer and DGSE agent responsible for actions conducted in the Côte d'Azur and Middle East regions, and whose assassination in 1985 made headlines in French media.
Philippe Rondot A retired French army general and former councilor in charge of coordinating foreign intelligence for the French ministry of defence.
Gérard Royal A former DGSE agent accused of being a Rainbow Warrior bomber and brother of French presidential candidate Ségolène Royal.[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b DGSE. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 05, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160588/DGSE
  2. ^ Polisar, Pati. (2003). Inside France's Dgse: The General Directorate for External Security. The Rosen Publishing Group, p.18
  3. ^ Polisar, Pati. (2003). Inside France's Dgse: The General Directorate for External Security. The Rosen Publishing Group, p.19
  4. ^ "Intelligence (international relations)". (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 09, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289760/intelligence
  5. ^ Polisar, Pati. (2003). Inside France's Dgse: The General Directorate for External Security. The Rosen Publishing Group, p.17
  6. ^ a b c d Intelligence Online (2002). N° 439 (October 24). Online Summary
  7. ^ "The activities and challenges of the service" (French) French ministry of defence. October 2006. (Retrieved October 5, 2009)
  8. ^ "Projet de loi de finances pour 2009 : Défense - Environnement et soutien de la politique de défense" (French) French Senate report (Retrieved October 17, 2009)
  9. ^ Schweizer, Peter. (1996). "The Growth of Economic Espionage: America Is Target Number One", Foreign Affairs, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb.) p. 14
  10. ^ Schweizer, Peter. (1996). "The Growth of Economic Espionage: America Is Target Number One", Foreign Affairs, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb.) p. 12
  11. ^ Prunier, Gérard. (1995). The Rwanda crisis: history of a genocide. Columbia University Press, p. 176 Google Print
  12. ^ BBC News, Spy lifts lid on al-Qaeda (November 16, 2006)
  13. ^ Nasiri, Omar. (2008). Inside the Jihad: My Life with Al Qaeda. Basic Books, 355 pp. Google Print
  14. ^ Global Research (2006). Classified French DGSE intelligence report: Al Qaeda Training Camp passed from Control of CIA to Bin Laden in 1995, May 27. (Retrieved October 7, 2009)
  15. ^ BBC News, Two jailed over Tunisia bombing (February 5, 2009)
  16. ^ BBC News, French failed hostage rescue sparks row (July 25, 2003)
  17. ^ BBC News, Hostage coup boosts French pride. (December 23, 2004)
  18. ^ BBC News, Freed journalist back in France (June 12, 2005)
  19. ^ Le Devoir, Ben Laden ni mort ni malade? (French article) (Published September 25, 2006)
  20. ^ Le Devoir, Mais où est donc Ben Laden? (French article) (Published September 28, 2006)
  21. ^ Sky News, Terror Names Linked To Doomed Flight AF 447 (June 10, 2009)
  22. ^ "French 007 tells of great escape from Dubai wearing a wetsuit under a burka", The Daily Mail. 24-08-2009. (Retrieved 17-10-2009)
  23. ^ BBC News, Busybodies blow French spy cover (April 27, 2005)
  24. ^ BBC News, New Zealand rules out new Greenpeace probe (October 2, 2006)

External links

Coordinates: 48°52′28″N 2°24′25″E / 48.8744°N 2.407°E / 48.8744; 2.407


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