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A Directorial Republic is a country ruled by a College of several men which jointly exercize the powers of Head of State. This system of government is in contrast both with presidential republics and parliamentary republics. In political history, the term Directory, in French Directoire, applies to high collegial institutions of state composed of members styled director. The most important of these by far was the French Directory. However, France also imposed this form of government on conquered regions of Europe.

Nowadays, the sole country using this form of government is Switzerland, where directories rule all levels of administration, federal, cantonal and municipal. If the Swiss Federal Council is appointed by the Parliament for 4 years (but it can't be dismissed), direct popular elections are used at local level. In past, Uruguay and Yugoslavia (after Tito's death) were ruled by directories.

Contents

Italian Directories

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In Genoa

17 January 1798 - Jul 1799 Executive Directory

  • Luigi Emanuele Corvetto (b. 1756 - d. 1821) (to Jan 1799)
  • Pietro Ferreri (b. 1758 - d. 18..) (from Jan 1799)
  • Giorgio Ambrogio Molfino
  • Agostino Maglione (b. 1744 - d. 18..)
  • Niccolò Littardi (b. 1748 - d. 18..)
  • Paolo Costa

Jul 1799 - Oct 1799 Executive Directory

  • Pietro Ferreri (2nd time)
  • Luigi Lupi (1st time)
  • Giovanni Battista Rossi
  • Francesco Masuccone
  • Paolo Costa

Oct 1799 - 7 December 1799 Executive Directory

  • Pietro Ferreri (3rd time)
  • Luigi Lupi (2nd time)
  • Francesco Montaldo
  • Domenico Assereto
  • Giuseppe Morchio

In Lombardy

29 June 1797 - 31 August 1798 First Directory

  • Duca Giovanni Galeazzo Serbelloni (to 13 November 1797) (b.1744 - d. 1802)
  • Giovanni Battista Savoldi (from 13 November 1797)
  • Marco Alessandri (1st time) (b.1755 - d.1830)
  • Pietro Moscati (to 16 April 1798) (b.1739 - d.1824)
  • Jacopo Lamberti (1st time) (from 16 April 1798)
  • Giovanni Paradisi (b.1760 - d. 1826) (to 16 April 1798)
  • Carlo Testi (from 16 April 1798)
  • Giovanni Costabili Containi (b.1756 - d.1841)

31 August 1798 - 14 December 1798 Second Directory

  • Girolamo Adelasio (1st time) (to 17 October 1798)
  • Antonio Sabbati (from 17 October 1798)
  • Marco Alessandri (2nd time)
  • Jacopo Lamberti (2nd time)
  • Giuseppe Luosi (1st time) (b. 1755 - d. 1830) (to 17 October 1798)
  • Antonio Smancini (from 17 October 1798)
  • Fedele Sopransi (1st time) (to 17 October 1798)
  • Vincenzo Brunetti (from 17 October 1798)

14 December 1798 - 29 April 1799 Third Directory

  • Girolamo Adelasio (2nd time)
  • Marco Alessandri (3rd time) (to Mar 1799)
  • Ferdinando Marescalchi (b. 1764 - d. 1816) (from Mar 1799)
  • Jacopo Lamberti (3rd time) (to Mar 1799)
  • Fedele Vertemate Franchi (from Mar 1799)
  • Giuseppe Luosi (2nd time)
  • Fedele Sopransi (2nd time)

In Lucca

4 February 1799 - 17 July 1799 Executive Directory

Initial members:

  • Giorgio Martinelli
  • Giovanni Domenico Merli
  • Giovanni Sebastiano Gusti
  • Jacopo Pellegrini
  • Jacopo Antonio Franchi

Four of the above replaced at different times by:

  • Domenico Bertagna
  • Pietro Martelli Leonardi
  • Giuseppe Duccini
  • Francesco Belluomini

References


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