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Discus Alkamenes
Discus in the Louvre
Statue of discus thrower in Botanic Garden, Copenhagen, Denmark
En-us-discus.ogg
Discus throw
Rutger Smith discus throw
The Death of Hyacinthos
Rudolf Bauer in 1900
Albert Meyer 3 Olympia 1896
Gerd Kanter Lastatt in Osaka

The discus throw is an event in track and field competition, in which an athlete throws a heavy disc — called a discus — in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as evidenced by the 5th century BC Myron statue, Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient pentathlon, which can be dated at least back to 708 BC.[1]

The discus throw is a routine part of most modern track and field meets at all levels and is a sport which is particularly iconic of the Olympic Games. The men's competition has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first Olympiad in 1896. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games[2] and the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics.[3]

The women's competition was added to the Olympic program in the 1928 games, although they had been competing at some national and regional levels previously.

Description

The discus, the object to be thrown, is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of 2 kilograms (4 lb 7 oz) and diameter of 220 mm (8.66 inches) for the men's event, and a weight of 1 kg (2 lb 3 oz) and diameter of 181 mm (7.17 inches) for the women's event. In U.S. high school track and field, boys typically throw a discus weighing 1.616 kg (3 lb 9 oz) and the girls throw the 1 kg (2.2 lb) women's discus. The discus can be thrown starting at age 11 (midget division). Most children throw the 1 kg discus. The discus usually has sides made of rubber, plastic, wood, or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, and thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. A practice discus made of solid rubber is often used in High School; it is cheaper, more durable, and easier to learn to throw (due to its more equal distribution of weight, as opposed to the heavy rim weight of the metal rim/core discus).

To make a throw, the competitor starts in a slightly recessed concrete-surfaced circle of 2.5 metres (8 feet 2½ inches) diameter. The thrower typically takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw. He then spins counter-clockwise (for right-handers) around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum, then releases his throw. The discus must land within a 35-degree arc marked by lines on the landing zone, and the competitor must not exit the circle until the discus has landed, then must wait for the judge to give clearance to exit the ring from the rear half. The distance from the front edge of the circle to where the discus has landed is measured, and distances are rounded down to the nearest centimetre or half-inch. The competitor's best throw from the allocated number of throws, typically three to six, is recorded, and the competitor who legally throws the discus the farthest is declared the winner. Ties are broken by determining which thrower has the longer second-best throw.

The basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the index finger or the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins clockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, and counter-clockwise for a lefty. As well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is also determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Generally, throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. Also, a faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability. The technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are thirty years old or more.

Breaking Down the Throw

There are six keys movements of the discus throw: wind up, move in rhythm, balance, right leg engine, orbit, and delivery. The wind up is one of the most important aspects of the throw because it sets the tone for the entire throw. The wind up is both mental and technical. It is mental because the wind up sets you up for the rest of the throw. The following are the technical aspects: flat right foot, on the ball of your left foot, keep your weight evenly distributed between your feet, and do not over do it (being overly active can result in the waste of energy). Although the wind up sets the tone for the entire throw, the rhythm of the throw is the most important aspect. It is necessary to move in rhythm through out the entire throw. The best throwers contain the same amount of time in each phase while completing a great throw. Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance. This is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle.[citation needed]

Top Ten Performers

Accurate as of September 9, 2009[4].

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Men

MARK ATHLETE VENUE DATE
74.08 m (243 ft 0 in)  Jürgen Schult (GDR) Neubrandenburg June 6, 1986
73.88 m (242 ft 4 in)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) Kaunas August 3, 2000
73.38 m (240 ft 9 in)  Gerd Kanter (EST) Helsingborg September 4, 2006
71.70 m (235 ft 2 in)  Róbert Fazekas (HUN) Szombathely July 14, 2002
71.50 m (234 ft 7 in)  Lars Riedel (GER) Wiesbaden May 3, 1997
71.32 m (233 ft 11 in)  Ben Plucknett (USA) Eugene June 4, 1983
71.26 m (233 ft 9 in)  John Powell (USA) San Jose June 9, 1984
71.26 m (233 ft 9 in)  Rickard Bruch (SWE) Malmö November 15, 1984
71.26 m (233 ft 9 in)  Imrich Bugár (TCH) San Jose May 25, 1985

Women

MARK ATHLETE VENUE DATE
76.80 m (251 ft 11 in)  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) Neubrandenburg July 9, 1988
74.56 m (244 ft 7 in)  Zdenka Šilhavá (TCH) Nitra August 26, 1984
74.56 m (244 ft 7 in)  Ilke Wyludda (GDR) Neubrandenburg July 23, 1989
74.08 m (243 ft 0 in)  Diana Sachse-Gansky (GDR) Karl-Marx-Stadt June 20, 1987
73.84 m (242 ft 3 in)  Daniela Costian (ROU) Bucharest April 30, 1988
73.36 m (240 ft 8 in)  Irina Meszynski (GDR) Prague August 17, 1984
73.28 m (240 ft 5 in)  Galina Savinkova (URS) Donetsk September 8, 1984
73.23 m (240 ft 3 in)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL) Kazanlak April 19, 1987
73.10 m (239 ft 10 in)  Gisela Beyer (GDR) Berlin July 20, 1984
72.92 m (239 ft 2 in)  Martina Hellmann (GDR) Potsdam August 20, 1987

World Record Progress

Men

MARK ATHLETE VENUE DATE
47.58 m (156 ft 1 in)  James Duncan (USA) New York 1912-05-27
47.61 m (156 ft 2 in)  Thomas Lieb (USA) Chicago 1924-09-14
47.89 m (157 ft 1 in)  Garth Allen (USA) San Francisco 1925-05-02
48.20 m (158 ft 1 in)  Bud Houser (USA) Palo Alto, California 1926-04-02
49.90 m (163 ft 8 in)  Dan Gergen (USA) Palo Alto, California 1929-03-09
51.03 m (167 ft 5 in)  Eric Krenz (USA) Palo Alto, California 1930-05-17
51.73 m (169 ft 8 in)  Paul Jessup (USA) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1930-08-23
52.42 m (171 ft 11 in)  Harald Andersson (SWE) Oslo 1934-08-25
53.10 m (174 ft 2 in)  Willi Schröder (GER) Magdeburg, Germany 1935-04-28
53.26 m (174 ft 8 in)  Archibald Harris (USA) Palo Alto, California 1941-06-20
53.34 m (175 ft 0 in)  Adolfo Consolini (ITA) Milan 1941-10-26
54.23 m (177 ft 11 in)  Adolfo Consolini (ITA) Milan 1946-04-14
54.93 m (180 ft 2 in)  Robert Fitch (USA) Minneapolis, Minnesota 1946-06-08
55.33 m (181 ft 6 in)  Adolfo Consolini (ITA) Milan 1948-10-10
56.46 m (185 ft 2 in)  Fortune Gordien (USA) Lisbon 1949-07-09
56.97 m (186 ft 10 in)  Fortune Gordien (USA) Hämeenlinna, Finland 1949-08-14
57.93 m (190 ft 0 in)  Sim Iness (USA) Lincoln, Nebraska 1953-06-20
58.10 m (190 ft 7 in)  Fortune Gordien (USA) Pasadena, California 1953-07-11
59.28 m (194 ft 5 in)  Fortune Gordien (USA) Pasadena, California 1953-08-22
59.91 m (196 ft 6 in)  Edmund Piątkowski (POL) Warsaw 1959-06-14
59.91 m (196 ft 6 in)  Rink Babka (USA) Walnut, California 1960-08-12
60.56 m (198 ft 8 in)  Jay Silvester (USA) Frankfurt 1961-08-11
60.72 m (199 ft 2 in)  Jay Silvester (USA) Brussels 1961-08-20
61.10 m (200 ft 5 in)  Al Oerter (USA) Los Angeles 1962-05-18
61.64 m (202 ft 2 in)  Vladimir Trusenyev (URS) Leningrad, USSR 1962-06-04
62.45 m (204 ft 10 in)  Al Oerter (USA) Chicago 1962-07-01
62.62 m (205 ft 5 in)  Al Oerter (USA) Walnut, California 1963-04-27
62.94 m (206 ft 6 in)  Al Oerter (USA) Walnut, California 1964-04-25
64.55 m (211 ft 9 in)  Ludvík Daněk (TCH) Turnov, Czechoslovakia 1964-08-02
65.22 m (213 ft 11 in)  Ludvík Daněk (TCH) Sokolov, Czechoslovakia 1965-10-12
66.54 m (218 ft 3 in)  Jay Silvester (USA) Modesto, California 1968-05-25
68.40 m (224 ft 4 in)  Jay Silvester (USA) Reno, Nevada 1968-09-18
68.40 m (224 ft 4 in)  Ricky Bruch (SWE) Stockholm 1972-07-05
68.48 m (224 ft 8 in)  John van Reenen (RSA) Stellenbosch, South Africa 1975-03-14
69.08 m (226 ft 7 in)  John Powell (USA) Long Beach, California 1975-05-03
69.18 m (226 ft 11 in)  Mac Wilkins (USA) Walnut, California 1976-04-24
69.80 m (229 ft 0 in)  Mac Wilkins (USA) San Jose, California 1976-05-01
70.24 m (230 ft 5 in)  Mac Wilkins (USA) San Jose, California 1976-05-01
70.86 m (232 ft 5 in)  Mac Wilkins (USA) San Jose, California 1976-05-01
71.16 m (233 ft 5 in)  Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR) Berlin 1978-08-09
71.86 m (235 ft 9 in)  Yuriy Dumchev (URS) Moscow 1983-05-29
74.08 m (243 ft 0 in)  Jürgen Schult (GDR) Neubrandenburg, GDR 1986-06-06

Women

27.70 m (90 ft 10 in)  Lucie Petit (FRA) Paris 1924-07-14
28.325 m (92 ft 11 in)  Lucie Petit (FRA) Brussels 1924-07-21
30.225 m (99 ft 2 in)  Lucienne Velu (FRA) Paris 1924-09-14
31.15 m (102 ft 2 in)  Maria Vidlaková (TCH) Prague 1925-10-11
34.15 m (112 ft 0 in)  Halina Konopacka (POL) Warsaw 1926-05-23
38.34 m (125 ft 9 in)  Milly Reuter (GER) Braunschweig 1926-08-22
39.18 m (128 ft 6 in)  Halina Konopacka (POL) Warsaw 1927-09-04
39.62 m (129 ft 11 in)  Halina Konopacka (POL) Amsterdam 1928-07-31
40.345 m (132 ft 4 in)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL) Pabianice 1932-05-15
40.84 m (133 ft 11 in)  Grete Heublein (GER) Hagen 1932-06-19
42.43 m (139 ft 2 in)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL) Lodz 1932-06-19
43.08 m (141 ft 4 in)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL) Królewska Huta 1933-07-15
43.795 m (143 ft 8 in)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL) London 1934-08-11
44.34 m (145 ft 5 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Ulm 1935-06-02
44.51 m (146 ft 0 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Nuremberg 1935-06-04
44.76 m (146 ft 10 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Nuremberg 1935-06-04
44.77 m (146 ft 10 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Munich 1935-06-23
45.53 m (149 ft 4 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Munich 1935-06-23
45.97 m (150 ft 9 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Jena 1935-06-29
46.10 m (151 ft 3 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Jena 1935-06-29
47.12 m (154 ft 7 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Dresden 1935-08-25
47.99 m (157 ft 5 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Munich 1936-06-14
48.31 m (158 ft 6 in)  Gisela Mauermayer (GER) Dresden 1936-07-11
53.25 m (174 ft 8 in)  Nina Dumbadze (URS) Moscow 1948-08-08
53.37 m (175 ft 1 in)  Nina Dumbadze (URS) Gori 1951-05-27
53.61 m (175 ft 10 in)  Nina Romashkova (URS) Odessa 1952-08-09
57.04 m (187 ft 1 in)  Nina Dumbadze (URS) Tblisi 1952-10-18
57.15 m (187 ft 6 in)  Tamara Press (URS) Rome 1960-09-12
57.43 m (188 ft 5 in)  Tamara Press (URS) Moscow 1961-07-15
58.06 m (190 ft 5 in)  Tamara Press (URS) Sofia 1961-09-01
58.98 m (193 ft 6 in)  Tamara Press (URS) London 1961-09-20
59.29 m (194 ft 6 in)  Tamara Press (URS) Moscow 1963-05-19
59.70 m (195 ft 10 in)  Tamara Press (URS) Moscow 1965-08-11
61.26 m (200 ft 11 in)  Liesel Westermann (FRG) São Paulo 1967-11-05
61.64 m (202 ft 2 in)  Christine Spielberg (GDR) Regis-Breitingen 1968-05-26
62.54 m (205 ft 2 in)  Liesel Westermann (FRG) Werdohl 1968-08-24
62.70 m (205 ft 8 in)  Liesel Westermann (FRG) Berlin 1969-06-18
63.96 m (209 ft 10 in)  Liesel Westermann (FRG) Hamburg 1969-09-27
64.22 m (210 ft 8 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Helsinki 1971-08-12
64.88 m (212 ft 10 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Munich 1971-09-04
65.42 m (214 ft 7 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Moscow 1972-05-31
65.48 m (214 ft 10 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Augsburg 1972-06-24
66.76 m (219 ft 0 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Moscow 1972-08-04
67.32 m (220 ft 10 in)  Argentina Menis (ROU) Bucharest 1972-09-23
67.44 m (221 ft 3 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Riga 1973-05-25
67.58 m (221 ft 8 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Moscow 1973-07-11
69.48 m (227 ft 11 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Edinburgh 1973-09-07
69.90 m (229 ft 4 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Prague 1974-05-27
70.20 m (230 ft 3 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Zurich 1975-08-20
70.50 m (231 ft 3 in)  Faina Melnyk (URS) Sochi 1976-04-24
70.72 m (232 ft 0 in)  Evelin Jahl (GDR) Dresden 1978-08-12
71.50 m (234 ft 7 in)  Evelin Jahl (GDR) Potsdam 1980-05-10
71.80 m (235 ft 6 in)  Maria Petkova (BUL) Sofia 1980-07-15
73.26 m (240 ft 4 in)  Galina Savinkova (URS) Lessilidse 1983-05-23
73.36 m (240 ft 8 in)  Irina Meszynski (GDR) Prague 1984-08-17
74.56 m (244 ft 7 in)  Zdenka Šilhavá (CSK) Nitra 1984-08-26
76.80 m (251 ft 11 in)  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) Neubrandenburg 1988-07-09

See also

External links

References


Simple English

in Botanic Garden, Copenhagen, Denmark]]

The discus throw is an event in athletics, where a heavy disc is thrown for distance. It was invented in 708 BC in Ancient Greece.[1] The goal is to throw the discus farther than your opponents.

References


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