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Dissociatives are a class of psychoactive drugs which are said to reduce or block signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain.[1] Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances.[2] Some which are nonselective in action and affect the dopamine [3] and/or opioid[4] systems may be capable of inducing euphoria. Many dissociatives have general depressant effects and can produce sedation, respiratory depression, analgesia, anesthesia, and ataxia, as well as cognitive and memory impairment and amnesia.

Contents

Classes of Dissociatives

NMDA Receptor Antagonists

κ-Opioid Receptor Agonists

GABAA Receptor Agonists

Sigma σ12 Receptor Agonists

Effects

These four groups of dissociatives have slightly different effects but also share similarities separating them from other classes of hallucinogens. They are markedly different from psychedelics such as LSD [9] and magic mushrooms [10], where alert and fully conscious users experience cognitive distortion while simultaneously interacting with the "real world". In contrast dissociatives are marked by more internal effects such as closed eye visuals and detachment from the surrounding environment. Nitrous oxide has very different effects however, and even at low doses includes auditory distortions. Unlike with many other psychedelic chemicals, salvia divinorum [11] users are generally not ambulatory and the experience is frequently dissociative. Often a very brief trance is entered, where the user experiences an intense and very realistic dream state. On the other hand, the effect of salvia on emotion has been reported to be less marked than that of true psychedelics.

See also

References

  1. ^ CA Tamminga, K Tuniomoto, TN Chase et al. PCP induced alterations in cerebral glucose utilization. Synapse. 1:497-504, 1987.
  2. ^ S Snyder. Phencyclidine Nature.285:355-359, 1980.
  3. ^ AJ Giannini, MD Eighan, MC Giannini, RH Loiselle. Comparison of haloperidol and chlorprmazine in the treatment of phencyclidine psychosis: Role of the DA-2b receptor. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 61:401-405, 1984. PMID 6725621
  4. ^ AJ Giannini, RH Loiselle, WA Price et al. Comparison of chlorpromazine and meperidine in the treatment of phencyclidine psychosis. Jourbal of Clinical Psychiatry. 46(4):52-55,1985.
  5. ^ AJ Giannini,N Underwood,M Condon, Acute ketamine intoxication treated by haloperidol. American Journal of Therapeutics. 7:389-392,2000. PMID 11304647
  6. ^ AJ Giannini, MC Giannini, WA Price. Antidotal strategies in phencyclidine intoxication. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 4(4):513-517,1984.
  7. ^ . AJ Giannini, WA Price, RH Loiselle, DM Malone. Treatment of PHP (phenylcyclohexylpyrrolidine)psychosis with haloperidol. Clinical Toxicology. 23:185-189, 1985.
  8. ^ RE Tarter, RT Ammerman, PJ Ott. Handbook of Sustance Abuse: Neurobaehavioral Pharmacology.NY, Plenum Press, 1998. Pg.265. ISBN 0-306-45884-5
  9. ^ S. Cohen. Lysergic acid diethylamide: side effects and complications. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases. 130:30-40,1960.
  10. ^ JE Beck, DV Gordon. Psilocybin mushrooms. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Newsletter. 4:1-4, 1982.
  11. ^ JL Valdes. Salvia divinorum and the unique diterpine hallucionogen, Salvinorum (Divinorum) A. Journal of psychoactive Drugs. 26(3):277-283, 1984.







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