Dixie: Wikis

  
  

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The states in dark red are almost always included in modern day definitions of the Southern United States, while those in medium red are usually included. Those cross-shaded are sometimes included due to their historic connections to the South.[1][2][3]

Dixie is a nickname for the Southern United States.

Contents

Origin of Dixie

Ten Dollar Note from Banque des citoyens de la Louisiane, 1860

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the origins of this nickname remain obscure. According to A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles (1951), by Mitford M. Mathews, three theories most commonly attempt to explain the term:

  1. The word "'Dixie'" refers to privately issued currency from banks in Louisiana.[4] These banks issued ten-dollar notes,[5] labeled "Dix", French for "ten", on the reverse side. These notes are now highly sought-after for their numismatic value. The notes were known as "Dixies" by English-speaking southerners, and the area around New Orleans and the French-speaking parts of Louisiana came to be known as "Dixieland". Eventually, usage of the term broadened to refer to most of the Southern States.
  2. The word preserves the name of a "Mr. Dixy", a kind slave owner on Manhattan Island, where slavery was legal until 1827. His rule was so kindly that "Dixy's Land" became famed far and wide as an elysium abounding in material comforts.[6]
  3. "Dixie" derives from Jeremiah Dixon of the Mason-Dixon line which defined the border between Maryland and Pennsylvania, and, for the most part, free and slave states (a small portion of Delaware, a Union border state, and slave state up to the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, lay north of the boundary.)

The states of Dixie include West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Kentucky.

Dixie as a region

Bayou Navigation in Dixie, engraving of a Louisiana Steamboat, 1863.

As a definite geographic location within the United States, "Dixie" is usually defined as the 11 Southern states that seceded to form the Confederate States of America. They are (in order of secession): South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee. This definition is strongly correlated with history and, in the minds of many Southerners, remains the traditional South.

An ethno-telephonic map of dixie using a modernization of Dr. Reed's methodologies.

In other ways however, the "location" and boundaries of Dixie have become, over time, more limited, vernacular, and/or mercurial. In popular mindset today, it is most often associated with those parts of the Southern United States where traditions and legacies of the Antebellum South live most strongly.

In this particular contemporary realm, there are no hard and fast lines. Roughly, however, it might be an area which begins in the Eastern Shore of Maryland (and the southern parts of West Virginia), then extends south into Central Florida. On the northern boundary it sweeps west to take in Tennessee and southern parts of Kentucky, then continues through Arkansas, possibly taking in a small part of southern Missouri and also Oklahoma. On the southern end it would run through the Gulf states until the northern and southern boundary lines connect to include East Texas.

Many businesses in the South contain "Dixie" in their name as an identifier, e.g. "Dixie Produce". One of the more famous is supermarket chain Winn-Dixie. Related to this fact, renowned cultural sociologist and "Southernologist" Dr. John Shelton Reed has attempted to "locate" Dixie by a criterion measuring the ratio of business listings containing the term as compared to those utilizing "American". First published in a 1976 article in Social Forces, this particular study was later updated in 1988. In contrasting the two, the delineating lines measuring over 6% of Dixie to American remained fairly constant in covering the Old Confederate States, with the exception being in Texas where, in both surveys, it was fairly well limited to eastern parts of the state.

Noted anomalies were the inclusion, and later even slight extension, into parts of the lower Midwest, particularly southern Indiana and southwestern Ohio. Neither of these areas can be properly considered a part of the South, so one explanation could be the extent of the so-called "Dixie Highway" into those particular locales and business names reflecting such. The red areas in Utah are explained by the locals' choice of the nickname Dixie for the low-lying and thus very warm areas in the southwestern part of the state.

In using a yardstick of 15%, all but a tiny slice of northeast Texas drops out of the picture. Also losing considerable ground were Virginia and most of Florida save the panhandle. Notable losses also occurred in North Carolina and Kentucky. Most remarkable of all however, was, as Reed stated, the fact that Dixie "dissolves as a coherent region" when the even more demanding standard of 25% was applied. In 1988 as compared to 1976, with the exception of small and isolated parts of adjoining states, only in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina were large areas still recorded on the data map.

Songs

I Wish I Was in Dixie

Main article: "Dixie (song)"
"I Wish I Was in Dixie's Land" sheet music

"I Wish I Was in Dixie" is a popular song about the South. It was allegedly written by composer Daniel Emmett, a Northerner from Ohio, and published in 1859. Emmet's claims of the origin of the song were many and varied. According to one such version, Emmett was taught the song by the Snowden family of African American musicians, then freemen of color, with the lyrics coming from a letter written longingly of life in the south by Evelyn Snowden to her father. Emmett's blackface minstrel-show troupe debuted the song that same year in New York City when they needed a song to lengthen their presentation and it became an immediate hit. As with other minstrel show numbers, the song was performed in blackface and in exaggerated Black English vernacular. The song proved extremely popular and became widely known simply as "Dixie". The song has also been published as "Dixie's Land".

The song became the unofficial anthem of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. The tune's minstrel-show origins have created a strong association of "Dixie" with the Old South, despite the fact that it was written in the North. As a result, some today may perceive the song as offensive and racist while many see it as a legitimate part of Southern heritage. Abraham Lincoln, upon hearing of the Confederate surrender at Appomattox, asked the military band to play Dixie.[7][8]

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

Other songs that mention Dixie

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Wilson, Charles & William Ferris Encyclopedia of Southern Culture ISBN 9780807818237; Univ. of Pennsylvania Telsur Project Telsur Map of Southern Dialect
  2. ^ Vance, Rupert Bayless, Regionalism and the South, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1982, pg. 166 "West Virginia is found to have its closest attachment to the Southeast on the basis of agriculture and population."
  3. ^ David Williamson (June 2, 1999). "UNC-CH surveys reveal where the ‘real’ South lies". http://www.unc.edu/news/archives/jun99/reed16.htm. Retrieved 22 Feb 2007. 
  4. ^ http://louisdl.louislibraries.org/u?/LWP,1382
  5. ^ http://louisdl.louislibraries.org/u?/GFM,1005
  6. ^ 1865 citation
  7. ^ Herbert, David, Lincoln, pp. 580 (Simon and Schuster, 1996)
  8. ^ "Lincoln Called For Dixie, from NY Times archives,7 February 1909". http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9505E2D91738E033A25754C0A9649C946897D6CF. 

Bibliography

  • John Shelton Reed (with J. Kohl and C. Hanchette) (1990). The Shrinking South and the Dissolution of Dixie. Social Forces. pp. 69 (September 1990): 221–233. 
  • Sacks, Howard L. and Judith Rose. Way Up North In Dixie. (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993)

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents

Dixie is a region in the state of Utah, encompassing the counties of Iron and Washington.

  • Cedar City — a small city, home to Southern Utah University and near the northwestern section of Zion National Park, as well as Cedar Breaks National Monument
  • Hurricane — a rapidly growing town along the road to Zion
  • Springdale — a nice, albeit overpriced, resort town on Zion's western border
  • St. George — the first sign of civilization you will see, coming from Nevada, which boasts a huge Mormon temple and countless outdoor activity opportunities in the surrounding areas
  • Cedar Breaks National Monument — a colossal natural amphitheater of multi-hued rocky cliffs
  • Dixie National Forest — the largest national forest in the state (1,900,000 acres!) is mostly high altitude evergreen forest, with lots of hunting, fishing, camping, hiking, climbing, and even spelunking possibilities
  • Snow Canyon State Park — a pretty state park full of red sandstone bluffs, just northwest of Saint George
  • Zion National Park — one of America's most popular parks is breathtaking and has lots of excellent hikes ranging from very easy to very challenging, but all of them rewarding

Understand

The part of Utah known as Dixie is the southwestern corner of the state. It bears this incongruous name (more commonly associated with the South region of the United States, far to the southeast of Utah) because early settlers were successful in practicing some of the same agriculture as in the southeastern United States. Historically it has been sparsely populated, but the growing popularity of St. George as both a retirement community and a jumping-off point for outdoor recreation is increasing the population rapidly.

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to Dixie's Land article)

From Wikisource

Dixie's Land
Daniel Decatur Emmett (disputed)
This song has dozens of variants. Here are a few notable versions.

I wish I was in de land ob cotton Daniel Decatur Emmett

Contents

I wish I was in Dixie's Land

The first authorized edition, published in New York in 1860 as "I wish I was in Dixie's Land", was most the popular version.
I wish I was in de land ob cotton,
Old times dar am not forgotten;
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
In Dixie Land whar I was born in,
Early on one frosty mornin,
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
(Chorus)
Den I wish I was in Dixie, Hooray! Hooray!
In Dixie Land, I'll took my stand,
To lib an die in Dixie,
Away, Away, Away down south in Dixie,
Away, Away, Away down south in Dixie.
Old Missus marry "Will-de-weaber,"
Willium was a gay deceaber;
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
But when he put his arm around'er,
He smilled as fierce as a forty-pound'er,
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
(Chorus)
His face was sharp as a butchers cleaber,
But dat did not seem to greab'er;
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
Old Missus acted de foolish part,
And died for a man dat broke her heart.
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
(Chorus)
Now here's a health to the next old Missus,
And all de galls dat want to kiss us;
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
But if you want to drive 'way sorrow,
Come an hear dis song to-morrow.
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
(Chorus)
Dar's buck-wheat cakes an 'Ingen' batter,
Makes you fat or a little fatter;
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.
Den hoe it down an scratch your grabble,
To Dixie land I'm bound to trabble.
Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land.

Early manuscript

This transcription is from a manuscript was written in 1859.
I wish I was in de land ob cotton,
Cinnamon seed an sandy bottom,
Look away look away, Dixie Land,
In Dixie land whar I was born in,
Early on one frosty mornin,
Look away look away, away Dixie Land,
(Chorus)
Den I wish I was in Dixie, Horray, Hooray,
In Dixie's land, we'll took our stand, To lib an die in Dixie,
Away, away, away down south in Dixie,
Away, away, away down south in Dixie.
Old missus marry Will de Weaber,
William was a gay deceaber;
Look away look away, away Dixie Land.
When he put his arm around'er,
He look as fierce as a forty pound'er.
Look away look away, away Dixie Land.
(Chorus)
His face was sharp like a butchers cleaber,
But dat did not seem to greab'er;
Look away look away, away Dixie Land.
Will run away missus took a decline, O'
Her face was de color ob bacon rhine, O'
Look away look away, away Dixie Land.
(Chorus)
While missus libbed she libbed in clover,
When she died she died all ober;
Look away look away, away Dixie Land.
How could she act such a foolish part, O'
An marry a man to break her heart, O'
Look away look away, away Dixie Land...
(Chorus)
Buck-wheat cakes an stony batter,
Makes you fat or a little fatter;
Look away look away, away Dixie Land.
Here's a health to de next old missus,
An all de galls dat wants to kiss us.
Look away look away, away Dixie Land.
(Chorus)
Now if you want to drive 'way sorrow;
Come an hear dis song to-morrow;
Look away look away, away Dixie Land.
Den hoe it down an scratch y'er grabble,
To Dixie's land I'm bound to trabble
Look away look away, away Dixie Land.

Confederate lyrics

The next version of Dixie, called "The War Song of Dixie" or "Dixie War Song", was written by Henry Throop Stanton and published in 1861. It was a popular morale boosters for the Confederate army
Hear ye not the sounds of battle,
Sabres' clash and muskets' rattle?
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
Hostile footsteps on our border,
Hostile columns tread in order;
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
(Chorus)
Oh, fly to arms in Dixie!
To Arms! to Arms!
From Dixie's land we'll rout the land,
That comes to conquer Dixie,
To Arms! To Arms!
and rout the foe from Dixie!
To Arms! To Arms!
and rout the foe from Dixie!
See the red smoke hanging o'er us!
Hear the cannon's booming chorus!
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
See our steady columns forming,
Hear the shouting! hear the storming!
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
Gird you loins with sword and sabre,
Give your lives to Freedom's labor!
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
What though every hearth be saddened?
What though all the land be reddened?
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
Shall this boasting, mad invader
Trample Dixie and degrade her?
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
By our fathers proud example!
Southern soil they shall not trample!
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
Southrons, meet them on the border!
Charge them into wild disorder!
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
Hew the Vandals down before you!
Till the last inch they restore you!
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
Through the echoing hills resounding,
Hear the Southern bugles sounding!
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
Arouse from every hill and valley,
List the bugle! Rally! rally!
To Arms! to Arms, to Arms in Dixie!
The next confederate version of Dixie, called "Everybody's Dixie", was written by General Albert Pike. It was the most popular Civil War version of Dixie
Southrons, hear your country call you,
Up, lest worse than death befall you!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Lo! all the beacon-fires are lighted,
Let all hearts be now united!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
(Chorus)
Advance the flag of Dixie!
Hurrah! Hurrah!
In Dixie's land we take our stand,
And live or die for Dixie!
To arms! To arms!
And conquer peace for Dixie!
To arms! To arms!
And conquer peace for Dixie!
Hear the Northern thunders mutter!
Northern flags in South winds flutter!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Send them back your fierce defiance!
Stamp upon the cursed alliance!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Fear no danger! Shun no labor!
Lift up rifle, pike, and sabre!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Shoulder pressing close to shoulder,
Let the odds make each heart bolder!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
How the South's great heart rejoices
At your cannon's ringing voices!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
For faith betrayed and pledges broken,
Wrongs inflicted, insults spoken,
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Strong as lions, swift as eagles,
Back to their kennels hunt these beagles!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Cut the unequal bonds asunder!
Let them hence each other plunder!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Swear upon your country's altar
Never to submit or falter
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Till the spoilers are defeated,
Till the Lord's work is completed!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Halt not till our Federation
Secures among earth's powers its station!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Then at peace and crowned with glory,
Hear your children tell the story!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
If the loved ones weep in sadness,
Victory soon shall bring them gladness
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Exultant pride soon vanish sorrow;
Smiles chase tears away to-morrow!
To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!

Union lyrics

The Union's version, "Union Dixie" was a mockery of the South
Away down South in the land of traitors,
Rattlesnakes and alligators,
Right away, come away, right away, come away.
Where cotton's king and men are chattels,
Union boys will win the battles,
Right away, come away, right away, come away.
(Chorus)
Then we'll all go down to Dixie,
Away, away,
Each Dixie boy must understand
That he must mind his Uncle Sam,
Away, away,
And we'll all go down to Dixie.
Away, away,
And we'll all go down to Dixie.
I wish I was in Baltimore,
I'd make Secession traitors roar,
Right away, come away, right away, come away.
We'll put the traitors all to rout.
I'll bet my boots we'll whip them out,
Right away, come away, right away, come away.
(Chorus)
Oh, may our Stars and Stripes still wave
Forever o'er the free and brave,
Right away, come away, right away, come away.
And let our motto ever be --
For Union and for Liberty!"
Right away, come away, right away, come away.
(Chorus)

References

  • Nathan, Hans (1962). Dan Emmett and the Rise of Early Negro Minstrelsy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also dixie

English

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
Dixie

Plural
-

Dixie

  1. (informal) The southern United States; the South.
  2. (US) A female given name transferred from the place name.







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