Dnipropetrovsk: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dnipropetrovsk
Дніпропетровськ

Днепропетровск
Dnepropetrovsk
Modern apartment blocks dominate the shoreline of the Dnieper River in the city, whilst in the centre modern architecture compliments the old.

Flag

Coat of arms
Map of Ukraine with Dnipropetrovsk highlighted.
Coordinates: 48°27′0″N 34°59′0″E / 48.45°N 34.983333°E / 48.45; 34.983333
Country  Ukraine
Oblast  Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
City Municipality Флаг Днепропетровска 2.png Dnipropetrovsk
Founded 1776
Raions
Government
 - Mayor Ivan Ivanovych Kulichenko[1]
Area
 - Total 405 km2 (156.4 sq mi)
Elevation 155 m (509 ft)
Population (2007)
 - Total 1,040,000
 Density 2,968/km2 (7,687.1/sq mi)
Postal code 49000
Area code(s) +380 56(2)
Sister cities Vilnius, Durham Region, Samara, Tashkent, Xi'an, Herzliya, Žilina, Saloniki, Wałbrzych
Website gorod.dp.ua

Dnipropetrovsk or Dnepropetrovsk (Ukrainian: Дніпропетровськ [dnʲiprope̝trou̯sʲk], translit. Dnipropetrovs’k; Russian: Днепропетровск, translit. Dnepropetrovsk; formerly Yekaterinoslav (Ukrainian: Катеринослав, translit. Katerynoslav; Russian: Екатеринослав) and Novorosiysk (Ukrainian: Новоросійськ, translit. Novorosiys’k; Russian: Новороссийск, translit. Novorossiysk) ) is Ukraine's third largest city with 1.1 million inhabitants.[2] In 1918 Yekaterinoslav was renamed Sicheslav by the Ukrainian People's Republic; this name lapsed in 1919.[3][4]. It is located southeast of Ukraine's capital Kiev on the Dnieper River, in the south-central region of the country. Dnipropetrovsk is the administrative center of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (province). Within the Dnipropetrovsk Metropolitan area there are 1,860,000 people (2001)[5].

A vital industrial center of Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk was one of the key centers of the nuclear, arms, and space industries of the former Soviet Union. In particular, it is home to Yuzhmash, a major space and ballistic missile designer and manufacturer. Because of its military industry, the city was a closed city[6] until the 1990s.

Dnipropetrovsk has a highly-developed public transportation system, including the Dnipropetrovsk Metro, which consists of one metro line with a total of 6 stations.

Contents

Geography

The city is built mainly upon the banks of the Dnieper river, in the loop of a major meander where the river changes its course from the north west to continue southerly and later south-westerly through the Ukraine, ultimately reaching Kherson where it discharges into the Black Sea. This location always provided significant opportunities for the advancement of agriculture, mainly thanks to the natural irrigation provided by the river and the resulting fertile soils.

The area upon which the city is built is mainly void of hills and other physical geographical features. Being mainly flat, the land has proven easy to utilise and thus explains why the city has been able to grow to such a great extent over the past 200 years. Whilst most residential and commercial districts od the city are to be found on the less marshy south bank of the river, a number of residential areas have developed on the previously less-hospitable northern bank. With the advancements in civil engineering in Ukraine heralded by the rise of the Soviet Union's industrialisation program, the northern bank was made more accessible for development and nowadays a good number of the city's residents live in districts situated there; the area is still, however, largely devoid of any commercial activity.

Nowadays both the north and south banks play home to a range of industrial enterprises and manufacturing plants. The south bank enjoys the exclusive patronage of the city's major business ventures as well as the main railway station and the city airport, which is located around 15 km (9.32 mi) south-easterly of the city.

The current city centre is constructed on a large plateau next to the Dnieper, the old town however, is situated atop of a hill, formed as a result of the river's change of course to the south. Karl Marx Prospekt links the two major architectural ensembles of the city and constitutes an important thoroughfare through the city centre, which along with various suburban radial road systems, provides some of the area's most vital transport links for both suburban and inter-urban travel.

Advertisements

Climate

During the summer, Dnipropetrovsk is very warm (average day temperature in July is +24 to +27 °C (75 to 81 °F), and in the winter, it is cold (average day temperature in January is −3 to +4 °C (+27 to +39 °F).

The best time for visiting the city is in late spring — second part of April and May, and early in autumn: September, October, when the city's trees turn yellow. Long periods of rain are normal in autumn. Other times are mainly dry with a few showers.

The climate is a mixture of temperate and continental climates and sometimes in the winter it is very cold and snowy (sometimes dropping down to −10 to −15 °C), and in summer, the city is not very hot (up to +29 to +30 °C).[7]

"However, the city is characterized with significant pollution of air with industrial emissions."[8] The "severely polluted air and water" and allegedly "vast areas of decimated landscape" of Dnipropetrovsk and Donetsk are considered by some to be an environmental crisis.[9] Though exactly where in Dnipropetrovsk these areas might be found is not stated.[9]

Climate data for Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 0.0
(32)
1.5
(35)
7.2
(45)
15.6
(60)
21.7
(71)
26.1
(79)
27.8
(82)
27.6
(82)
21.1
(70)
14.2
(58)
4.9
(41)
0.0
(32)
Average low °C (°F) -5.65
(22)
-4.1
(25)
0.8
(33)
9.4
(49)
16.0
(61)
19.6
(67)
21.3
(70)
20.6
(69)
15.4
(60)
8.4
(47)
2.5
(37)
-2.1
(28)
Precipitation mm (inches) 45.0
(1.77)
36.0
(1.42)
34.0
(1.34)
38.0
(1.5)
46.0
(1.81)
59.0
(2.32)
56.0
(2.2)
37.0
(1.46)
36.0
(1.42)
32.0
(1.26)
42.0
(1.65)
52.0
(2.05)
Source: Gorod.dp.ua[10][11]

History

Kipchak steppe art near the Historical Museum, Karl Marx Prospekt

The first people appeared in the area somewhere about 150,000 years ago[citation needed]. The settlements of these early people were found in the outskirts of the city and on Monastyrsky Island[citation needed]. This unique island appears throughout the history of Prydniprovia, as a consistent center of events as well as the ancient nucleus of the city[citation needed].

After the last Ice Age (10,000 years ago) the settling of the Prydniprovia area began more intensely. In c.3500-2700 BC the first farmers lived here (the so-called Cucuteni-Trypillia culture people).

The mighty, broad Dnieper River (Greeks called it the Borysthenes, 'Borysphen' in local pronunciation) with its picturesque islands and peaceful backwaters, lush flood-meadows and shadowy oak woods stretches along river valleys and ravines. Abundant game and fish in local forests and waters are a result of good climate and vast fertile land... All this attracted hunters, fishers, cattle-breeders and land-tillers to these parts.

The Cimmerians, ancient equestrian nomads who bred cattle, occupied the North Pontic steppe zone including Prydniprovye; their culture and civilization flourished between about 1000 and 800 B.C.E. The Cimmerians were driven out by the nomadic Scythians (700 BC), who in turn were overcome by the Sarmatians from the East (200 BC).

Most inhabitants of the city and visitors know and like the distinctive features of the small square near the Museum of History, the place where the 'Stony Women' stay (which actually are not females... and are shown in the photo above). The visitors are amazed with the centuries-old natives and their oval forms. They were creations of a steppe nomadic people called the Cumans or Kipchaks and are a modular collection from neighboring barrows. In the past they served as the index points for the steppe inhabitants.

The first century of the new era was marked by fast inhabitation of the Dnieper River banks by Slavic tribes. The rocks of Monastyrsky Island remember well the first time Slavs floated down the Dnieper River to the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. On this island in the IX century the Monastery was founded by Byzantine monks (from it the island received its name). It existed until 1240 when it was destroyed by Tatars. The Dnieper River has for many centuries served as a border between East and West and its banks have served as arena of struggle between the Slavs and the Asian nomads.

This situation continued for many centuries until the XV century when there appeared a new force - the free people - Cossacks - Zaporiz'ki Kazaky (Zaporizhya - the lands south of Prydniprovye, translate as "The Land After the Weirs [Rapids]")...

16th-18th centuries

Map of Kodak fortress, which was constructed in 1635.

The first fortified town in what is now Dnipropetrovsk were probably built in the mid-16th century. In 1635, the Polish Government built the Kodak fortress above the Dnieper Rapids at Kodaky (on the south-eastern outskirts of modern Dnipropetrovsk), partly as a result of rivalry in the region of Poland, Turkey and Russia,[12] and partly to maintain control over Cossack activity, actually to suppress the Cossacks and not allow flight to the peasants.[13] In the opinion of some historians[citation needed] this event is the time of foundation of the city. It is underlined, however, that the town of Stari (Old) Kodaki (that was near the fortress) existed also before the time of Cossacks in these places. The fortress did not become completely Polish - practically at once it was won. On the night of 3/4 August 1635, the Cossacks of Ivan Sulyma captured the fort by surprise, burning it down and butchering the garrison of about 200 West European mercenaries under Jean Marion.[13] The fort was rebuilt by French engineer Guillaume le Vasseur de Beauplan[14] for the Polish Government in 1638, and had a mercenary garrison.[13] Kodak was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks on 1 October 1648, and was garrisoned by the Cossacks until its demolition in accordance with the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711.[15] The ruins of the Kodak are visible now. There is a currently a project to restore it and create a tourist center and park-museum.

However, after the signing by Bohdan Khmelnytsky of the agreement about the Union with Moscow, the territory officially passed under the authority of the Russians. But actually, Prydniprovye lands remained as a self-controlled, sub-borderian area up to the end of the XVIII century.

The Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia was founded in the late-1760s, between the settlements of Stari (Old) and Novi (New) Kodaky, territorially was eastern remote part of Novi Kojdaky. It was located at the present central part of the city (downtown) to the West to district of Central terminal and farmer market Ozyorka. Uptown, which was built up later as a official center district by Ivan Starov's development plan of Katerynoslav, at cossack era was empty steppe hill place with lack of water source.[16]

1775–1917: In the Russian Empire

A 1792 plan of Yekaterinoslav.
Coat of arms during the tsarist period

The city that is now called Dnipropetrovsk was founded as part of the expansion of the Russian Empire into the lands North of the Black Sea, known as the Novorossiysk gubernia. The city was originally known as Yekaterinoslav, which translates in English to "The glory of Yekaterina" (Catherine the Great). It became the administrative center of the Yekaterinoslav Governorate.

Cossack and Russian armies fought against the Ottoman Empire for control of this area in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca ended this war in July 1774; and in May 1775 the Russian army destroyed the Zaporozhian Sich, thus eliminating the political independence of Cossacks. In 1774 Prince Grigori Potemkin was appointed governor of Novorossiysk gubernia, and after the destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich, he started founding cities in the region and encouraging foreign settlers. The city of Yekaterinoslav was founded in 1776, not in the current location, but at the confluence of the River Samara with the River Kil'chen' at Loshakivka, north of the Dnieper. By 1782, the city population was 2,194. However the site had been badly chosen because spring waters were transforming the city into a bog.[16]

In 1783, Yekaterinoslav was refounded on its current site, on the south bank of the Dnieper, near the Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia. The population of Yekaterinoslav-Kil'chen' were transferred to the new site. Potemkin's plans for the city were extremely ambitious; it was to be about 30 km by 25 km in size, and included:[16]

  • Preobrazhenskiy Cathedral (intended to be the largest in the world)
  • The Potemkin palace
  • A magnificent university (never built)
  • A botanical garden on Monastyrskyi Island
  • Wide straight avenues through the city.

The site for the Potemkin palace was bought from retired Cossack yesaul (colonel) Lazar' Globa, who owned much of the land near the city. Part of Lazar' Globa's gardens still exist and are now called Globa Park.[16]

A combination of Russian red tape, defective workmanship, and theft resulted in what was built being less than originally planned. Construction stopped after the death of Potemkin and his sponsor, Empress Catherine. Plans were reconsidered and scaled back. The size of the cathedral was reduced, and it was completed in 1835. From 1797 to 1802 the city was called Novorossiysk.[16][17]

Despite the bridging of the Dnieper in 1796 and the growth of trade in the early 19th century, Ekaterinoslav remained small until the 1880s, when the railway was built and industrialisation of the city began.[18] The boom was caused by two men:

Postcard with a picture of Yekaterinoslav around 1900.
  • John Hughes, a Welsh businessman who built an iron works at what is now Donetsk in 1869-72, and developed the Donetsk coal deposits.[16]
  • Alexandr Pol', a Ukrainian who accidentally discovered the Kryvyi Rih iron ores in 1866, during archaeological research.[16]

The Donetsk coal was necessary for smelting pig-iron from the Kryvyi Rih ore, producing a need for railway to connect Donetsk with Kryvyi Rih. Permission to build the railway was given in 1881, and it opened in 1884. The railway crossed the Dnieper at Yekaterinoslav. The city grew quickly; new suburbs appeared: Amur, Nizhnedniprovsk and the factory areas developed. In 1897, Yekaterinoslav became the third city in the Russian Empire to have electric trams. The Higher Mining School opened in 1899, and by 1913 it had grown into the Mining Institute.[16]

Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 resulted in revolts against the Tsar in many places including Yekaterinoslav. Tens of people were killed and hundreds wounded. There was a wave of anti-semitic attacks.[16]

From 1902 to 1933, the famous historian of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, Dmytro Yavornytsky, was Director of the Dnipropetrovsk Museum, which was later named after him. Before his death in 1940, Yavornytsky wrote a History of the City of Ekaterinoslav, which lay in manuscript for many years. It was only published in 1989 as a result of the Gorbachev reforms.

1917–1919: Civil War

After the Russian February revolution in 1917 Yekaterinoslav became a city within autonomy of Ukrainian People's Republic under Tsentralna Rada government. In November 1917 the Bolsheviks led a rebellion and got power for a short time. The city experienced occupation of German and Austrian-Hungarian armies that were allies of Ukrainian Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi and helped him to keep authority in the country.

During power of Ukrainian Directorate government with its dictator Symon Petlura the city had periods of uncertain power; at times the anarchists of Nestor Makhno held the city, and at others Denikin's Volunteer Army. Military operations of the Red Army which was headed from the North brought captured the city in 1919, and despite attempts by Russian General Wrangel in 1920, he was unable to reach Yekaterinoslav, with War ending the following year.

1919–1991: in the Soviet Union & under Nazi rule

The ruins of the main train station in Dnipropetrovsk as they stood shortly after the city was liberated

The city was renamed after the Communist leader of Ukraine Grigory Petrovsky in 1926.[19][20]

During the German occupation of Ukraine in World War II, the city gave its name to one of the six generalbezirke in which a Nazi Generalkommissar was in charge under the authority of the Reichskommissar in Kiev. Dnipropetrovsk was an important center of Jewish life, and 80,000 Jews lived in the city before the Holocaust, but soon after the Nazis conquered the city on 12 October 1941, 11,000 were shot; in the end only 15 Jews of Dnipropetrovsk survived at the end of the war.[citation needed]

During the past century, the economic activity of the city has defined its political importance. Dnipropetrovsk and the surrounding oblast are the birthplace of the "Dnipropetrovsk Faction", an influential informal political group inside the CPSU, members of whom were the industrial and party elite. Leonid Brezhnev, a native of the nearby city of Dniprodzerzhyns'k and later the Communist Party General Secretary, assured members of this group of a prominent place in Soviet society and politics. Members of this group are believed by many political scientists to have ruled not only the Ukrainian SSR but also the entire Soviet Union up to the accession of Mikhail Gorbachev to the position of CPSU General Secretary and President of the Soviet Union.[citation needed]

After 1991: Since Ukrainian independence

Skyline of Dnipropetrovsk with both new and old buildings seen.

In June 1990,[21] the women’s department of Dnipropetrovsk preliminary prison was destroyed in prison riots. In the ten years that followed, women under investigation (i.e. not convicted) in Dnipropetrovsk oblast were either held in Preliminary Prison 4 in Kryvyi Rih or in "detention blocks" in Dnipropetrovsk; this contravened Ukrainian Law "On preliminary incarceration". Journeys from Krivoy Rog took up to six hours in special railway carriages with grated windows. Some prisoners had to do this 14 or 15 times. After complaints by the ombudsman (Nina Karpacheva) the head of the State prison department of Ukraine (Vladimir Levochkin) arranged that finances were given for the provision of women cells in Dnipropetrovsk Preliminary Prison, making the lives of the 15,000 unconvicted women-detainees easier from August 2000.[22]

In 2005, the most powerful representative of the "Dnipropetrovsk Faction" in Ukrainian politics was Leonid Kuchma, the former President of Ukraine and former senior manager of Yuzhmash.

In June and July 2007, Dnipropetrovsk experienced a wave of serial killings that were dubbed by the media as the work of the Dnipropetrovsk maniacs. In February 2009, three youths were sentenced for their part in 21 murders.[23]

Demographics

Graph to show the population change of Dnepropetrovsk since 1782
Year Ethnicity of Citizens Foreign
Citizens
Reference
Russian Ukrainian Jewish Polish German
1897 47,200 17,787 39,979 3,418 1,438 1,075 [24]
1897 42.6% 16.0% 36.1% 3.1% 1.3% 1.0% [24]
1904(?) 52% 40% 4.5% Not Stated Not Stated [25]

Between 1923 and 1933 the Ukrainian proportion of the population of Dnipropetrovsk increased from 16% to 48%. This was part of a national trend.[26]

Culture

Attractions

Entrance to the Taras Shevchenko Park in Dnipropetrovsk.

The city has a variety of theatres (plus an Opera) and museums which may be of interest to tourists. There are also several parks, restaurants and beaches which have no linguistic requirements.

The major streets of the city were renamed in honour of Marxist heroes during the Soviet era. The central thoroughfare is known as Karl Marx Prospekt, a beautiful, wide and long boulevard that stretches east to west through the centre of the city. It was founded in the eighteenth century and parts of its buildings are the actual decoration of the city. In the heart of the city is Zhovtneva [October] Square, which includes the majestic cathedral founded by order of Catherine the Great in 1787.

On the square, there are some remarkable buildings: the Museum of History, Diorama "Battle for the Dnieper River (World War II)", and also the beautiful park in which one can rest in the hot summer. Walking down the hill to the Dnieper River, one arrives in the large Taras Shevchenko Park (which is on the right bank of the river) and on Monastyrsky Island. This island is one of the most interesting places in the city. In the IX century, the Byzantine monks based a monastery here. It was destroyed by Mongol-Tatars in the XIII century.

While there is no longer any compact "old town" in Dnipropetrovsk, there are still many surviving buildings of historical interest. (Most of them, especially churches, were unfortunately destroyed during World War II and Stalin's reign of terror in the 1930s. A few areas retain their historical character: all of Central Avenue, some street-blocks on the main hill (the Nagorna part) between Pushkin Prospekt and Embankment, and sections near Globa (formerly know as Chkalov park until it was recently renamed) and Shevchenko parks have been untouched for 150 years.

The Dnieper River keeps the climate mild. It is visible from many points in Dnipropetrovsk. From any hill (there are 3 in the city) you will find a beautiful view of the river, islands, parks, outskirts, river banks and hills.

There was no need to build skyscrapers in the city in Soviet times. The major industries preferred to locate their offices close to their factories and away from the centre of town. In the last ten years since independence the price of real estate has increased considerably. Most new office buildings are being built in the same architectural style as the old buildings, there are however a number with more modern aesthetics as well as those which utilise the two styles in a blend of old and new.

Architecture and cityscape

Sport

The Dnipro Arena in Dnipropetrovsk

The city also houses the Ukrainian Premier League football club, FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk. This club, commonly seen as representing the city at large, holds a record for being the only Soviet team to win the USSR Federation Cup twice; since independence they have gone on to win the Ukrainian Championship once and the Ukrainian League Cup three times. Despite Dnipro's dominance, a number of other teams also call Dnipropetrovsk their home, these include, amongst others, FC Lokomotyv Dnipropetrovsk and FC Spartak Dnipropetrovsk, both of which have large fan bases in the city. On a national/international stage however, no team from the city has met with the same level of success experienced by FC Dnipro.

The Dnipro Arena hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification game between Ukraine and England on 10 October 2009.

Dnipropetrovsk is represented within Ukrainian Bandy and Rink-bandy Federation.[27]

Recently the city built a new football stadium; the Dnipro Arena has a capacity of 31,003 people and was built as a replacement for Dnipro's old stadium, Stadium Meteor. The Dnipro Arena was initially chosen as one of the Ukrainian venues for their joint Euro 2012 bid with Poland. However it was dropped from the list in May 2009 as the capacity fell short of the minimum 33,000 seats required by UEFA.[28][29]

Economy

Modern office building in Dnipropetrovsk.

Dnipropetrovsk is a major industrial centre of Ukraine. It has several facilities devoted to heavy industry that produce a wide range of products, including cast-iron, rolled metal, pipes, machinery, different mining combines, agricultural equipment, tractors, trolleybuses, refrigerators, different chemicals and many others. The most famous and the oldest (founded in the 19th century) is the Metallurgic Plant named after Petrovsky. The city also has big food processing and light industry factories. Many sewing and dress-making factories work for France, Canada, Germany and Great Britain, using the most advanced technologies, materials and design. Dnipropetrovsk has also dominated in the aerospace industry since the 1950s; construction department Yuzhnoye Design Bureau and Yuzhmash are well known to the specialists all over the world.

Year Factories
& Plants
Employees Production Volume[30] Reference
roubles 2007 £
million
2007 USD
million
1880 49 572 1,500,000 £10.5 m $21 m [24]
1903 194 10,649 21,500,000 £177.5 m $355 m [24]
Year Enterprises Earnings[30][31] Reference
roubles 2007 £
million
2007 USD
million
1900 1,800 40,000,000 £328.7 m $658 m [25]
1940 622 1,096,929,000 £2,120.3 m $4,242 m [24]

Transportation

Local transportation

A scheme of the Dnipropetrovsk Metro system in the city.
Marshall Malinovsky Street on the left bank of the Dnieper looking west. The arch is part of the railway Merefa-Kherson bridge, which crosses Monastyrsky Island.
Dnipropetrovsk's Central Railway Station.

The main public forms of transport within Dnipropetrovsk are trams, buses, electric trolley buses and marshrutkas—private minibuses. In addition there are large numbers of taxis and many private cars. Bicycles are also in wide use along with an increasing number of motor scooters.

Dnipropetrovsk also has a metro system, opened in 1995, which consists of one line and 6 stations.[32] Work on other stations was abandoned in recent times when the city ran out of money for this project; two of these abandoned building works are in the central portion of Karl Marx Prospekt. Currently the project has been restarted. Completion of the next two stations is necessary to make the municipal subway system profitable. At the present time there no completion time has been given.

Suburban transportation

Dnipropetrovsk has some highways crossing through the city. The most popular routes are from Kiev, Donetsk, Kharkiv and Zaporizhia. Transit through the city is also available.

The largest bus station in eastern Ukraine is located in Dnipropetrovsk. It is near the city's Central Railway Terminal. Bus routes are also available to all over the country, including some international routes to Russia, Poland, Germany, Moldova and Turkey.

In the summertime, there are some routes available by hydrofoils on the Dnieper River. Various tourist ships on their way down the Dnieper, (Kiev–Kherson–Odessa) always make a stop in the city.

Railroads

The city is a large railway junction. Daily trains run to and from many parts of Eastern Europe. There are two rapid trains at day time from Kiev to Dnipropetrovsk and there are a few express trains at night. Other trains come from Moscow, Lviv, Saint Petersburg, and other places.

Air travel

The city is served by an Dnipropetrovsk International Airport (IATA: DNK) and is connected to other European cities with daily flights.

Notable people from Dnipropetrovsk

House museum of Dmytro Yavornytsky.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Dnipropetrovsk is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ Hometown might not vote for Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (December 11, 2009)
  2. ^ Ukrcensus.gov.ua — City URL accessed on 8 March 2007
  3. ^ website of Sicheslav
  4. ^ Ukrainian Nationalism in the 1990s: A Minority Faith by Andrew Wilson, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN-10: 0521574579/ISBN-13: 978-0521574570, page 89
  5. ^ uk.wikipedia.org URL accessed on 19 August 2007
  6. ^ A closed city does not allow foreigners inside without official permission.
  7. ^ See also: klimadiagramme.de — Climate in Dnipropetrovsk URL accessed on 20 March 2007
  8. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine - Population
  9. ^ a b www.mongabay.com Russia - Geography states: "Since 1990 Russian experts have added to the list the following less spectacular but equally threatening environmental crises: the Dnepropetrovsk-Donets and Kuznets coal-mining and metallurgical centers, which have severely polluted air and water and vast areas of decimated landscape;..."
  10. ^ "Weather and climate, Dnipropetrovsk Ukraine", Dnipropetrovsk, 22. Mar 2008, web: [1].
  11. ^ "Temperatures in Dnipropetrovsk", 10.3.2010, web: [2].
  12. ^ Go2Kiev Dnepropetrovsk
  13. ^ a b c Plokhy, Serhii, The Cossacks and Religion in Early Modern Ukraine, pub Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-924739-0, pages 26, 37, 40, 51, 60-1, 142, 245, and 268.
  14. ^ Guillaume le Vasseur de Beauplan wrote a book Description d'Ukrainie, published in 1651 and 1660.
  15. ^ Capture of Dnepr, Gladiolus, December, 2007
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i www.eugene.com.ua Dnepropetrovsk History
  17. ^ Belyakov, Alexander, Processes of integration among ethnic and displaced Germans in Ukraine (a comparative analysis with integrative experience in Germany)
  18. ^ Ukrainetrek Dnepropetrovsk (City)
  19. ^ Ukraine tears down controversial statue, by Rostyslav Khotin, BBC News (November 27, 2009)
    Same article on UNIAN.
  20. ^ The Kravchenko Case: One Man's War Against Stalin by Gary Kern, Enigma Books, 2007, ISBN-10: 1929631731/ISBN-13: 978-1929631735, page 191
  21. ^ New York Times, 20 June 1990 Evolution in Europe; Soviet Troops Kill an Inmate During Riot in Ukrainian Jail This stated that TASS had issued a statement saying that there had been a riot by 2,000 inmates in a prison in Dnipropetrovsk. The riot broke out on Thursday 14 June 1990, and was quelled by Soviet troops on Friday 15 June 1990, killing one prisoner and wounding another.
  22. ^ Kievskie vedomosti, 14 August 2000.
  23. ^ "Dnepropetrovsk Maniacs: Court delivers its verdicts" (in Russian). http://www.new-most.info/news/crime/10500.htm. 
  24. ^ a b c d e Dnepropetrovsk Jewish Community (DJC.com) - About Yekaterinoslav Dnepropetrovsk cached copy accessed 24 March 2008.
  25. ^ a b Surh, Gerald, Ekaterinoslav City in 1905: Workers, Jews, and Violence, published in International Labor and Working-Class History No. 64, Fall 2003, pages 139–166.
  26. ^ Volodymyr Kubiyovych; Zenon Kuzelia, Енциклопедія українознавства (Encyclopedia of Ukrainian studies), 3-volumes, Kiev, 1994, ISBN 5-7702-0554-7
  27. ^ http://www.ukrbandy.org.ua/contact_en.html
  28. ^ Kiev and Donetsk likely for Euro 2012, others uncertain
  29. ^ UEFA names four Polish Euro 2012 host cities, one in Ukraine
  30. ^ a b Conversion from contemporary Imperial Russian roubles to 2007 currency used the following method:
    (1) Conversion to contemporary Sterling used table 18 which accompanies Marc Flandreau and Frédréric Zumer's book The Making of Global Finance, 1880–1913, OECD 2004.
    (2) Conversion to 2007 Sterling used RPI data from Table 63 of National Income Expenditure and Output of the United Kingdom 1855–1965, by CH Feinstein, pub Cambridge University Press, 1972 and Retail Prices Index: annual index numbers of retail prices 1948–2007 (RPI) (RPIX)
    (3) Conversion to 2007 US Dollars used the calculated 2007 Sterling value and the average exchange rate for 2007 $1 =£0.49987, taken from FXHistory: historical currency exchange rates. It would have been better to have used contemporary rouble/dollar exchange rates and US RPI data, but the latter were not available to author (March 2008).
  31. ^ Conversion from 1940 roubles to 2007 currency used a similar method to that used with Imperial Russian roubles, with the following used to generate rouble to Sterling exchange rate for 1940. Kawlsky, Daniel, Stalin and the Spanish Civil War Chapter 11 quotes a rate for the 1930s of 5.3 roubles per US dollar. measuringworth.com quotes a 1940 exchange rate of $1000000 = £261096.61.
  32. ^ "Metro". http://gorod.dp.ua/metro/eng/. Retrieved 25 March 2008. 
  33. ^ "Žilina - oficiálne stránky mesta: Partnerské mestá Žiliny (Žilina: Official Partner Cities)". © 2008 MaM Multimedia, s.r.o... http://www.zilina.sk/mesto-zilina-o-meste-partnerske-mesta. Retrieved 4 January 2009. 
  34. ^ "Twinning Cities". © 2008 City of Thessaloniki. http://www.thessalonikicity.gr/English/twinning-cities.htm. Retrieved 4 January 2009. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Ukraine : Eastern Ukraine : Dnipropetrovsk

Dniepropetrovsk[1] is a major industrial city in Eastern Ukraine.

Understand

Dniepropetrovsk is an industrial centre of Ukraine that was a hub for the Soviet military industry. As such, no foreigners were allowed to visit without official permission until the 1990s. As an industrial centre still, it suffers from heavy pollution issues, but is generally well maintained and provides an interesting insight into real working life in Ukraine.

By plane

Dnipropetrovsk International Airport (IATA: DNK) is served by both Ukrainian and international airlines.

Flights to/from Kiev run about USD 60 each way (June 2006).

By train

The train is the main means of transportation, and the city is connected to all the Ukrainian cities, as well as other places in the neighboring countries.

As of mid-2005 there is a new high-speed (by Ukrainian standards) train connecting DNK and Kiev, and most Kiev to Crimea services also stop in DNK.

By bus

Avtolux and Gunsel (Гюнсел), but run buses to Kiev.

By boat

There are reports about ferries that go down the Dineper from Kiev.

Get around

There is a network of Trams and Marshutkas that go around the city. Trams cost 1 grivna, and Marshutkas cost 2 grivna.

See

Take a walk in the new European square and visit the beautifully painted town cathedral before taking a walk down the main boulevard to the military museum and the monument with a beautiful view over the Dnieper river.

Do

If you get time it's worth visiting the island parks on the Dnieper. Walk up the main boulevard for 5 blocks from European Square and then turn left. Continue down to Shevchenko park where you'll find a bridge that takes you across to one of the island parks. Here you can enjoy some relatively clean air, take a quiet stroll in the center of the city, pick up an ice cream or beer, and take a ride on some of the features of the old Soviet-style funfair.

Learn

Visit the war museum to have a seat in some old Soviet WWII weaponry in a proper hands-on fashion. Find out about the defense of Ukrainian Russia.

Eat

Borscht, borscht, cutlet po kiev, and cutlet po domashanoy, my personal favorite, olivea is an all right mayonnaise salad and plove for a good rice dish. And for a quick meal get a schwarma, there is a great place in the city center.

Budget

Try the restuarant whose name translates as Full Stomachs, just off European Sq. towards the main church

Drink

Though there are few quality drinking spots some do exist. The best would be reporter, on karl marx a couple blocks past the town square. The second would be master schmidt which has some live music and is a bit more alternative, on schmidt street about 3 or 4 blocks up from karl marx on the left. For more of a club scene there is labrynth and berlin, inquire locally for the exact location. And if you choose to be really adventurous you can attempt a metro party, getting off on each of the 5 metro stops and drinking a drink, though beware, in two attempts I have yet to reach success. Lastly for more of a local scene you can simply have a drink on the street, by the river which is a quite nice walk, or just in the city center.

Dnieper River
Dnieper River

There are a nice amount of hotels around the city. Its also possible to rent an apartment.

  • Hotel Ukraina
  • Dnipropetrovsk Holidays, Travel and Tourism [2]
  • Dnipropetrovsk Hotel Reservations Hotels Around Ukraine [3]
  • Dnipropetrovsk Apartment Rental [4]

Stay safe

Be wary of groups of drunken people roaming around.

Get out

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

  • Dnipropetrovs’k

Etymology

From Ukrainian Дніпропетровськ (Dnipropetróvs’k), from Дніпро (Dnipró), Dnieper River) + Петровський (Petróvs’kyj), after Soviet revolutionary Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovsky. Compare Russian Днепропетровск (Dnepropetróvsk).

Pronunciation

  • Hyphenation: Dni‧pro‧pe‧trovsk

Proper noun

Singular
Dnipropetrovsk

Plural
-

Dnipropetrovsk

  1. A city on the Dnieper in Ukraine, administrative centre of Dnipropetrovsk province.
  2. Dnipropetrovsk province (oblast), in south-eastern Ukraine.

Synonyms

  • Dnepropetrovsk
  • Dnipro-Petrovske, Dnipro-Petrovs’ke (historical)
  • Sicheslav (historical)
  • Novorossiysk (historical)
  • Katerynoslav (historical)
  • Yekaterinoslav (historical)
  • (province): Dnipropetrovsk Oblast

Related terms

Translations


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message