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Doctor Strange
DeodatoDrStrange.jpg
Doctor Strange as featured in Witches #1 (Aug. 2004). Art by Mike Deodato.
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Strange Tales #110 (July 1963)
Created by Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
In-story information
Alter ego Dr. Stephen Strange
Team affiliations New Avengers
Illuminati
Defenders
Nightstalkers
Midnight Sons
Notable aliases Stephen Sanders
Abilities Mastery of magic & extended life span
Genius level intellect
Neurosurgeon
Possesses the Soul Gem

Doctor Strange is a fictional character that appears in publications published by Marvel Comics. The character was co-created by writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko and first appeared in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963).

Debuting in the Silver Age of comic books, the character has featured in several self-titled series and Marvel-endorsed products including arcade and video games; animated television series and a direct-to-DVD film and merchandise such as trading cards.

Contents

Publication history

1960s

The character debuted in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963), a "split book" shared with fellow Marvel character the Human Torch until issue #134 (July 1965), and then super spy Nick Fury until issue #168 (May 1968). Strange appeared in #111 and #114 before the character's eight page origin story appeared in #115 (Dec. 1963).

Ditko drew the feature through Strange Tales #146 (July 1966), and during this period he and Lee introduced many of Strange's allies, such as his eventual lover Clea, who debuted, (although was not initially named) in Strange Tales #126 (Nov. 1964)' and enemies such as Nightmare, in #110, and the flame-headed Dormammu, in #126 (Nov. 1964). "Doctor Strange" stories showcased surrealistic mystical landscapes and increasingly head-trippy visuals that helped make the feature a favorite of college students. "People who read 'Doctor Strange' thought people at Marvel must be heads [e.g. drug users]," recalled then-associate editor and former Doctor Strange writer Roy Thomas in 1971, "because they had had similar experiences high on mushrooms. But ... I don't use hallucinogens, nor do I think any artists do."[1]

Eventually, as co-plotter and later sole plotter, in the "Marvel Method", Ditko would take Strange into ever-more-abstract realms. In an epic 17-issue story arc in Strange Tales #130-146 (July 1965 - July 1966), Ditko introduced the cosmic character Eternity, who personified the universe and was depicted as a silhouette whose outlines are filled with the cosmos.[2] As historian Bradford W. Wright describes,

"Steve Ditko contributed some of his most surrealistic work to the comic book and gave it a disorienting, hallucinogenic quality. Dr. Strange's adventures take place in bizarre worlds and twisting dimensions that resembled Salvador Dali paintings. ... Inspired by the pulp-fiction magicians of Stan Lee's childhood as well as by contemporary Beat culture. Dr. Strange remarkably predicted the youth counterculture's fascination with Eastern mysticism and psychedelia. Never among Marvel's more popular or accessible characters, Dr. Strange still found a niche among an audience seeking a challenging alternative to more conventional superhero fare."[3]

From the beginning, stories revealed that Dr. Strange uses magical artifacts to augment his power, such as the Cloak of Levitation;[4] the Eye of Agamotto in #115 (Dec. 1963); the Book of the Vishanti in #116 (Jan. 1964); and the Orb of Agamotto in #118 (March 1964). From the first story, Strange's residence, the Sanctum Sanctorum, was a part of the character's mythos. The trademark circular window divided by three sweeping lines on the front of the residence (actually the protective Seal of the Vishanti) appeared in many Doctor Strange stories. Strange's personal servant, Wong, guarded the residence in his absence.[5]

Splash page for the Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963). Art by Steve Ditko.

In keeping with Lee's emphasis on continuity, Strange was also quickly established as part of the Marvel Universe, and guest starred in Fantastic Four #27 (June 1964), encountered the Norse god Loki, foster brother of Thor, in Strange Tales #123 (Aug. 1964), and guest-starred with Ditko's other major Marvel co-creation in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #2 (1965).

The series continued with Lee dialoging Ditko's plots through Strange Tales #142, followed by Roy Thomas (two issues) and Denny O'Neil (two issues). Ditko's last issue was Strange Tales #146, with Golden Age great Bill Everett succeeding Ditko as artist until #152, followed by Marie Severin through #160 and Dan Adkins through #168,[6] the final issue before the "Nick Fury" feature moved to its own title and Strange Tales became Doctor Strange.

Lee had returned to write the character in Strange Tales #151-157; followed by Thomas (#158-159), and two writers who did virtually no other Marvel work, Raymond Marais (#160-161) and Jim Lawrence (#162-166). The post-Ditko Strange Tales stories introduced another cosmic entity, the Living Tribunal, in #157 (June 1967) and the evil Umar, sister of Dormammu, in #150 (Nov. 1966) The title, however, was flagging, with Strange encountering such one-off foes such as Nebulos and Voltorg in Strange Tales #162 and #166, respectively.

The now 20-page solo series Doctor Strange ran 15 issues, #169-183 (June 1968 - Nov. 1969), continuing the numbering of Strange Tales. Thomas wrote the run of new stories (Strange Tales #179 being a reprint), joined after the first three issues by the art team of penciler Gene Colan and inker Tom Palmer through the end. Thomas and Colan attempted to boost sales by revamping Strange and making the character closer to being a superhero. Given a form-fitting blue costume, a full-head mask and a secret identity as Dr. Stephen Sanders, the character teamed with the superheroes the Black Knight[7] and Spider-Man,[8] and battled the X-Men foe the Juggernaut.[9] The changes were unsuccessful and the title was canceled with issue #183 (Nov. 1969). The cancellation was abrupt (there was a "Next Issue" blurb in the last issue), and outstanding storylines were resolved in Sub-Mariner #22 (Feb. 1970) and The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #126 (April 1970).

Thomas recalled in 2000 that he eloped in July 1968 to marry his first wife, Jean, and returned to work a day late from a weekend comic-book convention to find that Marvel production manager Sol Brodsky had assigned Doctor Strange to writer Archie Goodwin, newly ensconced at Marvel and writing Iron Man. Thomas convinced Brodsky to allow him to continue writing the title. "I got very possessive about Doctor Strange," Thomas recalled. "It wasn't a huge seller, but [by the time it was canceled], we were selling the low 40 percent range of more than 400,000 print run, so it was actually selling a couple hundred thousand copies [but] at the time you needed to sell even more."[10]

1970s

Strange's next appearance was in the first three issues of the showcase title Marvel Feature, appearing in both the main storyline detailing the formation of superhero "non-team" the Defenders, and the related back-up story.[11] The character was showcased in the title Marvel Premiere[12] with one story marking the debut of another of Strange's recurring foes, the entity Shuma-Gorath. To stop Shuma-Gorath entering reality, Strange is forced to shut down the Ancient One's mind, which causes his physical death. The Ancient One, however, assures Strange this was a necessary sacrifice and his soul merges with the cosmic entity Eternity. Strange then assumes the title of Sorcerer Supreme.[13]

1980s - 1990s

The character's adventures continued in a second ongoing series, Doctor Strange: Master of the Mystic Arts, which ran for 81 issues (June 1974 - Feb. 1987). During this period Strange also meets allies Topaz[14] and Rintrah.[15] Following the title's cancellation, the character's adventures continued in a second volume of Strange Tales, which was again published in the "split book" format, and shared with street heroes Cloak and Dagger. The title ran for nineteen issues.[16]

Strange again featured in another self-titled series; Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme. The initial creative team was writer Peter B. Gillis and artists Richard Case & Randy Emberlin, with storylines often written as multi-issue arcs. Strange was written as being on the defensive from the first issue, battling a host of supernatural foes including Dormammu,[17] demons Mephisto and Satannish[18] and encounters with the Werewolf By Night;[19] Ghost Rider;[20] Baron Blood[21] and Morbius the Living Vampire.[22] One significant development was Strange's temporary loss of the title of "Sorcerer Supreme" when he refused to fight a war on behalf of the Vishanti, mystical entities that empowered Strange's spells.[23] Despite this and other setbacks, Strange was triumphant and eventually restored to the title.[24] The series ran for 90 issues (Nov. 1988-June 1996).

Strange appeared - together with original regulars the Human Torch and the Thing - in a one-shot publication called Strange Tales.[25]

The character features in several limited series, the first being Doctor Strange: The Flight of Bones, with a series of spontaneous combustions by criminals instigated by old foe Dormammu.[26] Strange was the catalyst for the creation of a trio of witches in the self-titled Witchesmini-series [27] and also appeared in the self-titled Strange mini-series, written by J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes, with artwork by Brandon Peterson. The series reimagined the character's origin, allies and enemies in a contemporary setting.[28] A second limited series, Doctor Strange: The Oath, written by Brian K Vaughan and illustrated by Marcos Martin, focused on Strange's duty as Sorcerer Supreme and the nature of his powers.[29]

Doctor Strange also appeared in four graphic novels.[30]

The character has remained a constant in the Marvel Universe over the decades, appearing on a regular basis in three volumes of the title Defenders;[31] Secret Defenders[32] and a limited series focused on the Defenders titled The Order.[33] Strange also featured in all three volumes of the title Marvel Team-Up[34] and other one-off stories in titles Marvel Two-In-One;[35] Marvel Fanfare[36] and the alternate universe title What If.[37] The character also featured in the first issue of the title Nightstalkers, forming a team of anti-heroes in preparation for the return of vampires to the Marvel Universe.[38]

Doctor Strange #177 (Feb. 1969): the debut of Strange's short-lived new look. Cover art by Gene Colan and Tom Palmer.

2000s

Strange appears as a supporting character in pivotal stories in 2000s. In New Avengers #7 (July 2005), writer Brian Michael Bendis retconned Marvel history and established that during the Kree-Skrull War,[39] several metahumans, including Strange, formed a secret council called the Illuminati to deal with future threats to Earth.

Strange played a pivotal role at the conclusion of the House of M miniseries, as courtesy of his magic several of the mutant X-Men were able to retain their powers when reality was rewritten.[40] The "Civil War" storyline — involving the introduction of the Superhuman Registration Act and a split in the superhero community — found Strange opposed to mandatory registration. He leaves the Illuminati and goes into seclusion in the Arctic until the issue is resolved.[41]

The New Avengers: Illuminati miniseries revealed that Strange and the Illuminati took proactive steps to avoid global threats by finding and isolating the Infinity Gems, with Strange taking possession of the Soul Gem (a condition being that the individuals hide the Gems and never reveal their location to other members).[42] When Strange returns from the Arctic he secretly shelters the team the New Avengers, formed after the events of the Civil War, in his residence and assists on several missions.[43] Strange suffered a setback when his hands were broken during the events of the "World War Hulk" storyline, and he resorted to the use of dark magic to try and stop the Hulk.[44]

Strange's use of dark magic becomes addictive, as he uses it again to repel an attack on his residence by the crime syndicate of the villain Hood (who is in turn backed by Strange's foe Dormammu).[45] After some reflection, Strange seeks out a successor Sorcerer Supreme, and considers several magic-users such as Wiccan, the Scarlet Witch, Magik, and Doctor Doom, while Dormammu attacks Earth in a bid to seize Strange's power. The Avengers aid Strange against Dormammu's minions, with the Eye of Agamotto choosing Brother Voodoo as Strange's successor.[46]

Fictional biography

Stephen Strange is a world-renowned but selfish neurosurgeon, until a car accident damaged his hands, preventing him from conducting surgery. Depressed and scouring the world for a cure to his condition, Strange locates a hermit called the Ancient One in the Himalayas. After Strange selflessly attempts to thwart the Ancient One's traitorous disciple, Baron Mordo (who would become one of Stange's most enduring antagonists), he is taught the mystic arts.[47]

As the Ancient One's disciple, Strange encounters the entity Nightmare[48] and a number of odd mystical foes[49] before battling his eventual arch-foe: Dormammu, a warlord from a alternate dimension called the "Dark Dimension". Strange is also aided by a nameless girl, who is eventually revealed to be the niece of the villain and called Clea. When Strange helps a weakened Dormammu drive off the ramapaging beasts the Mindless Ones and return them to their prison, he is allowed to leave unchallenged.[50]

Powers and abilities

Doctor Strange is a master magician, and was the holder of the title of "Sorcerer Supreme" of the Marvel Universe for many years.[51] Eternity, the sentience of the Marvel Universe, has described Strange as "more powerful by far than any of your fellow humanoids".[52]

The character can use magic to achieve a number of effects, such as energy projection;[53] teleportation;[54] telepathy;[48] astral projection[55] the creation of materials, such as food[56] and water,[57] or creating planet-wide protective shields.[58] When casting a spell the character is often written to be invoking the name of a mystical entity, such as one of the Vishanti (Hoggoth, Oshtur and Agamotto) or the group the Octessence. These entities usually lend their power to a particular effect, such as the Crimson Bands of Cyttorak, that Strange can use to entrap foes.[59]

Strange was also schooled in the use of dark magic by one-time foe Kaluu, using it to destroy the entity Shuma-Gorath. The use of this magic, however, is both addictive and corruptive and Kaluu had to purge the magic from Strange before it could take full effect.[60]

Other versions

Two months before the debut of the sorcerer-hero Doctor Strange, Stan Lee (editor and story-plotter), Robert Bernstein (scripter, under the pseudonym "R. Berns") and Jack Kirby (artist) introduced a criminal scientist and Ph.D. with the same surname (called "Carl Strange"). Making his sole appearance as an early Iron Man foe, in the Tales of Suspense story, "The Stronghold of Dr. Strange", the character gained mental powers in a freak lightning strike.[61]

The character stars in several alternate universe titles: in the limited series Marvel 1602, Sir Stephen Strange is both the court physician and magician to Queen Elizabeth I.[62] The title Spider-Man 2099 introduces a female version of Strange who shares her body with a demon.[63] In the limited series Marvel Zombies Strange is infected with a zombie virus with many other heroes;[64] and reappears in the third installment in the series, Marvel Zombies 3. After being zombified, Strange is only capable of casting two spells.[65]

In the Marvel imprint MC2, an alternate universe future, Dr. Strange is no longer the Sorcerer Supreme, the title being passed to "Doc Magnus". Dr. Strange uses his remaining power to reform the superhero team the Defenders,[66] and to fight the Norse god of mischief, Loki.[67]

The Ultimate Marvel title Ultimate Marvel Team-Up introduces a version of the character called "Stephen Strange Jr.", the son of the original Doctor Strange.[68] The character is eventually killed in battle by the Ultimate version of Dormammu during the Ultimatum storyline.[69]

In other media

Bibliography

Note: The series' subtitles and the varying use of "Doctor" and "Dr." are according to each series' postal indicia and their varying cover logos.

Series and miniseries

  • Strange Tales #110-111 & 114-168 (July-Aug. 1963 & Nov. 1963-May 1968)
  • Doctor Strange #169-183 (June 1968-Nov. 1969)
Doctor Strange, also known as Doctor Strange: Master of the Mystic Arts #169-175; Dr. Strange #176-181; and Dr. Strange: Master of Black Magic #182-183
  • Marvel Premiere #3-14 (July 1973-March 1974)
  • Doctor Strange vol. 2, #1-81 (June 1974 - Feb. 1987)
Dr. Strange: Master of the Mystic Arts #1; Doctor Strange: Master of the Mystic Arts #2-50; and Doctor Strange #51-81 (Note: #30, 34, 36-37, 40, 42-46, 48 missing subtitle)
  • Strange Tales #182-188 (Nov 1975-Nov 1976; reprints only)
  • Dr. Strange Annual #1 (1976)
  • Doctor Strange Classics #1-4 (March-June 1984; reprints only)
  • Strange Tales vol. 2, #1-19 (April 1987-Oct. 1988)
  • Doctor Strange vol. 3, #1-90 (Nov. 1988 - June 1996)
Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #1-4 and Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #5-90 (Note: Following issue #4, subtitle appears only sporadically)
  • Dr. Strange: Sorcerer Supreme Annual #2-3 & Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme Annual #4 (1992–1994)
  • Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme Special (1992)
  • Secret Defenders (1993 series) #1-25 (March 1993-March 1995)
  • Doctor Strange vol. 4 #1 - 4 (Feb.- May 1999)
  • Witches #1-4 (Aug.-Nov. 2004)
  • Strange #1-6 (Nov. 2004-July 2005)
  • X-Statix Presents Deadgirl #1-5 (Dec. 2005-April 2006)
  • Doctor Strange: The Oath #1-5 (Oct. 2006-March 2007)
  • Strange vol. 2 #1-4 (Nov. 2009–March 2010)

One-shots and graphic novels

  • Giant-Size Dr. Strange #1 (1975; reprints only)
  • Doctor Strange Special Edition #1, also known as Dr. Strange/Silver Dagger Special Edition #1 (March 1983)
  • Marvel Graphic Novel #23: Doctor Strange: Into Shamballa (1986 graphic novel)
  • Doctor Strange and Doctor Doom: Triumph and Torment (1989 graphic novel)
  • Doctor Strange & Ghost Rider Special #1 (April 1991; reprints only)
  • Spider-Man / Dr. Strange: The Way To Dusty Death (no number; 1992)
  • Dr. Strange vs. Dracula #1 (March 1994; reprints only)
  • Dr. Strange: What is It that Disturbs You, Stephen? (no number; Oct. 1997)
  • Custom: Lions Gate Dr. Strange #0 (prologue to the animated feature as well as four-page story by the "The Oath" team; came with the animated "Iron Man" DVD; Jan. 2007)

Collected editions

Various stories have been collected into separate volumes.

Essential Marvel black and white softcovers:

  • Doctor Strange (Vol. 1) (1963–1968) Strange Tales #110-111, 114-168 (2002). ISBN 0-7851-2316-4
  • Doctor Strange (Vol. 2) (1968–1974) Doctor Strange #169-178, 180-183, Avengers (vol. 1) #61, Sub-Mariner #22, Hulk (vol. 1) #126, Marvel Feature #1, Marvel Premiere #3-10, 12-14. (2005) ISBN 0-7851-1668-0
  • Doctor Strange (Vol. 3) (1974–1978) Doctor Strange #1-29, Annual #1, The Tomb of Dracula #44-45. (2007) ISBN 978-0785127338
  • Doctor Strange (Vol. 4) (1978–1981) Doctor Strange #30-56, Chamber of Chills #4, Man-Thing #4 (2009). ISBN 978-0785130628

Full-color hardcover Marvel Masterworks volumes:

  • Doctor Strange: Vol. 1 - Strange Tales #110-111, 114-141 (1992 & 2003). ISBN 0-7851-1180-8
  • Doctor Strange: Vol. 2 - Strange Tales #142-168 (2005). ISBN 0-7851-1737-7
  • Doctor Strange: Vol. 3 - Doctor Strange #169-179, Avengers (vol. 1) #61 (2007). ISBN 0-7851-2410-1
  • Doctor Strange: Vol. 4 - Doctor Strange #180-183, Sub-Mariner #22, Incredible Hulk #126, Marvel Feature #1, Marvel Premiere #3-8 (January 2010). ISBN 978-0-7851-3495-4

Trade paperbacks collections:

  • Doctor Strange: A Separate Reality - Marvel Premiere #9-10, 12-14, Dr. Strange (2nd series) #1-2, 4-5 (2002). ISBN 0-7851-0836-X

References

  1. ^ Green, Robin. "Face Front! Clap Your Hands, You're on the Winning Team!", Rolling Stone #91, September 16, 1971, p. 31
  2. ^ Strange Tales #134 at the Grand Comics Database: "Indexer Notes: Part 5 of 17. First mention of Eternity. Strange would finally find it in Strange Tales #138 (November 1965)".
  3. ^ Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation: Transformation of a Youth Culture, Johns Hopkins, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5. p. 213
  4. ^ The blue "novice" version appears in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963) and the "master" version in Strange Tales #127 (Dec. 1964)
  5. ^ Strange Tales #147 (Aug. 1966)
  6. ^ With layouts by George Tuska on #166 (March 1968)
  7. ^ Doctor Strange #178 (March 1969)
  8. ^ Doctor Strange #179 (April 1969)
  9. ^ Doctor Strange #182 (Sept. 1969)
  10. ^ Thomas (interviewer) in "So You Want a Job, Eh? The Gene Colan Interview", Alter Ego Vol. 3, #6 (Autumn 2000) pp. 13-14
  11. ^ Marvel Feature #1 (Dec. 1971); Marvel Feature #2 (March 1972) & Marvel Feature #3 (June 1972)
  12. ^ Marvel Premiere #3-14 (July 1972 - March 1974)
  13. ^ Marvel Premiere #8-10 (May, July & Sept. 1973)
  14. ^ Doctor Strange vol. 2, #75-81 (Feb. 1986 - Feb. 1987; bi-monthly)
  15. ^ Doctor Strange vol. 2. #80 (Dec. 1986)
  16. ^ Strange Tales vol. 2, #1 - 19 (April 1987 - Oct. 1988)
  17. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #1-2 (Nov. 1988 & Jan. 1989)
  18. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #5-8 (July-Oct. 1989)
  19. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #26-27 (Feb.-March 1991)
  20. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #28 (April 1991)
  21. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #29-30 (May-June 1991)
  22. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #52 (April 1993)
  23. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #48-49 (Dec. 1992-Jan. 1993)
  24. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #80 (Aug. 1995)
  25. ^ Strange Tales (Nov. 1994)
  26. ^ Doctor Strange:The Flight of the Bones #1-4 (Feb.-May 1999)
  27. ^ Witches #1-4 (Aug.-Nov. 2004)
  28. ^ Strange #1-6 (Nov. 2004-Apr, 2005)
  29. ^ Doctor Strange: The Oath #1-5 (Dec. 2006 - April 2007)
  30. ^ 'Doctor Strange: Into Shamballa (1986); Doctor Strange & Doctor Doom: Triumph and Torment (1989); Spider-Man / Dr. Strange: The Way To Dusty Death (1992) and Dr. Strange: What is It that Disturbs You, Stephen? (Oct. 1997)
  31. ^ Defenders #1-152 (Aug. 1972 - Feb. 1986); Defenders vol. 2, #1-12 (March 2001 - Feb. 2002) & Defenders vol. 3, #1-5 (Sept. 2005 - Jan. 2006)
  32. ^ Secret Defenders #1-25 (March 1993 - March 1995)
  33. ^ The Order #1-6 (April-Sept. 2002)
  34. ^ Marvel Team-Up #21(May 1974); #35 (July 1975); #50 (Oct. 1976); #76 (Dec. 1978); #80-81 (April-May 1979); Marvel Team-Up vol. 2, #8-9 (April-May 1998) & Marvel Team-Up vol. 3, #3 (Feb. 2005) & #11-13 (Oct.-Nov. 2005)
  35. ^ Marvel Two-In-One #6 (Nov. 1974) & #49 (March 1979)
  36. ^ Marvel Fanfare #5-6 (Nov. 1982 & Jan. 1983); #8 (May 1983); #21 (July 1985); #41 (Dec. 1988); #49 (Feb. 1990)
  37. ^ What If? #18 (Dec. 1979) & #40 (Aug. 1983)
  38. ^ Nightstalkers #1 - 19 (Nov. 1992 - April 1994)
  39. ^ Avengers #88-97 (June 1971 - March 1972)
  40. ^ House of M #1-6 (Aug. 2005 - Jan. 2006)
  41. ^ Civil War #1–7 (July 2006–Jan. 2007)
  42. ^ New Avengers: Illuminati #1-5 (Feb. 2007 - Jan. 2008)
  43. ^ New Avengers #27 (April 2007)
  44. ^ World War Hulk #1-5 (Aug. 2007 - Jan. 2008)
  45. ^ New Avengers Annual #2 (Jan. 2008)
  46. ^ New Avengers #51-54 (March-Aug. 2009)
  47. ^ Strange Tales #115 (Dec. 1963)
  48. ^ a b Strange Tales #110 (July 1963)
  49. ^ Strange Tales #110 - 125 (July 1963 - Oct. 1964)
  50. ^ Strange Tales #126 (Nov. 1964)
  51. ^ Beyond! #6 (Feb. 2007)
  52. ^ Marvel Fanfare #41 (Feb.1, 1989)
  53. ^ Doctor Strange vol. 2, #1 (June 1974)
  54. ^ Defenders #13 (May 1974)
  55. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #1 (Nov. 1988)
  56. ^ Defenders #18 (Dec. 1974)
  57. ^ Defenders #6 (June 1973)
  58. ^ Defenders #8 (Sep. 1973)
  59. ^ The Defenders #15 (Sep. 1974)
  60. ^ Strange Tales vol. 2, #8-14 (Nov. 1987 - May 1988)
  61. ^ Tales of Suspense #41 (May 1963)
  62. ^ Marvel 1602 #1-8 (Nov. 2003 - June 2004)
  63. ^ Spider-Man 2099 #33 (July 1995)
  64. ^ Marvel Zombies #1-5 (Feb.-June 2006)
  65. ^ Marvel Zombies 3 #1-4 (Dec. 2008 - March 2009)
  66. ^ A-Next #3 (Dec. 1998)
  67. ^ Last Hero Standing #4 (Feb. 2005)
  68. ^ Ultimate Marvel Team-Up #12 (July 2002)
  69. ^ Ultimatum #1 (Dec. 2008); #2 (Jan. 2009); #3 - 4 (May 2009); #5 (Sep. 2009)

External links








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