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A Doctor of Pharmacy is a professional doctorate degree. In some countries, including the US, it is a first professional degree, and a prerequisite for licensing.

Contents

North America

Canada

In Canada the PharmD program is offered in both English and French. Currently in Canada the PharmD program is a post-baccalaureate program. Students enrolled in the program must have graduated from a CCAPP (Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs) or an ACPE (Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education) school with an accredited teaching program or must have passed the PEBC (Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada) Evaluating and Qualifying examinations. As of fall 2007, the PharmD program is offered at the Université de Montréal (in French) and is the first Canadian university to give this program instead of the baccalaureate program in pharmacy. The PharmD program was offered as a graduate program.

United States

In the United States, the PharmD. (Doctor of Pharmacy) degree is a professional degree that prepares the graduate for pharmacy practice. It is awarded after four years of pharmacy school, including one year of practice experience. Students may apply to pharmacy school after taking an entry test (PCAT) and completing 60-90 credit hours (2-3 years) of university coursework in the sciences, mathematics, composition and humanities. Many pharmacy students complete a bachelors degree before entry to pharmacy school.

Total time: 2-4 years undergraduate (Associate or Bachelor degree), 4 years professional (PharmD), optional 1-3 years of specialization (residency/fellowship).

Previously, in the United States, the bachelor's degree in pharmacy was the first-professional degree for pharmacy practice. Some schools and colleges of pharmacy offered a post-baccalaureate graduate Pharm.D. degree. These graduate level degrees became prevalent in US programs in the late 1960s.

In 1990, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mandated that a doctor of pharmacy degree would be the new first-professional degree. Currently all accredited schools and colleges of pharmacy in the US offer the Pharm.D. degree. Many also offer post-Pharm.D. graduate programs in specialized areas of the profession.

The current PharmD degree curriculum is very different than that of the prior BS in pharmacy and now includes extensive didactic clinical preparation and a full year of hands-on practice experience.

Europe

Spain

In Spain, Pharmacy studies can be accessed after completing five and a half years of University College (with at least 6 months of initiation to Pharmacy Practice). The Licenciado en Farmacia or Grado en Farmacia Spanish degree is the only title that allows to practice the profession of Pharmacy in Spain. To become a Hospital Pharmacist a person with a degree in Pharmacy must enter a selection process (national selection process called FIR) to initiate a Pharmacy Residency period of professional training during 4 additional years (including one full year of advanced clinical practice in different medical wards). Apart from the professional degrees, like with any other university studies, Pharmacy degree allows to pursue an academic career by enrolling masters and doctorates programs (MSc and PhD) in several scientific fields (pharmaceutical technology, pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutics, biomedical sciences, pharmaceutical and organic chemistry, physical chemistry, food sciences, pharmacology, toxicology, public health, etc.). Masters usually lasts 1–2 years and PhD's no less than 4 years.

In summary, in Spain an entry-level pharmacy degree lasts 5 years and a Hospital Pharmacy Specialist needs 9.5 years of education and/or training. Hospital Pharmacy Residents are paid during their residency period. There are other residencies avalailable to pharmacists such as Medical Biology, Clinical Biochemistry, Immunology, Microbiology, Radiopharmacy, Pharmaceutical Analysis, and Industrial Pharmacy lasting from 2 to 4 years. Pharmacists usually work as retail pharmacists (private practice), hospital pharmacists, primary care pharmacists, medical biologists, scientists (private and public biomedical research institutions), as university professors (Pharmacy, Medicine, Biology, Food Sciences, Biochemistry, Veterinary, Nursing, etc.), and as technicians and exceutive managers (pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and governmental institutions).

Portugal

In Portugal, Pharmacy studies can be accessed after completing 4 years of basic school, 5 years of preparatory school, and three years of high school where afterward the student is submitted to nation wide exams. The process is the same for every degree the student chooses, from medicine to engineering. The student takes the Master's degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences (equivalent to the PharmD program) in one of the 9 Pharmacy faculties with their own respective numerous clausus which comprises a 6 year rigorous study (5 with the uniformities in EU teaching). Finished the degree the student then enrolls in the regulatory institution for the Pharmacist profession in Portugal called, "Pharmacists Order" or in Portuguese "Ordem dos Farmacêuticos". After the enrollment the title of Doctor of Pharmacy is issued. Afterward, Pharmacists can become their career in a limitless number of professional areas that range from community pharmacies, drug development, health research, biotechnology to areas such as forensic sciences, food analysis and toxicology. The student can also choose to become a specialist in one of following areas of activity: Pharmaceutical Industry, Pharmaceutical Regulamentation, Hospital Pharmacy, and Clinical Analysis. Each specialization requires an additional 5 year professional study program guided by a tutor in the respective area of knowledge. This training includes regular evaluations by the professional order, which also requires an exam at the end of the 5 year training. After the success at the exam, the Pharmacist then becomes a specialist, respectively, an Industrial Pharmacist, Regulamentation Pharmacist, Comunitary Pharmacist, Hospital Pharmacist, and Clinical Analyst.

Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic, the PharmDr. (Pharmaciae doctor) diploma can be obtained by pharmacists who have previously graduated in pharmacy (Magister, Mgr.) (the undergraduate study of pharmacy takes 5 years). Applicants must defend a research or experimental thesis, and pass a rigorous examination. The PharmDr. title is highly prestigious. It is different from the postgraduate Ph.D. diploma.

France

In France, pharmacy studies can only be accessed through a competitive examination ("concours", with numerus clausus) happening at the end of the first year, similarly to Medicine studies. Most candidates hold a Scientific Baccalaureate from the equivalent to high schools (lycée). In case of failure, it is possible to retry once (twice in extremely rare cases). Yearly success rate depends on the university's current numerus clausus and the number or registered students, ranging from 10 to 40% bearing in mind that second-time participants are three to four times more likely to succeed than students trying for the first time.
The studies last a minimum of 6 years, or 9 years for students choosing hospital pharmacy or medical biology. It is a residency accessible through another competitive exam, even more selective. It lasts four years and give an another diploma of specialist like in medicine (DES for "diplôme d'études spécialisées" ) . Students must specialise when entering the 5th year, and choose between dispensing pharmacy, pharmaceutical industry or hospital internship. In any case, a 12-month part-time hospital externship is mandatory during the 5th year, although some flexibility is possible for students choosing industry.
6th year for industry is generally dedicated to further specialisation with a former diplôme d'études supérieures spécialisées (DESS)/Professional Master's degree or a former diplôme d'études approfondies (DEA)/Research Master's degree.
State diploma for the Doctorate of Pharmacy, Pharm D., is granted to pharmacists after they have completed a thesis (

In France, since the harmonization of European Union in September 2005, the student who chooses the industry/research orientation have a 6 month period of part time hospital externship, and 3 to 6 month of full time training in a pharmaceutical industry or a research lab.

It is also possible to defend a research thesis for preparing a Ph.D.

Hungary

In Hungary, pharmacists obtain their Master's degree, after 5 years of study. On the fifth year,
students must undergo a professional training, that lasts for six months in a public pharmacy
or a hospital.
At the end of this period, the student must pass a nation wide exam to be legally entitled
for practicing the profession of pharmacy, after acquiring the pharmacist work license.
According to the new law in 2008, all pharmacists, who have acquired the Masters degree of Pharmacy,
are entitled to the Pharm D (Doctor of Pharmacy).

Italy

In Italy the Master's degree in Pharmacy last 5 years, which includes a 6-months professional training in a public pharmacy or hospital. At the end of this period, the student must pass a nation wide exam to be legally entitled for practising the profession of pharmacist. The subscription to "Pharmacists Order", or in Italian "Ordine dei Farmacisti", is required for working in public pharmacies or hospitals. It is not required if the pharmacist is working in a private entity (e.g. a pharmaceutical company).

After having obtained the Master degree in Pharmacy, the student may also choose to become a specialist in Hospital Pharmacy, with an additional 5 year professional study program and respective final exam.

Netherlands

The education of pharmacists in the Netherlands requires a minimum of six years of university study. EU-harmonisation has led to division into three bachelor and three master years. A bachelor title is, however, not used at all professionally. The Dutch consider the educational level of their current (M.Sc.) Degree in Pharmacy to be comparable to the PharmD title in use in the United States. Before the harmonization a four year Master of Science was superseded by two more years of university education preparing for pharmacy practice. To become a hospital pharmacist a 4-year residency program has to completed after that.

Middle East

United Arab Emirates

The Gulf Pharmacy College[1], under the Gulf Medical University[2] is the First Institution in the region to provide an innovative, integrated, comprehensive and patient-centered Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D) Program to the qualified students, using world-class facilities, clinical simulations and the latest technologies to ensure excellence in pharmacy practice. The teaching/learning is based on directed self-learning, critical thinking, evidence-based and patient related approach. The didactic part of the program focuses on the integration of basic and medical sciences subjects which are clinically oriented. Clinical simulations in various subjects allow the students to enhance their skills and monitor their performance through self-assessments using I.T. learning means. Students are exposed from the early stage to the clinical environment in order to better understanding the relations of the human body to the clinical practice.

Iran

In 1930 Tehran University changed the Pharmacy degree from Masters to doctorate (Pharm.D. or Doctor in Pharmacy) and the duration of the study was increased to 5 years. Graduates need to present and defend their theses in different fields of pharmacy and this adds another year to their studies and generally after 6 years students can graduate as Doctor in Pharmacy. The Masters degree in Pharmacy was available in Tehran University since 1926.

Lebanon

In Lebanon, the first Doctor of Pharmacy degree was awarded by the Lebanese University Faculty of Pharmacy (upon a decree by the Lebanese government) to its graduating class of 19 students in 1992. The program was first established by Dr. Anwar Bikhazi, a Pharmacy graduate of the American University of Beirut with a PhD from the University of Michigan. The 6-year entry level PharmD program at the Lebanese University adopted the US PharmD curriculum and training. Enrollment into the program is highly competitive with an average admission rate of 20% of applicants. This was the leading PharmD program in the Middle East, which was followed by other mirror copies of similar programs in Lebanon and neighboring countries, such as the one provided by the Lebanese American University (LAU).

Qatar

In Qatar, pharmacy degrees are offered by the new College of Pharmacy at the Qatar University. Students were accepted into the 5-year BSc (Pharm) program commencing in 2007. Students will be accepted into the final year of the 6-year PharmD program in 2011. Accordingly, the first graduates of the PharmD program are expected in 2012. The program adopts a Canadian curriculum and received early accreditation by the Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs (CCAPP) in February 2009. This is the first international program to undergo review and receive accreditation by this sole Canadian accreditation agency.

Saudi Arabia

Started in 2001 at KAU, then in 2005 at Ibn-Sina University, then 2006 at KFU, then 2007 at Qassim University. In 2008, KSU College of Pharmacy at Riyadh, College of Pharmacy at Kharj, and Taif University started their PHARM-D programs.

The degree duration in Saudi Arabia is six years in total including one academic year clinical rotations.

According to the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS), if a student graduated from a (minimum six years) PHARM-D degree, the graduate have the chance to further develop himself. This can be achieved by taking Accredited Residency Training Program that is at least one year long (total seven years minimum). Upon successfully completing both the Residency program and the PHARM-D, the graduate can apply for Professional Equivalent (only equivalent in practice) to the Master degree in Pharmacy.

Egypt

The degree is offered in numerous universities. The study material is explained in Arabic. The text books and exams are in English, however the final thesis must be provided in English. Such universities offering this type of curriculum include: Cairo University, Ain Shams University, Alexadria University, Helwan University, Assuit University, Mansoura University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University and Tanta University.

Asia

Bangladesh

The degree is offered in numerous universities. The study material is explained english. The text books and exams are in English, thesis is provided in English. The universities are University of Dhaka since 1964, Jahangirnagar University since 1982, Rajshahi University, Khulna university & Noakhali Science & technology University. All these are government university. Besides there are 20 private universities in bangladesh offering Pharmacy education. B. Pharm is completed in 4 year and M. Pharm in one years.

India

D.Pharm (2 years course) is the minimum qualification required to be a registered pharmacist in India. B.Pharm (4 years course) course is offered in various Universities. Some universities also offer Pharm.D (6 years course)

And also the Pharmacy Council of India permitted few universities to start Pharm.D (post baccalaureate)(2 years + 1 year internship in a 300 bedded hospital)for B pharmacy graduates. The first batch of Pharm.D students will graduate by 2011.

The Government of India published news to this effect in The Gazette of India, no 19, part 3, section 4 on 10th MAY 2008.

Philippines

In the Philippines, only the Centro Escolar University offers the degree Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD). The degree requires the completion of 52 units of formal course work and 36 units of clinical rotation done at the Makati Medical Center. It is a 2-year postbaccalaureate degree open to licensed pharmacists in the Philippines. [3]

Thailand

In Thailand, Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD)program first established at Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences [4]Naresuan University [5]in 1992.and Faculty of Pharmacy [6] Siam University [7] in 2007.

Pakistan

'Pakistan';Pharmacy Council of Pakistan and HEC permitted few universities to start Pharm D (5 years). University of Peshawar www.upesh.edu.pk (Department of Pharmacy;http://www.upesh.edu.pk/academics/Departments/pharmacy/pharmacy.htm) was the first institute which started first regular session of 5 years degree pharm-d in 2003. Doctor of Pharmacy course is spread over a period of five years. Each year terminates to a professional examination. As a requirement for the fulfilment of the degree of Pharm.D, students have to complete their "Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship" during fourth and the fifth professional which involves rotations to the assigned wards of Teaching Hospitals and the completion of "Clinical Pharmacy Practice Project-Thesis" at the end of clerkship. Students have to present this Thesis and have to appear in the viva voce examination and have to defend their thesis in order to get it approved. Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar is the leading role model in this regards. The provincial government has approved three local hospitals(Khyber Teaching Hospital, Lady Reading Hospital and the Hayatabad Medical Complex)for Clerkship rotations for Pharm.D students of University of Peshawar. Students visit various wards and have following job description;same programm is started in BZU MULTAN this university producing 200 doctor of pharmacy per annum,these pharma doctors are involved in govt sector,manufacturind drugs,marketing,clinical,and some of them are out of country for study or for pracice

During the Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship rotations to various wards of the hospitals, students are involved in following activities; • Participation in Medical Rounds. • Patient Medication Reviews. • Ensuring Rational Drug Therapy i.e. Safe, Approriate and Cost-effectives use of medicines. • Prescription Monitoring & Screening. • Medication History Taking and Recording. • Detecting, interpreting, correcting and properly documenting various drug-related problems as; 1. Drug Interactions (Drug-Drug, Drug-Food, Drug-Lab Data etc). 2. Adverse Drug Reactions (Potential & visible). 3. Untreated Conditions.

4. Improper Drug Selection. 5. Drug Allergies/Sensitivities. 6. Over/Under Dosage. 7. Inappropriate/Wrong Dosage Form/Route of administration. 8. Polypharmacy. 9. Inappropriate monitoring. 10. Administration of Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs without monitoring. 11. Inappropriate duration of therapy. 12. Miscellaneous problems. • Patient education & counseling on safe, appropriate & effective use of medicines and various healthcare products. • Provision of Drug Information to Physician, other healthcare professional and to patients and their attendants whenever needed or requested. • Learning various Medical Terminologies used in various wards of the Hospital. • Learning various Diagnostic Tests & their Interpretation. • Learning Drug Use in; 1. Paeds. 2. Geriatrics. 3. Pregnancy. 4. Liver Disorder. 5. Hepatic Disorder, etc. • Therapetic Drug Level Monitoring/Use of Narrow Therapeutic Index drugs. • Appropriate use of drugs (maximizing beneficial effects of drugs). • Safe use of drugs (minimizing adverse and untowards efeects of the drugs). • Various other Miscellaneous activities.

At the same time, students are given a practical work book. Internee students note various Patient case histories in this book and slve them for various drug-related problems as discussed above. Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship supervisor (Clinical Pharmacy lecturer) supervises the activity, checks regularly practical work books and helps the students in this activity based learning process. After completion of rotations, Students prepare a thesis-report of their work, submit it for approval, and if approved, they appear in viva and after passing their all the course subjects, they are awarded the degree of Pharm.D.

It was the aprl 6, 2009 when department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar declared the result of the final professional examination of the first regular batch of Pharm.D and the successful students were awarded Pharm.D degrees (updated by; Q.M. Tanoli).

Pharmacy College of Punjab also started Pharm.D degree and the first batch has been completed a month before. The subjects in each year are approved by the Academic Council of University of the Punjab, Lahore and Higher Education Commission formerly known as University Grant Commission. Candidates for admission should have completed F.Sc. (Pre-medical) or B.Sc. (After F.Sc. Pre-medical) or equivalent examination holding at least 2nd Division in the Examination on the basis of which he/she is seeking admission. All the students (except foreigners) must have to appear in Entry Test. To practice in Pakistan, pharmacist must be enroled with either provincial councils or to Pakistan Pharmacy Council. An outline of course and subjects that are currently being taught at Punjab University are as follows:

Course Name... Term/ Semester/ Year of study

Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Organic) 1st Year   
Pharmaceutical Biochemiry 1st Year   
Pharmaceutics-I (Physical Pharmacy) 1st Year   
Physiology & Histology 1st Year   
Anatomy 1st Year   
Pharmaceutical Mathematics & Biostatistics 1st Year   
Pharmaceutics-II (Pharmaceutical Preparations) 2nd Year   
Pharmacology and Therapeutics-I 2nd Year   
Pharmacognosy-I 2nd Year   
Pharmaceutical Microbiology 2nd Year   
Pakistan Studies and Islamiat (Compulsory) 2nd Year   
Pathology 3rd Year   
Pharmacology and Therapeutics-II 3rd Year   
Pharmacognosy-II 3rd Year   
Pharmaceutics-III (Dispensing and Community Pharmacy) 3rd Year   
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II (Analytical) 3rd Year   
Pharmaceutics-IV (Hospital Pharmacy) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutics-V (Clinical Pharmacy-I) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutics-VI (Industrial Pharmacy) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutics-VII (Biopharmaceutics) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutics-VIII (Pharmaceutical Quality Control) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Medicinal) 5th Year   
Pharmaceutics-IX (Clinical Pharmacy-II) 5th Year   
Pharmaceutical Technology 5th Year   
Forensic Pharmacy 5th Year   
Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing 5th Year   
Computer and its Applications in Pharmacy 5th Year  

Pharmacy Council of Pakistan is a professional body responsible for the registration of pharmacists and promotion of pharmacy education in the country. Contact address: Mr. Naziruddin Ahsan Secretary Pharmacy Council of Pakistan Taimur Chamber, Blue Area, Islamabad Tel: (051) 9204191 Pharm D is a basic degree course at the moment and eligibility criteria for Ph.D. Other eligible qualification are B. Pharmacy, Pharm. D., M. Phil degree in Pharmacy or equivalent. Courses at Karaci University are at http://www.uok.edu.pk/faculties/pharmacy/courses.php,, For LCWU can be seen at http://www.lcwu.edu.pk/courses/12.pdf, ; Pu Outlines http://www.pu.edu.pk/course/description.asp?programid=3801


A Doctor of Pharmacy is a professional doctorate degree. In some countries, including the US, it is a first professional degree, and a prerequisite for licensing.

Contents

North America

Canada

In Canada the PharmD program is offered in both English and French. Currently in Canada the PharmD program is a post-baccalaureate program. Students enrolled in the program must have graduated from a CCAPP (Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs) or an ACPE (Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education) school with an accredited teaching program or must have passed the PEBC (Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada) Evaluating and Qualifying examinations. As of fall 2007, the PharmD program is offered at the Université de Montréal (in French) and is the first Canadian university to give this program instead of the baccalaureate program in pharmacy. The PharmD program was offered as a graduate program.

United States

In the United States, the PharmD. (Doctor of Pharmacy) degree is a professional degree that prepares the graduate for pharmacy practice. It is awarded after four years of pharmacy school, including one year of practice experience. Most states require students to take an entry test[1] (PCAT) and complete 60-90 credit hours (2–3 years) of university coursework in the sciences, mathematics, composition and humanities before entry into a professional program. Many pharmacy students complete a bachelors degree before entry to pharmacy school.

Total time: 2–4 years undergraduate (Associate or Bachelor degree), 4 years professional (PharmD), optional 1–3 years of specialization (residency/fellowship).

Previously, in the United States, the bachelor's degree in pharmacy was the first-professional degree for pharmacy practice. Some schools and colleges of pharmacy offered a post-baccalaureate graduate Pharm.D. degree. These graduate level degrees became prevalent in US programs in the late 1960s.

In 1990, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mandated that a doctor of pharmacy degree would be the new first-professional degree. Currently all accredited schools and colleges of pharmacy in the US offer the Pharm.D. degree. Many also offer post-Pharm.D. graduate programs in specialized areas of the profession.

The current PharmD degree curriculum is very different than that of the prior BS in pharmacy and now includes extensive didactic clinical preparation and a full year of hands-on practice experience.

Europe

Spain

In Spain, Pharmacy studies can be accessed after completing five and a half years of University College (with at least 6 months of initiation to Pharmacy Practice). The Licenciado en Farmacia or Grado en Farmacia Spanish degree is the only title that allows to practice the profession of Pharmacy in Spain. To become a Hospital Pharmacist a person with a degree in Pharmacy must enter a selection process (national selection process called FIR) to initiate a Pharmacy Residency period of professional training during 4 additional years (including one full year of advanced clinical practice in different medical wards). Apart from the professional degrees, like with any other university studies, Pharmacy degree allows to pursue an academic career by enrolling masters and doctorates programs (MSc and PhD) in several scientific fields (pharmaceutical technology, pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutics, biomedical sciences, pharmaceutical and organic chemistry, physical chemistry, food sciences, pharmacology, toxicology, public health, etc.). Masters usually lasts 1–2 years and PhD's no less than 4 years.

In summary, in Spain an entry-level pharmacy degree lasts 5 years and a Hospital Pharmacy Specialist needs 9.5 years of education and/or training. Hospital Pharmacy Residents are paid during their residency period. There are other residencies avalailable to pharmacists such as Medical Biology, Clinical Biochemistry, Immunology, Microbiology, Radiopharmacy, Pharmaceutical Analysis, and Industrial Pharmacy lasting from 2 to 4 years. Pharmacists usually work as retail pharmacists (private practice), hospital pharmacists, primary care pharmacists, medical biologists, scientists (private and public biomedical research institutions), as university professors (Pharmacy, Medicine, Biology, Food Sciences, Biochemistry, Veterinary, Nursing, etc.), and as technicians and exceutive managers (pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and governmental institutions).

Portugal

In Portugal, Pharmacy studies can be accessed after completing 4 years of basic school, 5 years of preparatory school, and three years of high school where afterward the student is submitted to nation wide exams. The process is the same for every degree the student chooses, from medicine to engineering. The student takes the Master's degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences (equivalent to the PharmD program) in one of the 9 Pharmacy faculties with their own respective numerous clausus which comprises a 6 year rigorous study (5 with the uniformities in EU teaching). Finished the degree, the academic title of Doctor of Pharmacy is issued. The graduate can then enroll in the regulatory institution for the Pharmacist profession in Portugal called, "Portuguese Pharmaceutical Society" or in Portuguese "Ordem dos Farmacêuticos". After the enrollment the title of Pharmacist is issued. Afterward, Pharmacists can start their career in a limitless number of professional areas that range from community pharmacies, drug development, fundamental or applied research, biotechnology to areas such as forensic sciences, toxicology, regulatory affairs, clinical analysis, law enforcement (scientific police), bromatology, drug marketing, regulatory authorities, university teachers, etc. The Pharmacists can also choose to become a specialist in one of following areas of activity: Pharmaceutical Industry, Regulatory Affairs, Hospital Pharmacy, and Clinical Analysis. Each specialization requires an additional 5 year professional study program guided by a tutor in the respective area of knowledge. This training includes regular evaluations by the professional order, which also requires an exam at the end of the 5 year training. After the success at the exam, the Pharmacist then becomes a specialist in its area of expertise.

Czech Republic and Slovakia

In both countries, the PharmDr. (Pharmaciae doctor) diploma can be obtained by pharmacists who have previously graduated in pharmacy (Magister, Mgr.) (the undergraduate study of pharmacy takes 5 years). Applicants must defend a research or experimental thesis, and pass a rigorous examination. The PharmDr. title is highly prestigious and written in front of the name. It is different from the postgraduate Ph.D. diploma.

France

In France, pharmacy studies can only be accessed through a competitive examination ("concours", with numerus clausus) happening at the end of the first year, similarly to Medicine studies. Most candidates hold a Scientific Baccalaureate from the equivalent to high schools (lycée). In case of failure, it is possible to retry once (twice in extremely rare cases). Yearly success rate depends on the university's current numerus clausus and the number or registered students, ranging from 10 to 40% bearing in mind that second-time participants are three to four times more likely to succeed than students trying for the first time.
The studies last a minimum of 6 years, or 9 years for students choosing hospital pharmacy or medical biology. It is a residency accessible through another competitive exam, even more selective. It lasts four years and gives another diploma of specialist like in medicine (DES for "diplôme d'études spécialisées" ) . Students must specialise when entering the 5th year, and choose between dispensing pharmacy, pharmaceutical industry or hospital internship. In any case, a 12-month part-time hospital externship is mandatory during the 5th year, although some flexibility is possible for students choosing industry.
6th year for industry is generally dedicated to further specialisation with a former diplôme d'études supérieures spécialisées (DESS)/Professional Master's degree or a former diplôme d'études approfondies (DEA)/Research Master's degree.
State diploma for the Doctorate of Pharmacy, Pharm D., is granted to pharmacists after they have completed a thesis (

In France, since the harmonization of European Union in September 2005, the student who chooses the industry/research orientation have a 6 month period of part time hospital externship, and 3 to 6 month of full time training in a pharmaceutical industry or a research lab.

It is also possible to defend a research thesis for preparing a Ph.D.

Hungary

In Hungary, pharmacists obtain their Master's degree, after 5 years of study. On the fifth year,
students must undergo a professional training, that lasts for six months in a public pharmacy
or a hospital.
At the end of this period, the student must pass a nation wide exam to be legally entitled
for practicing the profession of pharmacy, after acquiring the pharmacist work license.
According to the new law in 2008, all pharmacists, who have acquired the Masters degree of Pharmacy,
are entitled to the Pharm D (Doctor of Pharmacy).

Italy

In Italy the Master's degree in Pharmacy last 5 years, which includes a 6-months professional training in a public pharmacy or hospital. At the end of this period, the student must pass a nation wide exam to be legally entitled for practising the profession of pharmacist. The subscription to "Pharmacists Order", or in Italian "Ordine dei Farmacisti", is required for working in public pharmacies or hospitals. It is not required if the pharmacist is working in a private entity (e.g. a pharmaceutical company).

After having obtained the Master degree in Pharmacy, the student may also choose to become a specialist in Hospital Pharmacy, with an additional 4 year professional study program and respective final exam.

Netherlands

The education of pharmacists in the Netherlands requires a minimum of six years of university study. EU-harmonisation has led to division into three bachelor and three master years. A bachelor title is, however, not used at all professionally. The Dutch consider the educational level of their current (M.Sc.) Degree in Pharmacy to be comparable to the PharmD title in use in the United States. Before the harmonization a four year Master of Science was superseded by two more years of university education preparing for pharmacy practice. To become a hospital pharmacist a 4-year residency program has to completed after that.

Middle East

United Arab Emirates

The Gulf Pharmacy College[1], under the Gulf Medical University[2] is the First Institution in the region to provide an innovative, integrated, comprehensive and patient-centered Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D) Program to the qualified students, using world-class facilities, clinical simulations and the latest technologies to ensure excellence in pharmacy practice. The teaching/learning is based on directed self-learning, critical thinking, evidence-based and patient related approach. The didactic part of the program focuses on the integration of basic and medical sciences subjects which are clinically oriented. Clinical simulations in various subjects allow the students to enhance their skills and monitor their performance through self-assessments using I.T. learning means. Students are exposed from the early stage to the clinical environment in order to better understanding the relations of the human body to the clinical practice.

Iran

In 1930 Tehran University changed the Pharmacy degree from Masters to doctorate (Pharm.D. or Doctor in Pharmacy) and the duration of the study was increased to 5 years. Graduates need to present and defend their theses in different fields of pharmacy and this adds another year to their studies and generally after 6 years students can graduate as Doctor in Pharmacy. The Masters degree in Pharmacy was available in Tehran University since 1926.

Lebanon

In Lebanon, the first Doctor of Pharmacy degree was awarded by the Lebanese University Faculty of Pharmacy (upon a decree by the Lebanese government) to its graduating class of 19 students in 1992. The program was first established by Dr. Anwar Bikhazi, a Pharmacy graduate of the American University of Beirut with a PhD from the University of Michigan. The 6-year entry level PharmD program at the Lebanese University adopted the US PharmD curriculum and training. Enrollment into the program is highly competitive with an average admission rate of 20% of applicants. This was the leading PharmD program in the Middle East, which was followed by other mirror copies of similar programs in Lebanon and neighboring countries, such as the one provided by the Lebanese American University (LAU).

Qatar

In Qatar, pharmacy degrees are offered by the new College of Pharmacy at the Qatar University. Students were accepted into the 5-year BSc (Pharm) program commencing in 2007. Students will be accepted into the final year of the 6-year PharmD program in 2011. Accordingly, the first graduates of the PharmD program are expected in 2012. The program adopts a Canadian curriculum and received early accreditation by the Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs (CCAPP) in February 2009. This is the first international program to undergo review and receive accreditation by this sole Canadian accreditation agency.

Saudi Arabia

Started in 2001 at KAU, then in 2005 at Ibn-Sina University, then 2006 at KFU, then 2007 at Qassim University. In 2008, KSU College of Pharmacy at Riyadh, College of Pharmacy at Kharj, and Taif University started their PHARM-D programs.

The degree duration in Saudi Arabia is six years in total including one academic year clinical rotations.

According to the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS), if a student graduated from a (minimum six years) PHARM-D degree, the graduate have the chance to further develop himself. This can be achieved by taking Accredited Residency Training Program that is at least one year long (total seven years minimum). Upon successfully completing both the Residency program and the PHARM-D, the graduate can apply for Professional Equivalent (only equivalent in practice) to the Master degree in Pharmacy.

Egypt

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Asia

Bangladesh

The degree is offered in numerous universities. The study material is taught in English. The text books and exams are in English, thesis is provided in English. The universities are the University of Dhaka since 1964, Jahangirnagar University since 1982, Rajshahi University, Khulna University, and Noakhali Science & Technology University. All of these are government universities. There are also 20 private universities in Bangladesh offering pharmacy education. The B.Pharm is completed in 4 years and the M.Pharm in one year.

India

D.Pharm (2 years course) is the minimum qualification required to be a registered pharmacist in India. B.Pharm (4 years course) course is offered in various Universities. Some universities also offer Pharm.D (6 years course)

And also the Pharmacy Council of India permitted few universities to start Pharm.D (post baccalaureate)(2 years + 1 full working year internship in a 300 bedded hospital)for B pharmacy graduates. The first batch of Pharm.D students will graduate by 2011.

The Government of India published news to this effect in The Gazette of India,no 19, part 3, section 4 on 10 May 2008.it needs hard work.so work hard. best of luck

Philippines

In the Philippines, only the Centro Escolar University offers the degree Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD). The degree requires the completion of 52 units of formal course work and 36 units of clinical rotation done at the Makati Medical Center. It is a 2-year postbaccalaureate degree open to licensed pharmacists in the Philippines. [3]

Thailand

In Thailand, Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD)program first established at Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences [4] Naresuan University [5] in 1992.and Faculty of Pharmacy [6] Siam University [7] in 2007. PAKISTAN

PAKISTAN

New Update in Pakistan

PPA Achievement PPA is please to inform and congratulate all the Pharmacists that the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan (PCP) in its meeting held on 1.10.2010 has approved the Prefix word, Dr, for the Pharmacists holding Pharm D degree, its a great achiivement of PPA who was struggling for this very Important ...issue.

Exaple; Dr.Abid Hussain Pharm.D,Rph


PharmD is the ONLY Basic Pharmacy Degree (5 years program) awarded by universities in Pakistan now. The program has to be approved by Pharmacy Council of Pakistan. Most universities in Pakistan have approved PharmD programs .

Doctor of pharmacy(5Years)programm is started in BZU MULTAN this university producing 200 doctor of pharmacy per annum,these pharma doctors are involved in govt sector,manufacturind drugs,marketing,clinical,and some of them are out of country for study or for pracice

During the Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship rotations to various wards of the hospitals, students are involved in following activities; • Participation in Medical Rounds. • Patient Medication Reviews. • Ensuring Rational Drug Therapy i.e. Safe, Approriate and Cost-effectives use of medicines. • Prescription Monitoring & Screening. • Medication History Taking and Recording. • Detecting, interpreting, correcting and properly documenting various drug-related problems as; 1. Drug Interactions (Drug-Drug, Drug-Food, Drug-Lab Data etc.). 2. Adverse Drug Reactions (Potential & visible). 3. Untreated Conditions.

4. Improper Drug Selection. 5. Drug Allergies/Sensitivities. 6. Over/Under Dosage. 7. Inappropriate/Wrong Dosage Form/Route of administration. 8. Polypharmacy. 9. Inappropriate monitoring. 10. Administration of Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs without monitoring. 11. Inappropriate duration of therapy. 12. Miscellaneous problems. • Patient education & counseling on safe, appropriate & effective use of medicines and various healthcare products. • Provision of Drug Information to Physician, other healthcare professional and to patients and their attendants whenever needed or requested. • Learning various Medical Terminologies used in various wards of the Hospital. • Learning various Diagnostic Tests & their Interpretation. • Learning Drug Use in; 1. Paeds. 2. Geriatrics. 3. Pregnancy. 4. Liver Disorder. 5. Hepatic Disorder, etc. • Therapetic Drug Level Monitoring/Use of Narrow Therapeutic Index drugs. • Appropriate use of drugs (maximizing beneficial effects of drugs). • Safe use of drugs (minimizing adverse and untowards efeects of the drugs). • Various other Miscellaneous activities.

At the same time, students are given a practical work book. Internee students note various Patient case histories in this book and slve them for various drug-related problems as discussed above. Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship supervisor (Clinical Pharmacy lecturer) supervises the activity, checks regularly practical work books and helps the students in this activity based learning process. After completion of rotations, Students prepare a thesis-report of their work, submit it for approval, and if approved, they appear in viva and after passing their all the course subjects, they are awarded the degree of Pharm.D.

 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Organic) 1st Year   
Pharmaceutical Biochemiry 1st Year   
Pharmaceutics-I (Physical Pharmacy) 1st Year   
Physiology & Histology 1st Year   
Anatomy 1st Year   
Pharmaceutical Mathematics & Biostatistics 1st Year   
Pharmaceutics-II (Pharmaceutical Preparations) 2nd Year   
Pharmacology and Therapeutics-I 2nd Year   
Pharmacognosy-I 2nd Year   
Pharmaceutical Microbiology 2nd Year   
Pakistan Studies and Islamiat (Compulsory) 2nd Year   
Pathology 3rd Year   
Pharmacology and Therapeutics-II 3rd Year   
Pharmacognosy-II 3rd Year   
Pharmaceutics-III (Dispensing and Community Pharmacy) 3rd Year   
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II (Analytical) 3rd Year   
Pharmaceutics-IV (Hospital Pharmacy) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutics-V (Clinical Pharmacy-I) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutics-VI (Industrial Pharmacy) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutics-VII (Biopharmaceutics) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutics-VIII (Pharmaceutical Quality Control) 4th Year   
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Medicinal) 5th Year   
Pharmaceutics-IX (Clinical Pharmacy-II) 5th Year   
Pharmaceutical Technology 5th Year   
Forensic Pharmacy 5th Year   
Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing 5th Year   
Computer and its Applications in Pharmacy 5th Year  

Pharmacy Council of Pakistan is a professional body responsible for the registration of pharmacists and promotion of pharmacy education in Pakistan. Contact address: Secretary Pharmacy Council of Pakistan Taimur Chamber, Blue Area, Islamabad Tel: (051) 9204191 Pharm D is a basic degree course at the moment and eligibility criteria for Ph.D. Other eligible qualification are B. Pharmacy, Pharm. D., M. Phil degree in Pharmacy or equivalent(eg Foreign MS from a World Renowned University) are also considered. Courses at Karaci University are at http://www.uok.edu.pk/faculties/pharmacy/courses.php,, For LCWU can be seen at http://www.lcwu.edu.pk/courses/12.pdf, ; Pu Outlines http://www.pu.edu.pk/course/description.asp?programid=3801

Notes








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