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Aquatint of a Doctor of Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position.
^ Bachelor Program distance learning online degree Atlantic International University: bachelor, master, doctoral degree programs by distance learning, online, correspondence, or home study.
  • Bachelor Program distance learning online degree Atlantic International University: bachelor, master, doctoral degree programs by distance learning, online, correspondence, or home study. An affordable, nontraditional, online university for adult and continuing education via distance learning allowing professional adults to finish college earn a degree and advance their careers. 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.aiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When doctoral programs are preparing graduates for academic positions care needs to be taken to see that they are thoroughly prepared to address the needs and priorities of the full range of prospective academic employers.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Doctorate is the highest academic degree attainable in the course of university studies.
  • Doctorate Programs | Where Can I Find a List of Doctorate Programs? 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC education-portal.com [Source type: Academic]

From Rudolph Ackermann's History of Oxford, 1814.
.A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries represents the highest level of formal study or research in a given field.^ Professional doctorate Research doctorate Types of Doctorates See also .
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A doctorate is the highest degree level offered by American universities.
  • Doctorate Programs | Where Can I Find a List of Doctorate Programs? 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC education-portal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A doctorate is an academic degree of the highest level.
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

.In some countries it also refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to practice in a specific profession, such as law or medicine.^ The three most common types of doctoral programs are professional doctorate degrees, such as medicine or law; research doctorates, such as psychology or literature; and honorary degrees, which are normally awarded for longstanding service and outstanding contributions to a field.
  • Doctorate Programs | Where Can I Find a List of Doctorate Programs? 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC education-portal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Professional doctorates are awarded in certain fields where most holders of the degree are not engaged primarily in scholarly research and academic activities, but, rather in a profession, such as law, medicine, music, or ministry.
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Classes in this online doctorate degree program will provide specific knowledge of financial management, managing information systems for healthcare, health policy, global and community health and more.
  • Online Doctorate Degrees 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC degreedirectory.org [Source type: Academic]

.The best-known example of the former is the Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy), while examples of the latter include the U.S. degree of Doctor of Medicine and the Dutch Professional Doctorate in Engineering.^ The Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering (Ph.D.) is a research degree in the engineering sciences with major emphasis on analysis.
  • UC Berkeley Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.ce.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The three most common types of doctoral programs are professional doctorate degrees, such as medicine or law; research doctorates, such as psychology or literature; and honorary degrees, which are normally awarded for longstanding service and outstanding contributions to a field.
  • Doctorate Programs | Where Can I Find a List of Doctorate Programs? 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC education-portal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This article includes the sorts of classes generally taken in the particular Doctoral Program, as well as topics studied, the types of research performed and the sorts of jobs that can be obtained with that degree.
  • Doctorate Programs | Where Can I Find a List of Doctorate Programs? 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC education-portal.com [Source type: Academic]

.In some countries, the highest degree in a given field is referred to as a terminal degree, although this is by no means universal (the phrase is not in general use in the U.K., for example), practice varies from country to country, and a distinction is sometimes made between terminal professional degrees (such as the J.D.) and terminal research degrees (such as the LL.D. J.S.D., or S.J.D.).^ However, even with the many variations and different types of doctorate degrees, students must often fulfill requirements such as field work, residency, or clinical experience.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ Depending on the specific course of study and industry, some professions will not allow online doctorate degree holders to practice until all other requirements have been fulfilled.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
The term doctorate comes from the Latin docere, meaning "to teach", shortened from the full Latin title licentia docendi, meaning "teaching license".[citation needed]

Contents

History

The origin of the doctorate dates back to the ijazat attadris wa 'l-ifta' Arabic: إجازة التّدريس والإفتاء ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval madrasahs which taught Islamic law. .It was equivalent to the Doctor of Laws qualification and was developed during the 9th century after the formation of the Madh'hab legal schools.^ Law School Admissions discusses careers in law which coincide with the value of a Juris Doctorate Degree.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Once the school is approved - he then has the green light to proceed with the development of a doctoral program and the reestablishment of the MIR Doctoral Board.

^ Check the Juris Doctorate Degree list of programs at any of America's great law schools.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.To obtain a doctorate, a student "had to study in a guild school of law, usually four years for the basic undergraduate course" and at least ten years for a post-graduate course.^ The Doctorate II students will meet twice a week for the school year.
  • Kids Community College 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.kidscc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least four of the graduate courses must be in Engineering.
  • UC Berkeley Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.ce.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctorate course activated this year .

The "doctorate was obtained after an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses," and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose" which were scholarly exercises practiced throughout the student's "career as a graduate student of law." After students completed their post-graduate education, they were awarded doctorates giving them the status of faqih (meaning "master of law"), mufti (meaning "professor of legal opinions") and mudarris (meaning "teacher"), which were later translated into Latin as magister, professor and doctor respectively.[2]
.The concept of a doctorate was soon introduced into medieval Europe as a license to teach at a university.^ The Doctor of Philosophy in Paper and Imaging Science and Engineering is designed to prepare engineers and scientists for performing advanced research or for teaching at the university level.
  • Doctoral Degrees 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.wmich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Doctorate Degree in Education at Capella University can help you become an expert at teaching, research, or consulting in your area of practice.

^ The Doctor of Philosophy in Statistics is designed to prepare students for careers in teaching and research in universities, in industry, or in government.
  • Doctoral Degrees 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.wmich.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2] In this sense, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild. .The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Masters of Arts", seven years, was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations.^ Understanding these changes and how new research will affect the care of patients in the years to come requires a higher level of education than ever before.

^ If credit to be transferred was earned before enrollment at this University, the seven-year period of time commences with the beginning date of the term in which the transfer credit was earned.
  • Doctoral Regulations, The Graduate School Bulletin, The Graduate School, UNCG 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.uncg.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ You can use your doctorate as a portal to collaborating with other research specialists who share the same love and interest in the art of music education as you do.

.Originally the terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master's degree.^ Although online master's degree programs can take about six years to complete, the rewards include respected positions of authority and a higher salary range.
  • Top Degree Programs Online at SchoolsGalore.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.schoolsgalore.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An online doctorate degree is clearly worth more than the tuition it costs, and will open opportunities that no other degree could possibly provide.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other than law and medicine, this group of five areas makes up the bulk of all online doctorate degree programs.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The usage and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and it has also been subject to regional variations.^ Be part of that change and contribute to the important field of research by taking the time to choose an accredited university that offers a doctorate online nursing degree .

^ The Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial Engineering is designed to intensify the student's knowledge and comprehension in the various disciplines of the subject with emphasis on original research in a chosen area of specialty.
  • Doctoral Degrees 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.wmich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Please note that all components below, including teaching days, times and modules are subject to change.
  • Frequently Asked Questions: Professional Doctorate in Counselling Psychology - City University London 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.city.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, until the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders.^ In some instances it is possible to include a committee member who is not an Indiana University faculty member, such as a faculty member at another university, on a doctoral committee.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A Doctorate is the highest academic degree attainable in the course of university studies.
  • Doctorate Programs | Where Can I Find a List of Doctorate Programs? 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC education-portal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those who have completed all of their requirements and worked hard throughout will receive a level of mastery and knowledge in their chosen fields that very few individuals will ever attain.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After that time the German practice of requiring prospective lecturers to have completed a "research doctorate" became widespread.^ Depending on the specific course of study and industry, some professions will not allow online doctorate degree holders to practice until all other requirements have been fulfilled.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, Mark found he could reduce the time required to complete his degree and his tuition by taking the test for the subjects in which he already had a strong command.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All research degree students are required to submit a thesis (or dissertation) to complete their program.
  • UTS: Postgraduate course information - UTS Handbook 2009 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.handbook.uts.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, universities' shifts to "research oriented" education increased the importance of the doctorate.^ The Doctor of Philosophy in Statistics is designed to prepare students for careers in teaching and research in universities, in industry, or in government.
  • Doctoral Degrees 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.wmich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Online doctorate degrees can qualify you for a career in higher education or research without all the restrictions and disadvantages of a campus-based university.
  • Top Degree Programs Online at SchoolsGalore.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.schoolsgalore.com [Source type: Academic]

^ University rules and procedures for master's students and doctoral students apply to all research students in UTS: Nursing, Midwifery and Health (see rules 11.1–11.22 ).
  • UTS: Postgraduate course information - UTS Handbook 2009 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.handbook.uts.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

.Today such a doctorate is generally a prerequisite for pursuing an academic career, although not everyone who receives a research doctorate becomes a member of a university.^ The student should describe fully any published or unpublished research, thesis, contributions to the professional or scholarly literature, and other professional or academic experience relevant to an assessment of his or her capacity to pursue doctoral study successfully.
  • Doctoral Programs available online and by distance learning for adults. Atlantic International University: bachelor, master, doctoral degree programs by distance learning, online, correspondence, or home study. An affordable, nontraditional, online university for adult and continuing education via distance learning allowing professional adults to finish college earn a degree and advance their careers. 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.aiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This article includes the sorts of classes generally taken in the particular Doctoral Program, as well as topics studied, the types of research performed and the sorts of jobs that can be obtained with that degree.
  • Doctorate Programs | Where Can I Find a List of Doctorate Programs? 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC education-portal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Whether your goal is to pursue your master's or earn a doctoral degree, you'll find your Argosy University education to be both relevant and flexible.

.Many universities also award "honorary doctorates" to individuals who have been deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or for other contributions to the university or to society.^ The student should describe fully any published or unpublished research, thesis, contributions to the professional or scholarly literature, and other professional or academic experience relevant to an assessment of his or her capacity to pursue doctoral study successfully.
  • Doctoral Programs available online and by distance learning for adults. Atlantic International University: bachelor, master, doctoral degree programs by distance learning, online, correspondence, or home study. An affordable, nontraditional, online university for adult and continuing education via distance learning allowing professional adults to finish college earn a degree and advance their careers. 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.aiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In some instances it is possible to include a committee member who is not an Indiana University faculty member, such as a faculty member at another university, on a doctoral committee.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Even many of the people I know who have completed their doctorates have experienced the burn of tarmac on their departure from the academy.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although the research doctorate is almost universally accepted as the standard qualification for an academic career, it is a relatively new invention.^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DNP thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your EdD thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Doctor of Philosophy in Statistics is designed to prepare students for careers in teaching and research in universities, in industry, or in government.
  • Doctoral Degrees 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.wmich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The older-style doctorates (now usually called "Higher Doctorates" in the United Kingdom) take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects.^ She completed the on-line option and is now a "Doctor".

^ Even tree doctors can call themselves "doctor".

^ Although online master's degree programs can take about six years to complete, the rewards include respected positions of authority and a higher salary range.
  • Top Degree Programs Online at SchoolsGalore.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.schoolsgalore.com [Source type: Academic]

.These doctorates are now less common in some countries, and are often awarded honoris causa.^ This is especially true for domestic students, some of whom begin graduate school with considerably less mathematics knowledge than their counterparts from other countries.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pretty soon, the standard degree for anyone will be one of these "short cut" doctoral degrees; we're almost there now.

.The habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU and involves either a new long thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications.^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DNP thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your EdD thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DCJ thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The habilitation demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing and, more recently, the ability to generate funding within the area of research.^ Such study, however, focuses more on the research design and methodology of research in the major area than on the findings of the research.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Research in this program area can range from specific curriculum issues to more general topics such as assessment, teacher development, and uses of technology.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, candidates for admission to the doctoral program must have a 3.5 GPA. Candidates for admission to the doctoral program must have the support of one faculty member within whose general area the student proposes to work.
  • East Asian Studies - Graduate Handbook - Doctoral Programs 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC eas.web.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "habilitation" is regarded as a senior post-doctoral qualification, many years after the research doctorate, and can be necessary for a Privatdozent (in Germany) or professor position.^ Trainees are allocated a Research Supervisor at the start of Year 2 to help them with their Doctoral research project.
  • Frequently Asked Questions: Professional Doctorate in Counselling Psychology - City University London 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.city.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Professional Doctorate in Health Research (DHRes) A flexible part-time doctoral programme that enables professionals to work towards a doctoral qualification within a supportive and multi-disciplinary research environment.
  • Postgraduate training - RCN 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.rcn.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ These new doctorates must compete for positions with a swelling number of recent PhD's who have taken temporary positions in the last two years.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A similar system traditionally holds in Russia. .Already in the Russian Empire the academic degree doctor of science (doktor nauk) marked the highest academic degree which can be achieved by an examination.^ What ends up happening is that the student will gain prestige by their association with the faculty who themselves have already earned their own online doctorate degree.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doctoral students may apply for the M.A. degree if they have completed 24 credits on an approved Ph.D. plan of study and have passed the doctoral general examination.

^ The Doctor of Philosophy in Political Science is designed to prepare students for careers in teaching, policy analysis and applied as well as academic research.
  • Doctoral Degrees 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.wmich.edu [Source type: Academic]

This system was generally adopted by the USSR/Russia and many post-Soviet countries.

Types of doctorate

See Doctor (title) for more information.
.Since the Middle Ages, there has been considerable evolution and proliferation in the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities throughout the world, and practices vary from one country to another.^ The University disciplines by following its own regulations: the institution of the doctorate courses, the procedure to gain access and to attain the Diploma, the educational objectives, the number of vacancies available, the teachings and their timetable as well as the procedure regarding the grant awarding and amount.

^ There are two elements of this change: (i) the increase in absolute numbers of non-U.S. citizen new doctorates, notably from Asian countries [4] , and (ii) an increased tendency of non-U.S. citizens to remain in the U.S. after receiving the degree.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one would be, nor should they be, addressing me with the "doctor" title in a clinical setting anyway because it would only lend itself to role chaos in clinical practice.

.While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as "doctor", usage of the title varies widely, depending on the type of doctorate earned and the doctor's occupation.^ No one would be, nor should they be, addressing me with the "doctor" title in a clinical setting anyway because it would only lend itself to role chaos in clinical practice.

^ If we get a doctorate, we can proudly use that title, you earned it!

^ No one would be, nor should they be, calling me the "doctor" title in a clinical setting because it would only cause role chaos in clinical practice.

Broadly speaking, doctorates may be loosely classified into the following categories:
Academic doctors gather before the April 2008 Commencement exercises at Brigham Young University

Research doctorates

.Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is (at least in principle) publishable in a peer-refereed academic journal.^ If you don't want to be a History lecturer and do academic research for the rest of your life, then don't do a doctorate .
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The PhD by prospective publication is awarded on the basis of papers that are published in academic journals while the student is studying for his or her doctorate.
  • Postgraduate training - RCN 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.rcn.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ A doctorate degree involves a significant amount of academic preparation, academic research, a written dissertation and an oral defense.

.The best-known degree of this type is that of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, or sometimes DPhil) awarded in many countries throughout the world.^ There are many different types of doctorate degrees.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, even with the many variations and different types of doctorate degrees, students must often fulfill requirements such as field work, residency, or clinical experience.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DCJ thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others include the degree of Doctor of Education, various doctorates in engineering (such as the US Doctor of Engineering,[3] the UK Engineering Doctorate[4] and the German Engineering Doctorate Doktor-Ingenieur and the German degree of Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr.rer.nat.^ However, even with the many variations and different types of doctorate degrees, students must often fulfill requirements such as field work, residency, or clinical experience.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An online doctorate degree is clearly worth more than the tuition it costs, and will open opportunities that no other degree could possibly provide.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other than law and medicine, this group of five areas makes up the bulk of all online doctorate degree programs.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

).
.Criteria for award of research doctorates vary somewhat throughout the world, but typically requires the submission of a substantial body of original research undertaken by the candidate.^ Accompanying the packet must be an extensive original research work, the reflexologist’s Master Thesis (2500 words minimum for the M.R.) or Doctoral Dissertation (5000 words minimum for the D.R.), demonstrating the highly developed depth of reflexology knowledge and experience to which the candidate has attained.

^ The MIRCCB is an organization of, by and for reflexologists; dedicated to the assessment of candidates’ reflexology education and experiences, and their relationship to the MIRCCB award criteria.

^ Professional Doctorate in Practical Theology but that when working together we make a substantial and rich teaching and research contribution to the discipline.
  • Feasibility of a Cross-Institutional Doctorate in Practical Theology 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC prs.heacademy.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.This may take the form of a single thesis or dissertation, or possibly a portfolio of shorter project reports, and will usually be assessed by a small committee of examiners appointed by the university, and often an oral examination of some kind.^ Usually, the committee chair is also the dissertation director.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In some instances it is possible to include a committee member who is not an Indiana University faculty member, such as a faculty member at another university, on a doctoral committee.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Before the end of the first year in the program, each student must submit in writing to the Office of Graduate Studies a form that lists the formally appointed advisory committee and the student's program of studies.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In some countries (such as the US) there may also be a formal taught component, typically consisting of graduate-level courses in the subject in question, as well as training in research methodology.^ Only students holding a baccalaureate degree may earn subsidy at an appropriate M&P level for the graduate courses they take.
  • Memos - Student Enrollment 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC regents.ohio.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, students enrolled in 2+4 Professional Doctorate Programs who are taking graduate courses generally are not eligible to earn subsidy at the M&P level before their fifth year.
  • Memos - Student Enrollment 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC regents.ohio.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The taught component, yrs 1 & 2, requires approximately 15 days attendance per year, the research component, yrs 3 - 5, are supported via tutorials and research student conferences.
  • Postgraduate training - RCN 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.rcn.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The minimum time required to complete a research doctorate varies by country, and may be as short as three years (excluding undergraduate study), although it is not uncommon for a candidate to take up to ten years to complete.^ Study is part-time and although the Masters can be completed within one academic year students can take up to six years.
  • Postgraduate training - RCN 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.rcn.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Phase two will take a minimum of two years to complete.
  • Postgraduate training - RCN 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.rcn.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Full time study is 3 to 4 years or up to 7 years part time.
  • Postgraduate training - RCN 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.rcn.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

Higher doctorates

.In some countries, especially the United Kingdom, Ireland, France and some Scandinavian, Commonwealth nations, or former USSR and other Eastern Bloc countries, there is a higher tier of research doctorates, awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a very high standard.^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DNP thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your EdD thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DCJ thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples include the Doctor of Sciences (DSc/ScD) and Doctor of Letters (DLitt/LittD) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the traditional doctorates in Norway and Denmark, like dr. theol. (Theology), dr. jur. (Law), dr. med. (Medicine) and dr. philos./dr. phil. (after both countries introduced a doctorate at a lower level, the ph.d.). .In Sweden the post-doctorate degree is Docent.^ Those wanting a doctoral degree can pursue this post graduate and choose the degree that most suits their personal goals.

^ The July 8, 1998 definition of doctoral student posted on the Web failed to state that a student must be enrolled in a program that awards the doctoral degree in order to be considered a doctoral student.
  • Memos - Student Enrollment 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC regents.ohio.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In reverse chronological order, here are ADVANCE 's feature articles, columns, Webcasts and blog posts about PA doctorate degrees.

The German habilitation (a formal professorial qualification with thesis and exam) is commonly regarded as belonging to this category. .However, in some German states, the Habilitation is not an academic degree, but rather a professorial certification ("facultas docendi") that the regarding person holds all formal qualifications to teach independently at a German university.^ You get a teaching position at some university.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The primary MIRCCB award is the Doctor of Reflexology, or D.R. The D.R. is not in any way to be construed as an academic college or university degree, but rather, a non-academic, experiential, occupational credential pertaining to teaching, as the root of the word Doctor is the Latin "docere", or teacher.

^ If they want to teach or do research, then I can see the value of getting an MS. So what's the hullaboo about an MS degree and also, the bridge program all about?

In other German states, the "Habilitand" is awarded a formal "Dr. habil." degree. In some cases where such degree is awarded, the regarding person may add "habil." to his or her research doctorate such as "Dr. phil. habil." or "Dr. rer. nat. habil."
.Higher doctorates are often also awarded honoris causa when a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's achievements and contributions to a particular field.^ The formal degree of a doctorate of humane and musical letters would be awarded to Parton at the UT Knoxville College of Arts and Sciences spring commencement ceremony on May 8.
  • UT Knoxville to Award Dolly Parton Honorary Doctorate | Tennessee Today 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.utk.edu [Source type: General]

^ University administrators are keen to increase their market share by awarding longer courses of study with higher degrees (and correspondingly higher per credit costs!

^ The Juris Doctor graduate degree was first awarded by Harvard University in the late 19th century.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

Professional doctorates

Juris Doctor candidates gather before commencement at the University of the Pacific McGeorge School of Law, May 2008
.Professional doctorates are awarded in certain fields where most holders of the degree are not engaged primarily in scholarly research, but rather in a profession, such as law, education, medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, music or ministry.^ However, even with the many variations and different types of doctorate degrees, students must often fulfill requirements such as field work, residency, or clinical experience.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary MIRCCB award is the Doctor of Reflexology, or D.R. The D.R. is not in any way to be construed as an academic college or university degree, but rather, a non-academic, experiential, occupational credential pertaining to teaching, as the root of the word Doctor is the Latin "docere", or teacher.

^ Other than law and medicine, this group of five areas makes up the bulk of all online doctorate degree programs.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples include the U.S. and Canadian degrees of Medicinae Doctor (MD) and Juris Doctor (JD), and the Czech and Slovak degrees of Doctor of Medicine (MUDr.^ There is already a degree called MD, which is a Doctor of Medicine.

^ PA in medical school 03/09/09 6:20 am The clinical doctorate for physician assistants is the MD/DO degree...nothing else.

^ Other than law and medicine, this group of five areas makes up the bulk of all online doctorate degree programs.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

- .Medicinae Universae Doctor) and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (MVDr.^ Doctorate in Veterinary Medicine (DVM) .

- Medicinae Vetenariae Doctor).
.Professional doctorates originated in the United States, with the introduction of the M.D. or Medicinæ Doctor at Columbia University in 1767, [5] or almost 100 years before a research doctorate, or Ph.D., was ever awarded in that country (at Yale in 1861).^ Trainees are allocated a Research Supervisor at the start of Year 2 to help them with their Doctoral research project.
  • Frequently Asked Questions: Professional Doctorate in Counselling Psychology - City University London 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.city.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The July 8, 1998 definition of doctoral student posted on the Web failed to state that a student must be enrolled in a program that awards the doctoral degree in order to be considered a doctoral student.
  • Memos - Student Enrollment 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC regents.ohio.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we assume that almost all of the age 50 or over faculty will leave their positions before year 2008, then it is reasonable to assume that the attrition rate will remain in the 1.5 to 2 percent range over this period.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] The Juris Doctor, the professional degree for lawyers, was introduced in 1870--just a few years after the Ph.D.[7]
.The term Professional Doctorate is also used to refer to research doctorates with a focus on applied research, or research as used for professional purposes.^ Professional Doctorate in Practical Theology but that when working together we make a substantial and rich teaching and research contribution to the discipline.
  • Feasibility of a Cross-Institutional Doctorate in Practical Theology 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC prs.heacademy.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ To quote my wife "I get to sound really important at parties when I use the term "Doctor"!"

^ Swinburne University of Technology is pushing the boundaries a little further by insisting that their overseas Professional Doctorate in Design (DDes) student use it to link up with their supervisors.
  • ASET 2002: Meulenberg - IP video conferences with Professional Doctorate in Design students, Taiwan 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.ascilite.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Among others, these include the degrees of Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT),[9] and Doctor of Professional Studies (DPS in the U.S. or DProf in the U.K.), Doctor of the Built Environment (DBEnv)[10], Doctor of Science in Physical Therapy (DSc or DScPT), and some others in various specified professional fields.^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DNP thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your EdD thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We agreed that we would need to look at various possible models of collaboration, taking into account those already existing at Masters level, those in operation in a European context, and also importantly the fact that we might want to collaborate with those delivering professional doctorates in other disciplines as well as across the field of practical theology.
  • Feasibility of a Cross-Institutional Doctorate in Practical Theology 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC prs.heacademy.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

In Australia, the term is also applied to the S.J.D.,[11] while that degree is also categorized as a research degree.[12] .It appears that the reasoning is not that S.J.D. program in Australia has the goal of preparing better practitioners (as the term is normally applied), but that the research from the degree shall contribute to the practice of law for other practitioners.^ Depending on the specific course of study and industry, some professions will not allow online doctorate degree holders to practice until all other requirements have been fulfilled.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other than law and medicine, this group of five areas makes up the bulk of all online doctorate degree programs.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least PA-C is a standardized, recognizable nation-wide term like MD or DO. "Lastly, there are many reasons why entry level NP practice is being converted to a doctoral degree.

[13]

Honorary doctorates

.When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's contributions to a particular field or philanthropic efforts, it may choose to grant a doctoral degree honoris causa (i.e., "for the sake of the honor"), the university waiving the usual formal requirements for bestowal of the degree.^ However, even with the many variations and different types of doctorate degrees, students must often fulfill requirements such as field work, residency, or clinical experience.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on the specific course of study and industry, some professions will not allow online doctorate degree holders to practice until all other requirements have been fulfilled.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another issue that many potential students often overlook is the requirement for additional licenses and affiliations after they have earned their online doctorate degree, but before they may practice professionally.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14][15] .Some universities (e.g., Cornell University[16], the University of Virginia[17], Massachusetts Institute of Technology[18]) do not award honorary degrees.^ The Juris Doctor graduate degree was first awarded by Harvard University in the late 19th century.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ The full Board of Trustees must also vote unanimously to award the honorary degrees recommended by the Committee.
  • Washington University to give Phyllis Schlafly an honorary doctorate - Feministing 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Honorary Degree Committee is chaired by a member of the Board of Trustees and includes about 20 Washington University students, faculty, staff and other members of the Board of Trustees.
  • Washington University to give Phyllis Schlafly an honorary doctorate - Feministing 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Country-specific practice

Argentina

.In Argentina the doctorate (doctorado)[19] is the highest academic degree.^ A doctorate degree involves a significant amount of academic preparation, academic research, a written dissertation and an oral defense.

^ Start searching Doctors Degree Online Distance Learning On-Campus Doctor's Degree : The highest award a student can earn for graduate study.

.The intention is that candidates produce true and original contributions in a specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.^ Yes, you do have to put in your time doing publishing within your own academic field, but, the opportunities for influence in other ways are vast.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This programme is primarily aimed at experienced practitioners and professionals who have existing research output that would be equivalent to a doctoral level in terms of original contribution to knowledge in their field.
  • Postgraduate training - RCN 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.rcn.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The minor field must demonstrate wholeness within itself and contribute to the student's overall doctoral program.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

[20] .The doctoral candidate's work is presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee.^ Usually, the committee chair is also the dissertation director.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The committee chair and the dissertation director must be full members of the University Graduate School faculty.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The student gives a public presentation of the proposal (which should be scheduled once the committee chair agrees the student is ready to present) and then has the proposal approved by the student’s dissertation committee.
  • East Asian Studies - Graduate Handbook - Doctoral Programs 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC eas.web.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Committee is composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one examiner external to the institution.^ One copy should be placed in the department office for the reference of faculty members who are not on the examination committee.

^ To comply with Graduate School rules for general examinations, there are at least five different faculty members on the two examining committees for the two examination papers for each student.

^ Ed.D. For 90 credit hour and 60 credit hour Ed.D. programs, research committees must have at least three members.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The academic degree of Doctor is conferred after a successful defense of the candidate’s dissertation.^ Upon approval of the plan of study, passing the general examination, and having had the dissertation proposal fully approved by the Executive Committee of the Graduate Faculty Council, the student becomes a candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

^ A doctorate degree involves a significant amount of academic preparation, academic research, a written dissertation and an oral defense.

^ The doctoral research committee has the responsibility to guide the student through the dissertation process and to conduct the final oral defense.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

[21] .Currently, there are approximately 2,151 postgraduate careers in the country, of which 14% were doctoral degrees.^ There are two elements of this change: (i) the increase in absolute numbers of non-U.S. citizen new doctorates, notably from Asian countries [4] , and (ii) an increased tendency of non-U.S. citizens to remain in the U.S. after receiving the degree.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no value added to our training or our current function by having doctoral training.

^ There is already a degree called MD, which is a Doctor of Medicine.

[20] .Doctoral programs in Argentina are overseen by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation[22], which is a decentralized agency in Argentina’s Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.^ The accreditation of MUST’s University programs by IAO is a testament to the quality of MUST’s education.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an accredited university with online degree programs in five schools, Capella University is committed to helping you accomplish your goals through a high-caliber educational experience.

^ If you want to be sure an online degree program is worthy of your hard-earned tuition dollars, simply verify that the college or university is accredited by a nationally recognized higher education accrediting agency.
  • Top Degree Programs Online at SchoolsGalore.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.schoolsgalore.com [Source type: Academic]

[23]

Denmark

.In Denmark there are five levels of degrees: Bachelor's, Candidate's (may be compared to Master), Magister (similar to an MPhil in the United Kingdom system; a degree by research, higher than a Master's but lower than a Ph.D.), Ph.D. (replaced licentiate in 1988), and finally Dr., which is the higher doctorate.^ Masters aside then, what of the research degree?
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An online doctorate degree is clearly worth more than the tuition it costs, and will open opportunities that no other degree could possibly provide.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other than law and medicine, this group of five areas makes up the bulk of all online doctorate degree programs.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For the Ph.D., the candidate writes a major thesis and has to defend it orally at a formal disputation. In the disputation, the candidate defends his or her thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium (ex auditorio).
.For the higher doctorate, the candidate writes a major thesis and has to defend it orally at a formal disputation.^ Return to Doctoral Majors Higher Education Ph.D. and Ed.D. programs are offered in higher education.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

In this disputation, the candidate (called præces) defends his thesis against two official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium (ex auditorio).

Egypt

.In Egypt, Doctorate degree - abbreviated as MD - is eqivalant to PhD degree.^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DNP thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your EdD thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DCJ thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .To earn an MD in a specialty of Science you must have a Master degree (M.Sc.^ But, all physicians must hold either a Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathy degree (although these are professional degrees, not research-based, post-master, doctorate-level degrees).

^ Whether your goal is to pursue your master's or earn a doctoral degree, you'll find your Argosy University education to be both relevant and flexible.

^ Y'all say we should have Masters degrees, but you are leaving off the second part of the requirement, Masters in _________.

) before applying to MD degree. .Earning MD degree involves studying a course in the subspecialty that usually takes from 3-5 years and presenting/defending a Thesis.^ Although online master's degree programs can take about six years to complete, the rewards include respected positions of authority and a higher salary range.
  • Top Degree Programs Online at SchoolsGalore.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.schoolsgalore.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ Depending on the specific course of study and industry, some professions will not allow online doctorate degree holders to practice until all other requirements have been fulfilled.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many Medical and Surgical specialties Postgraduate students earn a Doctorate degree in their specialties.^ Many adult learners are older, non-traditional students who are already working or involved with activities that prevent them from considering a traditional college degree program.
  • Top Degree Programs Online at SchoolsGalore.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.schoolsgalore.com [Source type: Academic]

^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Another issue that many potential students often overlook is the requirement for additional licenses and affiliations after they have earned their online doctorate degree, but before they may practice professionally.
  • Online Doctorate Degree | Online Degree Programs | Education Online 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.careerdegreesource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After finishing medical school, doctors and Surgeons earn M.B. B.Ch.^ If you need to be a "doctor," go to medical school.

^ PA in medical school 03/09/09 6:20 am The clinical doctorate for physician assistants is the MD/DO degree...nothing else.

^ If you want to be addressed as a "doctor" you must complete medical school, residency, and owe $200K in loans like everybody else.

degree which is equivalent to the .MD degree of the USA medical schools.^ If a PA wants to become an MD, he/she will still have to go through medical school.

^ There should be a couple post graduate bridge "A" programs within medical schools where the PA can transition to either an MD or DO in primary care.

^ PA's need a bridge to medical school, not a watered-down, unnecessary clinical doctorate degree.

.After that they can apply to earn a Master degree then an MD degree in a specialty.^ Whether your goal is to pursue your master's or earn a doctoral degree, you'll find your Argosy University education to be both relevant and flexible.

^ Doctoral students may apply for the M.A. degree if they have completed 24 credits on an approved Ph.D. plan of study and have passed the doctoral general examination.

^ If there are NP specialty programs that are shorter than a Master's degree, then you are referring to a post-masters degree only available to those who already have their Masters.

.MD degree in Egypt is followed by writing the specialty that one has earned his degree, e.g.^ One study claimed doctoral degree PTs were better and doctoral degree PT were the only "advanced" degree other PTs should earn.

.MD (Geriatrics) meaning a Doctorate Degree in Geriatrics which is equivalent to a Ph.D degree in Geriatrics.^ There is already a degree called MD, which is a Doctor of Medicine.

^ Also considering it is through the military, I'm not sure that it would be at all equivalent to a civilian doctoral degree.

^ PA in medical school 03/09/09 6:20 am The clinical doctorate for physician assistants is the MD/DO degree...nothing else.

Finland

.In the Finnish education system, the requirement for the entrance into the doctoral studies is a Master's degree or equivalent qualification.^ Most teaching positions-which comprise roughly half of all educational services jobs-require at least a bachelor's degree, and several require a master's or doctoral degree.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Argosy University - Honolulu, Hawaii Whether you're interested in pursuing your undergraduate, master's, or doctoral degree, you'll find an Argosy University education is relevant, accessible, and flexible.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Whether your goal is to pursue your master's or earn a doctoral degree, you'll find your Argosy University education to be both relevant and flexible.

.All universities have the right to award doctorates in their assigned fields.^ Return to Doctoral Candidacy Admission to Candidacy Admission to candidacy is awarded after the student has been nominated to candidacy and after all required course work has been completed.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Our 10 renowned schools offer associate degree programs in all the in-demand fields whereas our 6 exclusive schools offer associate degree programs in fields which no other online university offers.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .Universities of applied sciences (ammattikorkeakoulu) do not award doctoral degrees.^ Applying for a University degree from MUST ranks amongst the best decisions of my life.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ University administrators are keen to increase their market share by awarding longer courses of study with higher degrees (and correspondingly higher per credit costs!

^ They heard presentations about the doctor of nursing practice for nurse practitioners and the doctor of science in physician assistant studies by Baylor University and the U.S. Army.

The aim of the studies for the doctoral degree is three-fold:
  1. The student must obtain sublime understanding of their field and its meaning to the society, while becoming prepared to use the methods of scientific or scholarly study in their field, creating new scientific or scholarly knowledge.
  2. The student must obtain a good understanding of development, basic problems and research methods of their field
  3. The student must obtain such understanding of the general theory of science and letters and such knowledge of the neighbouring research field that they are able to follow the development of these fields.
The way to show that these general requirements have been met is also three-fold:
.
  1. The graduate coursework required by the university.
  2. a show of critical and independent thought in the research field
  3. preparation and a public defence of a dissertation, which may be a monograph or a collection of peer-reviewed articles with an extended summary.^ Graduates of this program may also be employed as professors and researchers in colleges and universities.
    • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For further information and details regarding the scheduling of the defense and the preparation of the dissertation, see the Graduate School web page (link below) and the Graduate Catalog, pages 33-34.

    ^ Master's course work may not be counted toward the 60 required credit hours, but graduate course work beyond the master's degree may be, as long as it meets requirements for currency and relevance.
    • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

    In the area of fine arts, the dissertation may be substituted by artistic merits and performances as decided by the degree-awarding faculty.
.In Finland, the entrance into the graduate studies is not as controlled as in undergraduate studies, where a strict numerus clausus is applied.^ A number of mathematics departments have recognized that an undergraduate degree in mathematics is an excellent prerequisite for graduate study in other disciplines.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think it matters greatly *when* you do a PhD. I wouldn't advise anyone to go straight into it from undergraduate studies, without having been in the "real world".
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

Usually, a prospective graduate student discusses his plans with a professor of his choice. .If the professor wishes to accept the student, the student applies the faculty for a study place.^ Doctoral students may apply for the M.A. degree if they have completed 24 credits on an approved Ph.D. plan of study and have passed the doctoral general examination.

^ Because faculty members are active in research, in education policy studies, and in field studies with school districts, they can offer students opportunities to apply theory and knowledge in solving practical problems in their field.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Curriculum Studies Presently, faculty members and doctoral students in curriculum studies generate scholarship in several fields of study.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Nonetheless, in some cases, the professor may recruit the student to his group after a successful completion of a master's thesis, for instance.^ In some cases it is possible to count courses taken in one major area as part of the other major, but such courses may not be double-counted.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After completing 24 credits and the general exam (both papers), a student may apply to the department to receive an M.A. degree in the course of continuing Ph.D. studies .

^ Doctoral students may apply for the M.A. degree if they have completed 24 credits on an approved Ph.D. plan of study and have passed the doctoral general examination.

[26] .In any case, a formal graduate study place does not guarantee funding.^ Before the end of the first year in the program, each student must submit in writing to the Office of Graduate Studies a form that lists the formally appointed advisory committee and the student's program of studies.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The student must obtain funding either by working in a research unit or through scholarships handed out by private foundations.^ Each student must carry out an independent research project.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But, all physicians must hold either a Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathy degree (although these are professional degrees, not research-based, post-master, doctorate-level degrees).

^ Through course work and independent research, students are expected to achieve a command of the literature in the major, to assess the soundness of arguments in that literature, to develop clarity of thinking and writing in the field, and to contribute to its scholarship.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Typically, it is easier to obtain funding for graduate studies in natural and engineering sciences, while graduate studies in letters are more difficult to finance.^ This process is initiated with a letter to the associate dean for graduate studies requesting readmission.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As PhD program focuses more on research topics, graduates typically work as a researcher or professor in university or work on senior research position for business or government.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ideally, the research question that becomes the focus of the dissertation study stems naturally from research experiences, course work, or graduate assistantship assignments that the student has had during the program of studies.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Sometimes, it may be possible to combine normal work and research activity.^ Considerable time may sometimes elapse between nomination to candidacy and admission to candidacy, due to incomplete course work or old course work requiring revalidation.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

[27]
.Prior to introduction of Bologna process, Finland required at least 42 credit weeks (1800 hours) of formal coursework of doctoral students.^ This component requires a minimum of 9 credit hours.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The minor requirement is 9 credit hours.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The 12 credit hours of course work required for this minor cannot duplicate those taken in the major field, and this minor is not available to students who are majoring in higher education.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The general requirement was removed in 2005, leaving the decision on the scale of coursework needed to individual universities, which may delegate the authority to faculties and even to individual professors.^ As far as the alphabet soup goes, I would leave that designation to the PAEA and the other groups or individuals to whom this burden of decision lies.

^ One member may be from the faculty of a campus of Indiana University outside the core campus.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Graduates of this program may also be employed as professors and researchers in colleges and universities.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

In fields of Engineering and Science, the required amount of coursework varies between 60 and 70 ECTS.
.The time for the completion of graduate studies varies, as there are no fixed time limits written into the law or to most university regulations.^ I do agree however that the politics of academia can be a little draining, but this will apply to whichever organization you go into, for no other reason but that there are humans inhabiting it.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Students may also minor in any area of study outside of the School of Education that is listed in the University Graduate School Bulletin.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I heard that there are no much jobs available after this Doctoral Program, yet I want to go into it despite my good friends and colleauges' disapproval...
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is possible to graduate even in three years after the master's degree, while much longer periods are by no means uncommon.^ Indeed there is strong evidence that graduates of professional master's degree programs directed to local industry are very much sought.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That being said, the average NP school master's degree lasts about 2.5 to 3 years, not 27 months straight.

^ Master's course work may not be counted toward the 60 required credit hours, but graduate course work beyond the master's degree may be, as long as it meets requirements for currency and relevance.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In any case, the study ends with the completion of a dissertation, which must make a substantial contribution to the field by presenting new scientific or scholarly knowledge.^ The dissertation is to make a significant contribution to the candidate's field of specialization.

^ Does the student show how the proposed investigation, if successful, will contribute to scientific knowledge?

^ Return to The Dissertation Seven-Year Rule The dissertation must be completed within seven years of passing the oral qualifying examination.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The dissertation can either be a monograph or it can be edited from a collection of 3 to 7 journal articles, including an introduction tying together the individual parts.^ Each doctoral program area has a 795 Dissertation Proposal Preparation course, which is generally used for this purpose, either on an individual basis or as a departmental seminar.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.If a student is unable or unwilling to write a dissertation, he may qualify for licenciate degree of his field by completing the coursework requirement and writing a shorter thesis, usually worth of one year of research.^ After 90 credit hours of program course work have been taken and students have been admitted to candidacy (i.e., all but the dissertation hours have been completed and qualifying examinations have been passed), students may enroll in G901 Advanced Research in order to maintain active status.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The 12 credit hours of course work required for this minor cannot duplicate those taken in the major field, and this minor is not available to students who are majoring in higher education.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctoral students may apply for the M.A. degree if they have completed 24 credits on an approved Ph.D. plan of study and have passed the doctoral general examination.

.After the dissertation is ready, it is submitted to the faculty, which names two pre-examiners with doctoral degrees from the outside of the university.^ Whether your goal is to pursue your master's or earn a doctoral degree, you'll find your Argosy University education to be both relevant and flexible.

^ In some instances it is possible to include a committee member who is not an Indiana University faculty member, such as a faculty member at another university, on a doctoral committee.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctoral students may apply for the M.A. degree if they have completed 24 credits on an approved Ph.D. plan of study and have passed the doctoral general examination.

.These pre-examiners must be noted experts of the field.^ Two of these must be from the major field of study, of whom one must be a tenure-line faculty from the core campus.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

Their acceptance of the work is necessary for the permission to defend the work. .During the pre-examination process, the student may receive comments on the work and if necessary, requirements to modify it.^ Doctoral students may apply for the M.A. degree if they have completed 24 credits on an approved Ph.D. plan of study and have passed the doctoral general examination.

^ Students proposing experimental work for a general examination paper should take note of the additional regulations (section 4) and plan their time accordingly.

^ As someone commented above, if the Master's PA who transitions to an MD or DO wishes to work in a specialty then they will be required to complete a residency in that field as the Physicians do.

[28] .After the pre-examiners approve, the doctoral candidate applies the faculty for the permission to print the thesis.^ Doctoral students may apply for the M.A. degree if they have completed 24 credits on an approved Ph.D. plan of study and have passed the doctoral general examination.

^ Upon approval of the plan of study, passing the general examination, and having had the dissertation proposal fully approved by the Executive Committee of the Graduate Faculty Council, the student becomes a candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

.Simultaneously with the printing permission, the faculty names the opponent for the thesis defence, who must also be an outside expert of the field, with at least a doctoral degree.^ Two of these must be from the major field of study, of whom one must be a tenure-line faculty from the core campus.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I am proud of our profession and having the option of doctorate is like an option for a master's degree; we may not need it, but it is available for those who are interested or who may need it.

^ These new doctorates must compete for positions with a swelling number of recent PhD's who have taken temporary positions in the last two years.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In all Finnish universities, an archaic tradition requires that the printed dissertation must hang on a chord by a public university noticeboard for at least ten days after the printing permission has been given in order for the defence of the dissertation to be possible.^ I'm sure many universities will consider the fact that a PA has at least so many years of hands-on experience in the medical field and will possibly waive some didactic instruction requirements.

^ The committee chair and the dissertation director must be full members of the University Graduate School faculty.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The dissertation director must be a full or associate member of the University Graduate School faculty.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

[29]
.The doctoral dissertation takes place in public, usually in a university auditorium, with the opponent and the candidate conducting a very formal debate, usually wearing white tie, under the supervision of the thesis supervisor.^ The doctoral research committee has the responsibility to guide the student through the dissertation process and to conduct the final oral defense.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If a student faces extraordinary expenses in the conduct of the dissertation research (e.g., special equipment, subject payments), a Doctoral Dissertation Extraordinary Expense Award may be requested from the Graduate School.

^ Your absolutely right - think very carefully before you take the plunge and sign up for years of doctoral research...
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

It is customary for the family, friends, colleagues and the members of the research community to attend the defence proceedings. After a formal entrance, the candidate begins the proceeding by a circa 20-minute popular lecture (lectio praecursoria), which is meant to introduce the laymen present to the topic of the thesis. .After this, the opponent gives a short talk on the topic of the defence, after which the pair critically discusses the dissertation.^ In such a case, the student and chair typically have had discussions about tentative dissertation topics prior to admission to candidacy and prior to the selection of other research committee members.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The proceedings take two, maybe three hours.^ The program would provide one (maybe two) year of additional didatic training to prepare for USMLE and acceptance into a residency, followed by a three to six year residency.

.At the end of the proceeding, the opponent presents his final statement on the work, and reveals whether he/she will recommend that the faculty accept it.^ This training should be completed before any work with human subjects commences, whether this is the student’s own research or work on a research project of a faculty member.

.After the opponent has finished, any member of the public has an opportunity to raise questions on the dissertation, although such opponents extraordinary are rare.^ In such a case, the student and chair typically have had discussions about tentative dissertation topics prior to admission to candidacy and prior to the selection of other research committee members.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

Immediately after the defence, the supervisor, the opponent and the passed candidate drink coffee with the public. Usually, the attendees of the defence are handed out the printed dissertation and leave with it.[30] In the evening, the passed candidate is obligated to host a dinner (Finnish: karonkka) in the honour of the opponent. Usually, the candidate invites his family and colleagues and collaborators.[31]

France

.In France, the doctorate (doctorat) is always a research-only degree.^ One study claimed doctoral degree PTs were better and doctoral degree PT were the only "advanced" degree other PTs should earn.

^ As with other doctoral degrees, there is a heavy emphasis on research from both quantitative and non-quantitative perspectives.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A doctorate degree involves a significant amount of academic preparation, academic research, a written dissertation and an oral defense.

.It is a national degree and its requirements are fixed by an official text of the minister of higher education and research.^ The 12 credit hours of course work required for this minor cannot duplicate those taken in the major field, and this minor is not available to students who are majoring in higher education.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Two years of professional experience in higher education and a master's degree are prerequisites for admission.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Ph.D. program prepares students for careers in the scholarly study of higher education, institutional research, and teaching.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Except for a very small number of private institutions, only public institutions of higher education and research can award the doctorate.^ In past years the relatively small number of such individuals were left to their own resources to locate employment and often to adapt their preparation to fit into different educational institutions.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your absolutely right - think very carefully before you take the plunge and sign up for years of doctoral research...
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The expectation is that there will be an increasing number of recent PhD's presently employed in nontenure-track positions who will soon be competing with new PhD's for a small number of tenure-track positions at doctorate- granting institutions.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It can be awarded in any field of study. .The master's degree in research (Master Recherche) or the former diplôme d'études approfondies (DEA) is a prerequisite for pursuing a doctoral program.^ For the 60 credit hour program, a master's degree is a prerequisite for admission.
  • School of Education 2005-2007 Graduate Online Bulletin: Doctoral Degrees in Education 25 September 2009 1:24 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Masters aside then, what of the research degree?
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Argosy University - Honolulu, Hawaii Whether you're interested in pursuing your undergraduate, master's, or doctoral degree, you'll find an Argosy University education is relevant, accessible, and flexible.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

.The official normal duration of the doctoral work is three years.^ When you're doing research, you work almost exclusively alone - for three to five years.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I'd been working on my PhD for three years - time initially very well spent and which produed enormous amounts of reasonably good-quality work.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

The redaction of a comprehensive thesis constitutes the bulk of the doctorate's work. .While the length of the thesis varies according to the discipline, it is rarely less than 150 pages, and often substantially more (unlike in the US for example).^ Todd PA-C: Nowadays a PA degree in US is worth more than MD degree overseas.

^ NP's excel in many fields but they do not have medical training and more often than not - no surgical training at all - not even suturing.

^ US Court of Appeals recognized NPs as being âhigher educated and hav[ing] received more training than PAsâ because of their professional degree.

.There are ~15000 new matriculations for the doctoral program every year and ~10000 doctorates awarded[32].^ Difference between DBA & PhD programs is given below: DBA Program: Doctor of Criminal Justice (DBA) program focus on the application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the past ten years there has been a steady increase in the supply of non- U.S. citizen new PhD's entering the U.S. job market.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Board on Mathematical Sciences issued a report on U.S. doctoral programs in April of this year [11] .
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Doctoral candidates can apply for a three-year fellowship, the most well known being the allocation de recherche du ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche (4000 granted every years, gross salary of 18,369 euros in February 2007).^ I'd been working on my PhD for three years - time initially very well spent and which produed enormous amounts of reasonably good-quality work.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Annual AMS-MAA Survey [4] , the number of non-U.S. citizen new doctorates has risen every year since 1978-79.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And there's the whole money question, as well: most American doctoral students leave with astronomical debts.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the preparation of the doctorate, the candidate has had, since 2002, to follow a limited number of courses, but there is no written examination for the doctorate.^ There is no value added to our training or our current function by having doctoral training.

^ Substantial numbers of new doctorates, of course, still assume positions outside the U.S.; in 1990-91, 15 percent of the positions taken by new doctorates were outside the U.S. The actual experience of 1990-91 new doctorates is comparable to the projections.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No matter how much you remind providers not to use the "doctor" title there will be those who insist on doing it.

.The candidate has to write an extensive thesis which is read by two external reviewers designated by the head of the institution.^ The prospectus will be reviewed by two members of the faculty who are not on the committee, chosen by the Department Head.

^ A. The written prospectus is reviewed by two faculty members not on the committee who read it.

According to the reports of the reviewer, the head of the institution decides whether the candidate can defend his thesis or not. The members of the jury are designated by the head of the institution and must be composed of external and internal academics. The supervisor of the candidate is generally member of the jury, as well as the reviewers of the thesis. .The maximum number of members in the jury is 8. The defense lasts generally 45 minutes in scientific fields and are followed by 1h - 2h30 of questions from the jury or other doctors present in the assistance.^ These freedoms, and the self-respect and the respect of others that you get from undertaking a doctorate will stay with you (to an extent) if you go into the badly paid field of academia.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are other framings of the PhD process, the main question that perhaps should be asked is what kind of opportunities does the "field" you are going into afford?
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Compared to other scientific disciplines, the mathematical sciences doctoral programs are small and are narrowly focused on academia.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Defense and questions are public. At the end of the series of questions, the jury deliberates in private for 20-30 min and comes back to declare the candidate admitted or "postponed". "Postponement" is very rare. The admission of the candidate is generally followed by a distinction: "honourable", which is not highly considered, "very honourable", which is the usual distinction, and "very honourable with the congratulation of the jury" (Très honorable avec félicitations). .Because there exist no national criteria for the award of this last distinction, many institutions have decided not to award it.^ There are humanities departments at Caltech but they exist to provide the illusion of balanced education and not because anyone takes their work seriously.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No doubt there are many other possibilities for designing new postdoctoral positions and for funding them.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

New regulations concerning this distinction were set in 2006. Many institutions have decided not to award any distinction, as it is now permitted by the law.
.Confusingly the title of doctor (docteur) is used only by the medical and pharmaceutical practitioners who hold not a doctorate but a doctor's state diploma (diplôme d'État de docteur), which is a first-degree and professional doctorate obtained after at least 9 years of studies.^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ No one would be, nor should they be, addressing me with the "doctor" title in a clinical setting anyway because it would only lend itself to role chaos in clinical practice.

^ Athough there are still PA's practicing who only hold a certificate, AS, or BS in the field, the trend and natural evolution of the PA profession over the past few years has certainly gone to the Master's level.

.As they do not pursue research studies, they are not awarded a doctorate.^ They heard presentations about the doctor of nursing practice for nurse practitioners and the doctor of science in physician assistant studies by Baylor University and the U.S. Army.

^ If a student faces extraordinary expenses in the conduct of the dissertation research (e.g., special equipment, subject payments), a Doctoral Dissertation Extraordinary Expense Award may be requested from the Graduate School.

^ Doctoral students may apply for the M.A. degree if they have completed 24 credits on an approved Ph.D. plan of study and have passed the doctoral general examination.

.Before 1984 three research doctorates existed : the state doctorate (doctorat d'État, the old doctorate introduced in 1808), the third cycle doctorate (doctorat de troisième cycle), created in 1954 and shorter than the state doctorate, and the diploma of doctor-engineer (diplôme de docteur-ingénieur), created in 1923, for technical research.^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DCJ thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Difference between DBA & PhD programs is given below: DBA Program: Doctor of Criminal Justice (DBA) program focus on the application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your absolutely right - think very carefully before you take the plunge and sign up for years of doctoral research...
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

.Since 1984, there is only one type of doctoral degree, simply called "doctorate" (Doctorat).^ There is already a degree called MD, which is a Doctor of Medicine.

^ No one would be, nor should they be, addressing me with the "doctor" title in a clinical setting anyway because it would only lend itself to role chaos in clinical practice.

^ Lastly, there are many reasons why entry level NP practice is being converted to a doctoral degree.

.A special diploma has been created called the "habilitation to supervise research" (habilitation à diriger des recherches), which is a professional qualification to supervise doctoral work.^ And here's the other lesson - doctoral work is professional training .
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

.(This diploma is similar in spirit to the older state doctorate, and the requirements for obtaining it are similar to those necessary to obtain tenure in other systems.^ Many of these programs, "require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

^ There are certainly plenty of opportunities available for those individuals to obtain a doctoral degree.

^ If the state regulatory committees do not require the terminal degree for licensure could this create a tier system of PAs?

) .Before only professors or senior full researchers of similar rank were normally authorized to supervise a doctoral candidate's work[33].^ As PhD program focuses more on research topics, graduates typically work as a researcher or professor in university or work on senior research position for business or government.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I went through a similar realisation on doctoral work.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

.Now the habilitation is a prerequisite to the title of professor in university (Professeur des Universités) and to the title of Research Director (Directeur de recherche) in national public research agency such as CNRS or INRA.^ As PhD program focuses more on research topics, graduates typically work as a researcher or professor in university or work on senior research position for business or government.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Germany

.A research doctorate usually takes three to five years to complete.^ Your absolutely right - think very carefully before you take the plunge and sign up for years of doctoral research...
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You need to do the years of Med School and complete the years of residency if you desire the MD medical degree and to be called "doctor."

^ When you're doing research, you work almost exclusively alone - for three to five years.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

In Germany, most doctorates are awarded with specific designations for the field of research instead of a general "PhD" for all fields, the most important ones being: Dr. rer. nat. (Doctorate in Natural Sciences, i.e. Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Maths, often also Computer Science and Information Technology), Dr. phil. (Doctorate of philosophy, i.e. the humanities like Philosophy, philology, History, and social sciences like sociology or Psychology), Dr. iur. (Doctorate in Law), Dr. rer. oec. (Doctorate in Economics), Dr. rer. pol. (Doctorate in Political Science), Dr. med. (Doctorate in Medicine), Dr.-Ing. (Doctorate in Engineering). .There are over fifty such specific designations, many of which are highly specialized and rarely awarded.^ Too narrowly oriented or highly specific programs can limit the opportunities of graduates of such programs.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No doubt there are many other possibilities for designing new postdoctoral positions and for funding them.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The degree can be written in front of the first name for addresses (within texts, the abbreviations "Dr." and "Dr.-Ing." are common) and accompanies the person's name .(unlike in German-speaking Switzerland, where some doctoral programs issue a PhD [34]).^ Difference between DBA & PhD programs is given below: DBA Program: Doctor of Criminal Justice (DBA) program focus on the application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an accepted PhD at a (good) American University PhD program in Communication, I think some departments (such as Comm.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DCJ thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the "Dr." does not become part of a person's name and naming the title is, even in official documents, not mandatory.
Upon the completion of the habilitation thesis (Habilitationsschrift) a senior doctorate (Dr. habil.) is awarded. .This senior doctorate is known as the Habilitation.^ This senior doctorate is known as the Habilitation .
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The "Habilitation" is regarded as a senior post-doctoral qualification, many years after the Ph.D. , and is necessary for a Privatdozent position.
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

It is not considered a formal degree but an additional academic qualification. It qualifies the owner to teach at (German) universities ("facultas docendi"), plus the holder of the "habil." can apply for the authorization to teach a certain subject ("venia legendi"). This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining the title Privatdozent and employment as a Professor at universities. With the introduction of Juniorprofessoren - around 2005 in Germany - as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities (with tenure), this has changed partially, and the Habilitation is no longer the only career track at universities.

India

.In India doctorate level degrees are offered by the universities or institutions of national level importance deemed to be universities.^ Schools offering Doctorate Degrees .
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ Lastly, there are many reasons why entry level NP practice is being converted to a doctoral degree.

.Entry requirements for doctorate degrees by most of the universities include good academic background at masters level(post graduate degree).^ Most are closer to 1000 at the Master's (not Doctorate) level.

^ Whether you're seeking an associate's, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, the University of Phoenix at Yuma, Arizona can help you reach your goals while you work -- sooner than you might expect.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Whether you're seeking an associate's, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, the University of Phoenix at Salt Lake City, Utah can help you reach your goals while you work -- sooner than you might expect.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

.Some universities also consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law for entrance to doctorate level degrees.^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ Argosy University - San Diego, California Whether you're interested in pursuing your undergraduate, master's, or doctoral degree, you'll find an Argosy University education is relevant, accessible, and flexible.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Call me old fashioned, but a doctorate degree demonstrates competency in a defined and very specific area of expertise.

.Entrance examinations are held for almost all the universities for admission to doctoral level degrees.^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Lastly, there are many reasons why entry level NP practice is being converted to a doctoral degree.

^ And, on May 17, he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree in fine arts from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
  • Artist George Rodrigue given honorary doctorate degree - NOLA.com 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: General]

.The duration of the coursework and thesis for award of the degree is about 5 years.^ That being said, the average NP school master's degree lasts about 2.5 to 3 years, not 27 months straight.

.The most commonly awarded doctoral level degree is Ph.D. There are some other doctoral level degrees such as DBA ( Doctorate of Business Administration), DIT ( Doctorate of Information Technology), LLD (Doctorate in Laws) and D.Sc (Doctorate in Science).^ Read detailed school fact sheets, compare doctorate degree programs and use our free online form to request information directly from schools.
  • Doctorate in Education Degrees | View Degree Programs & Schools on All Education Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.alleducationschools.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The doctor's degree classification includes such degrees as Doctor of Education, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Public Health, and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in any field such as agronomy, food technology, education, engineering, public administration, ophthalmology, or radiology.

^ And there's the whole money question, as well: most American doctoral students leave with astronomical debts.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some of the institutions of the national level importance such as Indian Institute of Management[35] call their doctoral level programmes as fellow programme.^ Many believe that most institutions would welcome the entry level doctorate in order to gain increased revenues.

Recently Pharmacy Council of India has permitted few colleges for Pharm D course (Doctorate in Pharmacy).

Japan

Doctorate by way of dissertation

.Until the 1990s, most doctorates in the natural sciences and engineering in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies.^ NSF. Science and Engineering Doctorates: 1960-1989.
  • Employment and the U.S. Mathematics Doctorate 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A doctorate in Classics is quite different from one in Library Science, which in turn is not at all like one in Engineering or Physics.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Doctorate in Ceramic Sciences and Engineering .

.These degrees are awarded by the employees' former university, usually after many years of research in industrial laboratories.^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ And, on May 17, he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree in fine arts from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
  • Artist George Rodrigue given honorary doctorate degree - NOLA.com 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: General]

^ As soon as you complete all the required courses & theses, you will be awarded DCJ degree in Criminal Justice .
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

No matriculation is necessary, only submission of a dissertation with some articles published in well-known journals . .This program, called Ronbun Hakase (論文博士?), represented the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities.^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ There is already a degree called MD, which is a Doctor of Medicine.

^ And, on May 17, he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree in fine arts from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
  • Artist George Rodrigue given honorary doctorate degree - NOLA.com 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.nola.com [Source type: General]

.With the expansion of university-based doctoral programs called Katei Hakase (課程博士?), however, the proportion of these degrees earned is decreasing.^ The University offers online and campus-based bachelor's, master's, and doctorate degree programs.
  • Doctorate in Education Degrees | View Degree Programs & Schools on All Education Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.alleducationschools.com [Source type: Academic]

^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Read detailed school fact sheets, compare doctorate degree programs and use our free online form to request information directly from schools.
  • Doctorate in Education Degrees | View Degree Programs & Schools on All Education Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.alleducationschools.com [Source type: Academic]

.By 1994, more doctoral engineering degrees were earned for research within university laboratories (53%) than industrial research laboratories (47%).^ The PA-C has counted for more than the degree.

^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

[36] .Since 1978, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) provides tutorial and financial support for promising researchers in Asia and Africa to earn their PhD degrees through this route.^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DNP thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your EdD thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DCJ thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The program is called JSPS RONPAKU[37].

Professional Doctorate

The only professional doctorate in Japan is the Juris Doctor. .In Japan the J.D. is known as Homu Hakushi (法務博士) and has replaced the bachelor of law as the first entry law degree.^ When the NPs made the Masters degree the entry level degree, Medicare and Medicaid stopped reimbursing all those NPs who only had Bachelor's degrees.

^ Associate Degree     Bachelor Degree     Master Degree     Doctorate     PhD     First-Professional Degree     .

[38] .The program generally lasts three years.^ The program would provide one (maybe two) year of additional didatic training to prepare for USMLE and acceptance into a residency, followed by a three to six year residency.

.This curriculum is professionally oriented,[39] but unlike in the United States the program does not provide the education sufficient for a license, as all candidates for a license must attend the Legal Training and Research Institute.^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ University of Phoenix University of Phoenix Online is the largest online private accredited university and delivers online education around the world via distance learning and has 150 campuses in the United States.
  • Online Doctorate Degrees | Ph.D. Ed.D. DCS DPH DBA M.D. | Online Dr. Degree Programs | Directory of Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.directoryofschools.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Putting the burden on institutions to advance will make PA education MORE EXPENSIVE and will likely prevent some new programs being established.

[40]

The Netherlands / Flanders

.The traditional academic system of The Netherlands provides four basic academic diplomas and degrees: propaedeuse, candidate, doctorandus (drs.^ The traditional academic system of The Netherlands provides four basic academic diplomas and degrees: propaedeuse , candidate , doctorandus (drs.
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ University, but who, in the opinion of Council, is engaged in an occupation which provides opportunity to pursue study in the relevant academic unit, may be accepted as a part time candidate for the degree, in which cases a minimum period for the duration of study shall be prescribed.
  • Awards and Degrees of the University - Doctoral Degree by Thesis - Course Handbook @ UOW 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ This highly advanced business degree provides candidates with a mastery of business administration literature, and teaches how to apply this knowledge to current business environments.
  • Go Further With An DBA - Earn A Doctorate In Business Administration With Online Educational Programs 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.mbaschools.com [Source type: News]

) and doctor (dr.). After successful completion of the first year of University, the student is awarded the propaedeutic diploma (not a degree). .The kandidaat candidate degree, which was all but abolished by 1989, used to be attained after three years of academic study, after which the student was allowed to begin work on his doctorandus thesis.^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ The Duke PA program has set the precedent, AND the Duke, Yale, and Stanford programs are all post-4-year-bachelors and the equivalent of years in post- health care work experience, with an additional 3-year MPAS degree/PA-C. Most of the PA academia: the MPAS/PA-C or the MS/BS/PA-C.A number of programs have followed this precedent.

^ When you're doing research, you work almost exclusively alone - for three to five years.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

.The successful completion of this thesis allows one to use the doctorandus title, attainment of which means one's initial studies are finished.^ You have an autonomy in organising your life that you might not get again; and you can use that autonomy to equip yourself with skills and experiences that are invaluable whether you finish the thesis or not.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The myriad of licensure standards for nurse practitioners, along with the various initials used before and after one's name, are not indicative of transparency for the consumer.

^ She is lucky that the hospital that she is employed by considers her medical staff and they allow her to use her title freely.

In addition to these 'general' degrees, a number of specific titles for certain subjects are available, each of which is equivalent to the doctorandus degree: for law: meester ('master') (mr.), and for engineering: ingenieur ('engineer')(ir.).In the last few years, the Dutch have incorporated the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees into their own. .The old candidate's degree has been revived as bachelor's degree, the doctorandus' by the master's degree.^ When the NPs made the Masters degree the entry level degree, Medicare and Medicaid stopped reimbursing all those NPs who only had Bachelor's degrees.

^ Utica College Utica College, a World Leader in Economic Crime Prevention Education, provides regionally accredited Bachelor’s and Master’s Degree programs .
  • Online Doctorate Degrees | Ph.D. Ed.D. DCS DPH DBA M.D. | Online Dr. Degree Programs | Directory of Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.directoryofschools.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Being an old codger I have watched as our first PA's were mostly ex medics and started with "certificates", graduated to Associate Degrees, Bachelor Degrees and now Masters Degrees with the real possibility of a Doctorate.

.Those who choose to can enroll in a doctorate system after achieving a masters degree (or equivalent) recognised by the Dutch government.^ This degree (the Ed.S) began as a way to recognize post-master's students who did not necessarily want to complete a dissertation as having a higher fund of knowledge.

^ When the NPs made the Masters degree the entry level degree, Medicare and Medicaid stopped reimbursing all those NPs who only had Bachelor's degrees.

^ No matter how much you remind patients not to call you "doctor" and mistaken the profession with the MD profession there will be those who insist on doing it.

.The most common way is to be hired as promovendus (research assistant with additional courses and supervision), perform extensive research, and write a doctoral dissertation (this course is normally four years, although the average duration to completions is about 5.5 years).^ That being said, the average NP school master's degree lasts about 2.5 to 3 years, not 27 months straight.

^ I found most people didn't really grasp what was required to complete postgraduate research, imagining a typical daytime tv watching student existence (which is of course only partly true).
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Your absolutely right - think very carefully before you take the plunge and sign up for years of doctoral research...
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

It is also possible to conduct research without the research assistant status, for example through a business sponsored research laboratory, or in spare time. Regardless of the way, every thesis has to be supported by a promotor (full university professor who has the role of principal advisor) before it can be submitted. .The written thesis is subjected to review by a committee of experts in the relevant academic field; who either approve or do not approve the submitted thesis.^ Jones International University At JIU, teaching faculty are experts in their fields who bring their real-world experiences to your real-world education.
  • Online Doctorate Degrees | Ph.D. Ed.D. DCS DPH DBA M.D. | Online Dr. Degree Programs | Directory of Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.directoryofschools.com [Source type: Academic]

.Failures at this stage are rare as the supervisors will rather hold back submission (causing delay beyond the 4 years) than allowing a substandard thesis to be submitted.^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DCJ thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Criminal Justice – DCJ – School of Criminal Justice – MUST University 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Especially the promoter loses face with her/his colleagues allowing a substandard thesis to be submitted. .After approval by the reviewers, the doctor's degree is awarded in a formal, public, defense session (failure during this session is in theory possible but in practice this never happens).^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DNP thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your EdD thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keep in mind non-academia practicing NPs feel the move toward the doctoral degree was NOT necessary.

.The doctor title is the highest academic degree one can attain in the Netherlands.^ No one would be, nor should they be, addressing me with the "doctor" title in a clinical setting anyway because it would only lend itself to role chaos in clinical practice.

^ One study claimed doctoral degree PTs were better and doctoral degree PT were the only "advanced" degree other PTs should earn.

^ A doctorate degree involves a significant amount of academic preparation, academic research, a written dissertation and an oral defense.

.There is only one title "doctor", which is equivalent to PhD. There have been some attempts to introduce a professional doctorate, e.g.^ No one would be, nor should they be, addressing me with the "doctor" title in a clinical setting anyway because it would only lend itself to role chaos in clinical practice.

^ I am against anyone with PhD introducing themselves as "doctor".

^ No matter how much you remind providers not to use the "doctor" title there will be those who insist on doing it.

at the three .Universities of Technology in the Netherlands (Eindhoven University of Technology, Technical University Delft, and University of Twente) who award the "Professional Doctorate in Engineering" (PDEng) (which replaced an old post-master degree).^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ Whether you're seeking an associate's, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, the University of Phoenix at Yuma, Arizona can help you reach your goals while you work -- sooner than you might expect.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Whether you're seeking an associate's, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, the University of Phoenix at Salt Lake City, Utah can help you reach your goals while you work -- sooner than you might expect.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

In the Netherlands, although the title doctor (dr.) is informally called PhD, there is no such thing as a PhD degree; there is the title doctor (dr.) instead of PhD. It follows that Dutch doctors are not allowed by law to use the shortcut PhD; if they do so it may be seen as fraud, though according to the opportunity principle there is little incentive to punish such fraud. Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the shortcut dr. before their name.[41] Bearers of foreign PhD degrees may use the Dutch title doctor (dr.) only after obtaining a permission to bear such title from the Informatie Beheer Groep, but they are free to use the shortcut PhD, since they are free to use their foreign title (untranslated).
Those who have multiple doctor (dr.) titles may use dr.mult. before their own name.[41] Those who have received honoris causa doctorates may use dr.h.c. before their own name.[41]
.In Flanders (the Dutch region of Belgium) the system is very similar, except the doctorandus tittle was only awarded to those who actually started their doctoral work.^ I went through a similar realisation on doctoral work.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the NPs made the Masters degree the entry level degree, Medicare and Medicaid stopped reimbursing all those NPs who only had Bachelor's degrees.

^ No matter how much you remind providers not to use the "doctor" title there will be those who insist on doing it.

Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a PhD student. The licentiaat (licencee) tittle was in use for a regular graduate until the Bologna reform changed the kandidaat to bachelor and licentiaat to master.

Poland

.Polish system is similar to the one adopted in Germany, with Ph.D. as a first level doctorate and habilitation (habilitacja) as second.^ One other note, my daughter is a practicing Physical Therapist and is very upset with the PT's going to a doctoral level.

.The award of the title of doktor (Ph.D.) is usually preceded by 4–5 years of doctoral study (a post-graduate study offered at most universities, with or without an obligation to teach some classes), but can also be obtained without a formal participation in the doctoral studies.^ You get a teaching position at some university.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ University administrators are keen to increase their market share by awarding longer courses of study with higher degrees (and correspondingly higher per credit costs!

^ RNs had microbio etc...and then earn their BSN. As much as RNs would not want to hear this fact, undergrad at other universities have more to do with subsequent practice than the nursing courses offered for the BSN. Most practicing PAs are graduates of an accredited school, an additional two to three years of condensed medical school curriculum.

In order to become a doktor habilitowany (i.e. being awarded second level doctorate) a candidate has to publish a dissertation, preceded with several years of deep field studies and have recognized research record. While recently, according to Polish law, also candidates without habilitation are theoretically eligible to become professors, in practice it is extremely rare.
.To become a doctor one needs to write a dissertation (varying in length), which then must be accepted by a panel of professors during a so-called defence of the dissertation (obrona pracy doktorskiej).^ No one would be, nor should they be, calling me the "doctor" title in a clinical setting because it would only cause role chaos in clinical practice.

^ The new PA student should not be seeking opportunities take the easy route out by a bridge program but I also think you should obtain the medical doctorate if you need to become a MD and to be called "Doctor."

^ You need to do the years of Med School and complete the years of residency if you desire the MD medical degree and to be called "doctor."

.There are several other requirements, like passing an exam in a foreign language and subject related to dissertation title.^ Many, many other reasons to get a PhD. But I'm sure many people who don't feel like wisely investing several years of time and effort will like your article.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Doctorate in Linguistic, Comparative, and Related Language Studies and Services, Other .

^ Doctorate in Teaching English or French as a Second or Foreign Language, Other .

.A prospective doctor must have also published some works (articles, books) beforehand, otherwise s/he would not be allowed to start the doctoral proceedings (przewód doktorski).^ Absolutely - doctoral students in some fields are quite likely to get work, and even in fields which are running short of places, some doctoral students will find no trouble getting work.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The career prospects that I have now in media terrify me, so I pray that UEL accept my eosoteric proposal and that I am able to find some other form of work in the future.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They're the ones that finish their doctoral work and go on to useful teaching positions (and then may or may not start exploring more widely).
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

The title of a doctor is abbreviated as dr (without a full stop) before the surname of a person, e.g. dr Kowalski.
.Doktor is also a common form of addressing a physician, but that does not indicate that the person actually holds a doctoral degree.^ Read detailed school fact sheets, compare doctorate degree programs and use our free online form to request information directly from schools.
  • Doctorate in Education Degrees | View Degree Programs & Schools on All Education Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.alleducationschools.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PA in medical school 03/09/09 6:20 am The clinical doctorate for physician assistants is the MD/DO degree...nothing else.

^ Those wanting a doctoral degree can pursue this post graduate and choose the degree that most suits their personal goals.

Doctors of medicine have the abbreviation dr n. med. .(doctor of medical studies) before or after their surname.^ Seymour Butts PA-C 02/25/09 3:42 pm Like I said before no one cares if you have a doctorate in PA studies.

The title of dr inż. (doctor of engineering) is another specific doctoral titles. Dr n.hum. means doctor of humanities (incl. psychology and sociology), but is rarely used to differentiate from doctors of other fields. .All other doctorates have no indications of their field.^ NP's excel in many fields but they do not have medical training and more often than not - no surgical training at all - not even suturing.

^ If all NPs get their doctorate, we will no longer be seen as interchangeable.

^ These freedoms, and the self-respect and the respect of others that you get from undertaking a doctorate will stay with you (to an extent) if you go into the badly paid field of academia.
  • plasticbag.org: What you should know before starting a doctorate... 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plasticbag.org [Source type: Original source]

Portugal

  • Doutor (Doctor)
In Portugal and in the African Countries of Portuguese Official Language it is common to use the title "Dr." .(supposedly the abbreviation of "Doutor") in reference to people with "Licenciatura" degrees (a "Licenciatura" is something between a Bachelor and a Master Degree in most countries, and currently (Jan 2006) represents 4 or 5 years of graduate studies; except in the following Licenciaturas: Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Dental Medicine, which are six years long and the degree is equivalent to DPharm, DM/MD, etc.^ MD/DO, and most PAs had bachelors undergrad.

^ When the NPs made the Masters degree the entry level degree, Medicare and Medicaid stopped reimbursing all those NPs who only had Bachelor's degrees.

^ I have also completed a traditional Master's Degree program in education and plan to pursue a PhD for the world of academia, not clinical medicine.

.After the Bologna Process reform takes place in Portugal, it will have 3 to 4 years and be equivalent to any Bachelor degree in the E.U. countries that adopt this process).^ Taking people out of the workforce and placing them in school for 2 years(?

^ The Duke PA program has set the precedent, AND the Duke, Yale, and Stanford programs are all post-4-year-bachelors and the equivalent of years in post- health care work experience, with an additional 3-year MPAS degree/PA-C. Most of the PA academia: the MPAS/PA-C or the MS/BS/PA-C.A number of programs have followed this precedent.

^ According to the U.S. Census Bureau, professional who have obtained a doctorate degree earn $37,265 more each year than professionals with bachelor's degrees.
  • Online Doctorate Degrees | Ph.D. Ed.D. DCS DPH DBA M.D. | Online Dr. Degree Programs | Directory of Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.directoryofschools.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some professionals have, however, different titles.^ Some professionals have, however, different titles.
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, some consider it permissible to use the title of doctor for an honorary degree within the institution that granted it.
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The title of "Doctor" is used both by and of those holding research doctorates or some professional (usually medical) degrees, but according to convention is not used by or of those holding only honorary doctorates.
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

For example: "Eng." .(Engenheiro, Engineer), "Arq."^ (Engenheiro, Engineer), "Arq."
  • Doctorate at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

(Arquitecto, Architect). .The term "Doctor" in Portugal is used for those with a PhD and, instead of the title "Dr.", use "Doutor" (the extended form) or "Professor Doutor" (because, usually, PhD's are university professors).^ Take the time now to find the best university that offers a Doctorate Degree or a Distance Learning Phd in your chosen field.

^ Swinburne University of Technology is pushing the boundaries a little further by insisting that their overseas Professional Doctorate in Design (DDes) student use it to link up with their supervisors.
  • ASET 2002: Meulenberg - IP video conferences with Professional Doctorate in Design students, Taiwan 16 September 2009 11:50 UTC www.ascilite.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of today’s technology, it is possible to attain a Doctorate Degree or Distance Learning Phd while you continue working fulltime.

Russia

.Many post-Soviet countries, including Russian Federation, have a two-stage research degree obtaining path, generally similar to the doctorate system in Europe.^ There are certainly plenty of opportunities available for those individuals to obtain a doctoral degree.

^ A doctorate degree involves a significant amount of academic preparation, academic research, a written dissertation and an oral defense.

^ Unfortunately, many of the health professions have chosen to "short cut" their path to a doctorate degree by perhaps adding limited clinical research to their already established Master's credentialed programs.

The first stage is named "Kandidat(Кандидат наук) of <...> Sciences" (literal translation means "Candidate of Sciences",) (for instance, Kandidat of Medical Sciences, of Chemical Sciences, of Philological Sciences, and so on). .The Kandidat of Sciences degree is usually recognised as an equivalent of Philosophy Doctor (Ph.D.) degree and requires at least (and typically more than) three years of post-graduate research which is finished by defence of a thesis.^ The PA-C has counted for more than the degree.

^ The average amount of time required to earn a Ph.D. is five years.
  • Online Doctorate Degrees | Ph.D. Ed.D. DCS DPH DBA M.D. | Online Dr. Degree Programs | Directory of Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.directoryofschools.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Todd PA-C: Nowadays a PA degree in US is worth more than MD degree overseas.

.Additionally, a seeker of the degree has to pass three examinations (a so-called "Kandidate's minimum"): in his/her special field, in a foreign language, and in the history and philosophy of science.^ The doctor's degree classification includes such degrees as Doctor of Education, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Public Health, and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in any field such as agronomy, food technology, education, engineering, public administration, ophthalmology, or radiology.

^ Doctorate in History and Philosophy of Science and Technology .

.After additional certification by the corresponding experts, the Kandidat degree may be recognized internationally as an equivalent of Ph.D. (An unconditional Ph.D. equivalence has been recognized before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the additional certification in many countries has become required after the steep increase flow of post-Soviet emigration.^ This degree (the Ed.S) began as a way to recognize post-master's students who did not necessarily want to complete a dissertation as having a higher fund of knowledge.

^ As some have already discussed in their postings, it may be seen as though in all of the degree advances, no real advances of teaching has actually been made.

) The second stage, Doktor nauk, "Doctor of <...> Sciences". .It requires many years of research experience and writing of a second dissertation.^ Ideally I believe that you should start with PA's that have at least five years experience and offer a shortened version of medical school as well as shortened residency requirements.

^ I'm sure many universities will consider the fact that a PA has at least so many years of hands-on experience in the medical field and will possibly waive some didactic instruction requirements.

.The degrees of Kandidat and Doktor of Sciences are only awarded by the special governmental agency (Higher Attestation Commission); a university or a scientific institute where the thesis was defended can only recommend to award a seeker the sought degree.^ University administrators are keen to increase their market share by awarding longer courses of study with higher degrees (and correspondingly higher per credit costs!

Spain

.Doctor Degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 778/1998)[42], Real Decreto (in Spanish).^ There just isn't any substitute for a real medical doctor degree.

They are granted by the University on behalf of the King, and its Diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Theses called TESEO [43]. According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), less than 5% of M.Sc. degree holders are admitted to .Ph.D. programs, and less than 10% of 1st year Ph.D. students are finally granted a Doctor title[44].^ Many of these programs, "require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

^ Leann Bach 02/23/09 10:10 pm NO doctorate PA program PA's are diversified folks with actual life experience.

^ If you want to be called "doctor" attend a medical school of your choice, I will be glad to be called a "PA" and have been happy with this title for the last 26 years.

.All doctoral programs are of research nature.^ If they want to teach or do research, then I can see the value of getting an MS. So what's the hullaboo about an MS degree and also, the bridge program all about?

^ There is already a doctoral level PA program (DPA) through the military, but I have not researched this and do not know if it is comparible to any of my proposed doctoral PA programs.

^ Doctorate in Natural Resources Conservation and Research, Other .

A minimum of 5 years of study are required, divided into 2 stages:
1) A 3-year long period of studies, which concludes with a public dissertation presented to a panel of 3 Professors. If the projects receives approval from the university, he/she will receive a "Diploma de Estudios Avanzados" (part qualified doctor).
2) A 2-year (or longer) period of research. Extensions may be requested for up to 10 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to Science. If approved by his "thesis director", the study will be presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any Doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research. If approved, he will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted (Unsatisfactory, Pass, "Cum laude", and "Summa cum laude"). Those Doctors granted their degree "Summa Cum Laude" are allowed to apply for an "Extraordinary Award".
.A Doctor Degree is required in order to apply to a teaching position at the University.^ Whether you're seeking an associate's, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, the University of Phoenix at Ft.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ The move to a doctoral program would require that the vast majority of PA faculty have a doctoral degree.

^ Once again, the advance of having doctorate PAs should not force PAs with lower degrees to have to return to school in order to keep their certification.

.The social standing of Doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that only Ph.D. holders, Grandees and Dukes can take seat and cover their heads in the presence of the King[45].^ In fact, should a doctorate be set in place, it should not be required for students to have to take as their degree in order to practice.

.All Doctorate Degree holders are reciprocally recognized as equivalent in Germany and Spain ("Bonn Agreement of November 14 1994")[46].^ Most teaching positions-which comprise roughly half of all educational services jobs-require at least a bachelor's degree, and several require a master's or doctoral degree.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also considering it is through the military, I'm not sure that it would be at all equivalent to a civilian doctoral degree.

^ Is the clinical doctorate appropriate to the profession as an entry-level degree, as a postgraduate degree, or not at all?

United Kingdom

.All doctorates (except for those awarded honoris causa) granted by British universities are research doctorates in the sense described above, in that their main (and in many cases only) component is the submission of a thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university.^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your DNP thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the other doctorate degree (PhD), your EdD thesis will focus on application of theory and research rather than on the development of new theory.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the NPs made the Masters degree the entry level degree, Medicare and Medicaid stopped reimbursing all those NPs who only had Bachelor's degrees.

The Quality Assurance Agency (for England, Wales and Northern Ireland but not Scotland) states:
Doctorates are awarded to students who have demonstrated:
  1. the creation and interpretation of new knowledge, through original research or other advanced scholarship, of a quality to satisfy peer review, extend the forefront of the discipline, and merit publication;
  2. a systematic acquisition and understanding of a substantial body of knowledge which is at the forefront of an academic discipline or area of professional practice;
  3. the general ability to conceptualise, design and implement a project for the generation of new knowledge, applications or understanding at the forefront of the discipline, and to adjust the project design in the light of unforeseen problems;
  4. a detailed understanding of applicable techniques for research and advanced academic enquiry.

Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland[47], Annex 1

.Even the relatively new 'vocational doctorates' such as the EngD, EdD, DSocSci and DClinPsych require the submission of a body of original research of a similar length to a PhD thesis.^ In theory, the PhD is the degree that gives a person expertise in a field and the skills to do original and independent research.

^ If you want to be a "doctor," go to medical school, or earn a PhD (masters, DHSc, EdD, etc) and be an educator.

^ As for the competition of jobs, proper time and experience due to activities such as CME should keep them competitive with those who are new doctorates.

[8] In the case of the EngD, however, this might be in the form of a portfolio of technical reports on different research projects undertaken by the candidate as opposed to a single, long monographical thesis. .Another important difference is that traditional PhD programs are mostly academic-oriented and normally require full-time study at the university, whereas, in an EngD program, the candidate typically works full-time for an industrial sponsor on application-oriented topics of direct interest to the partner company and is jointly supervised by university faculty members and company employees.^ As well, we should also work with the armed forces to develop a program that could be implemented in short time.

^ I have also completed a traditional Master's Degree program in education and plan to pursue a PhD for the world of academia, not clinical medicine.

^ Many of these programs, "require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

.The PhD itself is a comparatively recent introduction to the UK, dating from 1917. It was originally introduced in order to provide a similar level of graduate research training as was available in several other countries, notably Germany and the USA. Previously, the only doctorates available were the higher doctorates, awarded in recognition of an illustrious research career.^ No one would be, nor should they be, addressing me with the "doctor" title in a clinical setting anyway because it would only lend itself to role chaos in clinical practice.

^ Adding additional training to entry level programs in order to award an entry level doctorate makes no sense since PAs (unlike the other allied health professions that have gone the doctoral degree) do not have unique professional knowledge- this already exists in the form of medical and osteopathic schools.

^ The PA Army Doctorate is a badge of honor providing patient care to our nation's troops.

.The universities of Oxford, Sussex and Buckingham denote the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with the postnominal initials DPhil.^ Whether you're seeking an associate's, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, the University of Phoenix at Ft.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

.The University of York also did this for some years, switching to the more conventional PhD quite recently.^ I'm sure many universities will consider the fact that a PA has at least so many years of hands-on experience in the medical field and will possibly waive some didactic instruction requirements.

Higher doctorates in the United Kingdom

.Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years.^ University administrators are keen to increase their market share by awarding longer courses of study with higher degrees (and correspondingly higher per credit costs!

Typically the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-refereed context and pay an examination fee. .The university then assembles a committee of academics both internal and external who review the work submitted and decide on whether the candidate deserves the doctorate based on the submission.^ Whether you're seeking an associate's, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, the University of Phoenix at Oakland, California can help you reach your goals while you work -- sooner than you might expect.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Whether you're seeking an associate's, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, the University of Phoenix at Yuma, Arizona can help you reach your goals while you work -- sooner than you might expect.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Whether you're seeking an associate's, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, the University of Phoenix at Western Washington, Washington can help you reach your goals while you work -- sooner than you might expect.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

Most universities restrict candidacy to graduates or academic staff of several years' standing. .The most common doctorates of this type are those in Divinity (DD), Laws (LLD), Civil Law (DCL), Music (DMus or MusD), Letters (DLitt or LittD) and Science (DSc or ScD).^ Those wanting a doctoral degree can pursue this post graduate and choose the degree that most suits their personal goals.

^ The clinical doctorate for PA’s already exists (doctor of science in PA studies – DSc – granted by Baylor University in collaboration with the Army).

.Note, however that the doctorate in medicine (MD or DMed) in most British universities is a research doctorate by thesis, roughly equivalent to a PhD, but awarded by a Faculty of Medicine.^ There is already a degree called MD, which is a Doctor of Medicine.

^ Doctorate in Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry (MS, PhD) .

^ Doctorate in Large Animal + Food Animal and Equine Surgery and Medicine (Cert, MS, PhD) .

.In the University of London, the consequent gap in higher doctorates is filled with the degree of DSc(Med), which ranks with the LLD, DMus, etc.^ You need to do the years of Med School and complete the years of residency if you desire the MD medical degree and to be called "doctor."

^ The clinical doctorate for PA’s already exists (doctor of science in PA studies – DSc – granted by Baylor University in collaboration with the Army).

^ University administrators are keen to increase their market share by awarding longer courses of study with higher degrees (and correspondingly higher per credit costs!

Of these, the DD historically ranked highest, theology being the senior faculty in the mediaeval universities. .The degree of Doctor of Canon Law was next in the order of precedence, but (except for a brief revival during the reign of Mary Tudor) did not survive the Protestant reformation[48], a consequence of the fact that the teaching of canon law at Cambridge and Oxford was forbidden by Henry VIII, founder of the Church of England.^ Once again, the advance of having doctorate PAs should not force PAs with lower degrees to have to return to school in order to keep their certification.

^ In fact, should a doctorate be set in place, it should not be required for students to have to take as their degree in order to practice.

The DMus was, historically, in an anomalous situation, since a candidate was not required to be a member of Convocation (that is, to be a Master of Arts). The DLitt and DSc are relatively recent innovations, dating from the latter part of the 19th century.
.Higher doctorates awarded through examination are getting rare; most being awarded honorarily.^ Now, if it is seen that through any course of action to make a doctorate program would not truly create a higher level of learning in the program than what is being taught at the levels currently, we should abandon this discussion now.

.June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Academics who do have a substantial portfolio of work tend to be Professors and some see it as unnecessary to go through an examination for a higher doctorate given their position.^ University of Phoenix makes quality higher education highly accessible for working students through convenient campus locations and flexible online classes.
  • Business Doctorate | Find Business Doctorate Degree Programs On All Business Schools 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.allbusinessschools.com [Source type: News]

^ In the case of the PT, it decreased the number of positions for the PT. She was told the practice didn't need a another "Doctor," they needed a physical therapist.

^ If you have strong command in some courses (through your work experience, prior knowledge or trainings, etc.
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Nursing – DNP – School of Nursing – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Doctorate Degree in Education – EdD – School of Education – MUST University 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC mustuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Honorary doctorates in the United Kingdom

.Most British universities award degrees honoris causa in order to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field.^ University administrators are keen to increase their market share by awarding longer courses of study with higher degrees (and correspondingly higher per credit costs!

^ When the NPs made the Masters degree the entry level degree, Medicare and Medicaid stopped reimbursing all those NPs who only had Bachelor's degrees.

^ This degree (the Ed.S) began as a way to recognize post-master's students who did not necessarily want to complete a dissertation as having a higher fund of knowledge.

.Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the achievements of the candidate.^ These professions have cited leadership skills, higher pay, and patient acceptance as reasons why a doctorate education is needed.

.However, some universities, in order to differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, have introduced the degree of Doctor of the University (DUniv) for these purposes, and reserve the higher doctorates for formal academic research.^ Once again, the advance of having doctorate PAs should not force PAs with lower degrees to have to return to school in order to keep their certification.

^ A doctorate degree involves a significant amount of academic preparation, academic research, a written dissertation and an oral defense.

^ A PhD is a research-based degree with advanced academic preparation in a defined field.

United States

Research doctorates in the United States

Yale University awarded the first doctorate in the U.S.
The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). .This degree was first awarded in the U.S. at the 1861 Yale University commencement.^ University administrators are keen to increase their market share by awarding longer courses of study with higher degrees (and correspondingly higher per credit costs!

[49] The University of Pennsylvania followed shortly thereafter in 1871[50], while Cornell (1872)[51], Harvard (1873)[52], and Princeton (1879)[53] also followed suit. .Unlike the introduction of the professional doctorate M.D., there was considerable controversy and opposition over the introduction of the Ph.D. into the U.S. educational system, even through the 1950's, as it was seen as an unnecessary artificial transplant from a foreign educational system (that of Germany), which corrupted a system based on the Oxbridge model of England.^ There are PA's who have gone on to earn their Ph.D. and even their Clinical Doctorate of PA (Baylor Univ/US Army).

^ The PA profession supports advanced professional development and education, including the option of non-profession-specific postgraduate doctorates.

^ There is already a doctoral level PA program (DPA) through the military, but I have not researched this and do not know if it is comparible to any of my proposed doctoral PA programs.

[54]
.The requirements for obtaining Ph.D.s and other research doctorates in the U.S. typically entail successful completion of pertinent classes, passing of a comprehensive examination, and defense of a dissertation.^ Many of these programs, "require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

^ A doctorate degree involves a significant amount of academic preparation, academic research, a written dissertation and an oral defense.

^ Many of these programs, require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

[55]
.The mean number of years to completion of doctoral degrees for all fields in the US is seven years.^ Adding a doctorate degree will simply give us another paper stating how we recieved our degree.

^ But there are other doctoral-degrees we can avail ourselves of, which could provide us with the greater credibility we seek as scientists.

^ Also considering it is through the military, I'm not sure that it would be at all equivalent to a civilian doctoral degree.

[3] Students are often discouraged from taking unnecessarily long to graduate by having their financial support (stipends, research funds, etc.) relinquished and/or by being required to re-take comprehensive exams. .Furthermore, doctoral applicants were previously required to have a master's degree, but many programs will now accept students immediately following their undergraduate studies.^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ Many of these programs, "require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

^ Lastly, there are many reasons why entry level NP practice is being converted to a doctoral degree.

[56][57] .When so admitted, the student is expected to have mastered the material covered in the masters degree even though the student does not officially hold a masters degree.^ If the potentates of the PA profession are going to say that the Masters degree is the entry level degree for the PA profession, what, exactly, does that mean?

^ This however logically should command a higher rate of pay as well than that of a PA who holds a Master’s degree or lesser.

^ Thus, even before the PA profession progressed to a Master's Degree, it was felt that we were being trained at the Master's level already.

.However, for many programs a master's degree is not required for acceptance into their Ph.D program, nor are they expected to have mastered the material covered for a masters degree.^ They didn't ask what my Masters degree was in, however.

^ Many of these programs, "require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

^ If they want to teach or do research, then I can see the value of getting an MS. So what's the hullaboo about an MS degree and also, the bridge program all about?

.Many programs simply gauge the potential of a student applying to their program and will give them a masters degree upon completion of the necessary Ph.D course work.^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ This degree (the Ed.S) began as a way to recognize post-master's students who did not necessarily want to complete a dissertation as having a higher fund of knowledge.

^ I have also completed a traditional Master's Degree program in education and plan to pursue a PhD for the world of academia, not clinical medicine.

Once the person has finished Ph.D qualifying exams he/she is considered a Ph.D candidate, and may begin work on his/her dissertation.
.Some fields of study have their own research doctorates, including the Doctor of Education, the Doctor of Theology, the Doctor of Juridical Science, among many others.^ Many health professions, including physical therapy, nursing, audiology, and pharmacy, have implemented or are making plans to implement the clinical doctorate as a part of their profession.

^ Many of these programs, "require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

^ The doctor's degree classification includes such degrees as Doctor of Education, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Public Health, and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in any field such as agronomy, food technology, education, engineering, public administration, ophthalmology, or radiology.

.The International Affairs Office of the U.S. Department of Education lists over 20 frequently awarded research doctorate degree titles accepted by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as representing degrees equivalent in content and level to the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree.^ Lastly, there are many reasons why entry level NP practice is being converted to a doctoral degree.

^ The doctor's degree classification includes such degrees as Doctor of Education, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Public Health, and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in any field such as agronomy, food technology, education, engineering, public administration, ophthalmology, or radiology.

^ Argosy University has campuses and extension sites across the nation offering undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate degrees in the disciplines of psychology and behavioral sciences, education, business, and health sciences.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

[58]

Professional doctorates in the United States

.In the United States numerous fields of study have professional doctorates, such as law, education, medicine, dentistry, Advanced Practice Nurse, optometry, chiropractic, pharmacy, physical therapy, psychology,public health and many others that usually require such degrees for licensure.^ Many health professions, including physical therapy, nursing, audiology, and pharmacy, have implemented or are making plans to implement the clinical doctorate as a part of their profession.

^ University of Phoenix Online - Online School, Web Programs University of Phoenix Online, a true innovator in distance education, allows students to earn their degrees and advance their careers -- all online.
  • Doctorate Degree Schools with Education Programs 18 September 2009 5:45 UTC school-directory.net [Source type: General]

^ The doctor's degree classification includes such degrees as Doctor of Education, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Public Health, and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in any field such as agronomy, food technology, education, engineering, public administration, ophthalmology, or radiology.

.Some of these degrees are also termed "first professional degrees," since they are also the first degree in their field.^ First, the certificate, AS, and BS degrees for PA practice should be phased out if they are not being already and it then be mandated for those programs to advance to the Master's level.

^ Associate Degree     Bachelor Degree     Master Degree     Doctorate     PhD     First-Professional Degree     .

.Professional doctorates were developed in the United States in the 19th century during a movement to improve the training of professionals by raising the requirements for entry and completion of the degree necessary to enter the profession.^ Adding additional training to entry level programs in order to award an entry level doctorate makes no sense since PAs (unlike the other allied health professions that have gone the doctoral degree) do not have unique professional knowledge- this already exists in the form of medical and osteopathic schools.

^ Keep in mind non-academia practicing NPs feel the move toward the doctoral degree was NOT necessary.

^ Many of these programs, "require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

[59] .These first professional degrees were created to help strengthen professional training programs.^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ Many of these programs, "require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

^ Many of these programs, require a program of study closer to the curricular expectations for other professional doctoral programs rather than for master's level study."

.The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M.D. in 1807,[60] which was nearly sixty years before the first Ph.D. was awarded in the U.S. in 1861.[61] The Juris Doctor (J.D.) was subsequently established by Harvard University for the same reasons that the M.D. was established.^ For nearly 40 years, Walden University, an accredited institution, has helped adult learners balance their personal and professional commitments while earning a respected degree.

^ This fight about going to clinical doctorate is sad, but like I stated earlier, I believe it's a matter of time before some force pushes us into it.

^ So, many NP's have years of experience as RN's first doing actual patient care, working with doctors and PA's, and have worked in multiple specialty areas before going to NP school.

[62] The Doctor of Education degree (Ed.D.) was first introduced in the United States at Harvard in 1920.
Recently there has been a trend for introducing professional doctorates in other fields as well, including the Doctor of Audiology in 2007. Advanced Practice Registered Nurses are expected to completely transition to the Doctor of Nursing Practice by 2015 and physical therapy to the Doctor of Physical Therapy by 2020.

See also

References

  1. ^ See Forni, P. (1989). "Models for Doctoral Programs: First Professional Degree or Terminal Degree?" Nursing and Health Care, v. 10, n. 8, pp. 428-434.
  2. ^ a b Makdisi, George (April-June 1989), "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West", Journal of the American Oriental Society 109 (2): 175–182 [175–77], doi:10.2307/604423 
  3. ^ a b Research Doctorate Programs
  4. ^ EPSRC: Engineering Doctorates
  5. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/about_columbia/history.html
  6. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20060909180355/http://www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/97-04-21-01.all.html
  7. ^ Stevens, R. (1971). "Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School," in Law in American History, eds. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1971, p.427. Reed, A. (1921). "Training for the Public Profession of the Law, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15." Boston: Merrymount Press.
  8. ^ a b Stuart Powell, Elizabeth Long, Professional Doctorate Awards in the UK, UK Council for Graduate Education (2005)
  9. ^ Elaine Graham, The Professional Doctorate in Practical Theology: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?, International Journal of Practical Theology. 10:2 (2007) 298–311
  10. ^ Paul Chynoweth (2006) 'Professional doctorates in the built environment: how Higher Education is responding to the changing needs of industry and the professions', Proceedings of the Built Environment Education Conference (BEECON 2006), 12-13 September 2006, Bonnington Hotel, London, UK.
  11. ^ http://research.law.unimelb.edu.au/index.cfm?objectId=3B8BAC72-B0D0-AB80-E2C0F006055B6085 http://www.handbook.uts.edu.au/courses/c02027.html http://courses.handbooks.uwa.edu.au/courses/c2/2081 http://research.law.unimelb.edu.au/index.cfm?objectId=3B8BAC72-B0D0-AB80-E2C0F006055B6085
  12. ^ http://www.atax.unsw.edu.au/study/docs/research-programs.pdf http://www.law.monash.edu.au/research/sjd.html
  13. ^ See http://www.courses.qut.edu.au/cgi-bin/WebObjects/Courses.woa/wa/selectCourse?courseID=364
  14. ^ University of Berkley. Doctoral, Masters, Bachelors and Associate Degrees Online
  15. ^ Three to Receive Honorary Degrees for Contributions to Science and Technology, and Public Policy
  16. ^ Dear Uncle Ezra - Questions for Thursday, May 15, 2003 - Cornell University
  17. ^ University Regulations: Academic Regulations: Graduate Record 2005-2006
  18. ^ No honorary degrees is an MIT tradition going back to ... Thomas Jefferson
  19. ^ CONEAU
  20. ^ a b http://www.gfme.org/global_guide/pdf/13-18%20Argentina.pdf
  21. ^ CONEAU
  22. ^ Argentine Educational Portal: Quality Assurance
  23. ^ CONEAU
  24. ^ MD degree (equal to PHD degree)
  25. ^ Government decree on university degrees (794/2004). Retrieved 14-1-2008. (Finnish)
  26. ^ Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Page 27. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. (Finnish).
  27. ^ Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Page 108. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. (Finnish).
  28. ^ Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 29 and 125-126. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. (Finnish).
  29. ^ Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 29 and 129. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. (Finnish).
  30. ^ Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 130-160. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. (Finnish).
  31. ^ Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 160-180. University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009. (Finnish).
  32. ^ Doctorate on Superior Education Ministry web (in French)
  33. ^ The French Education System, H. D. Lewis, Routledge, 1985, ISBN 0709916833, 9780709916833
  34. ^ http://www.gsb.uzh.ch
  35. ^ http://www.iimb.ernet.in
  36. ^ http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf97324/chp4.htm
  37. ^ http://www.jsps.go.jp/english/e-ronpaku/index.html
  38. ^ The Justice System Reform Council (2001). For a Justice System to Support Japan in the 21st Century.
  39. ^ Yokohama National University Law School.Program Introduction and Dean's Message. Accessed April 7, 2008.
  40. ^ Foote, D. (2005). Justice System Reform in Japan. Annual meeting of the Research Committee of Sociology of Law, Paris. European Network on Law and Society.
  41. ^ a b c What for title may I use after obtaining a promotion? Postbus 51.
  42. ^ http://www.upm.es/laupm/organos_gobierno/normativa/NormativaDoctorado0203.pdf (in Spanish)
  43. ^ Base de Datos TESEO
  44. ^ http://sandevid.com/uploads/media/DOCTORADO_Y_TESIS_DOCTORALES_POR_SEXO_56e4d2_06.pdf
  45. ^ Raíces de las normas y tradiciones del protocolo y ceremonial universitario actual: las universidades del Antiguo Régimen y los actos de colación. Protocolo y Etiqueta
  46. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. Texto del Documento
  47. ^ QAA: The framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland - January 2001
  48. ^ W N Hargreaves-Mawdsley, A History of Academical Dress in Europe Until the End of the Eighteenth Century, Oxford (1963) pages 103 and 115
  49. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20060909180355/http://www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/97-04-21-01.all.html
  50. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=0UoHIAeSKvAC&lpg=RA3-PA457&ots=qFADSNpmrF&dq=upenn%20first%20phd%201871&pg=RA3-PA457#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  51. ^ http://www.gradschool.cornell.edu/index.php?p=36
  52. ^ http://gsas.harvard.edu/publications/history_and_organization.php
  53. ^ http://gradschool.princeton.edu/about/history/
  54. ^ Prior, Moody E. (1965). "The Doctor of Philosophy Degree." in Walters, E. ed. Graduate Education Today. American Council on Education. Washington, D.C. p. 32.
  55. ^ Grad Program | Handbook | Ph.D. Requirements
  56. ^ Vanderbilt Owen Graduate School of Management : PhD Admissions
  57. ^ Krannert School of Management - Admissions
  58. ^ Structure of the U.S. Education System:Research Doctorate Degrees
  59. ^ Reed, A. (1921). ‘’Training for the Public Profession of the Law, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15.’’ Boston: Merrymount Press.
  60. ^ Reed, A. (1921). The Baltimore College of Dental Surgery opened in Baltimore, Maryland in 1840, and in 1867, Harvard Dental School became the second dental school affiliated with a university to offer the Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD). ‘’Training for the Public Profession of the Law, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15.’’ Boston: Merrymount Press, page 162.
  61. ^ Landmarks in Yale’s history
  62. ^ Harno, A. (2004) Legal Education in the United States, New Jersey: Lawbook Exchange, page 50.

Simple English

A doctorate is a degree earned by passing a doctoral disseration. Usually, it refers to a Ph.D., but it can also be an Doctor of Medicine or an Juris Doctor. Colleges often give honorary doctorates to famous people who speak there.

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Doctorate, which are similar to those in the above article.








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