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Domenico Cimarosa

Domenico Cimarosa (17 December 1749 – 11 January 1801) was an Italian opera composer of the Neapolitan school. He wrote more than eighty operas during his lifetime, including his masterpiece, Il matrimonio segreto (1792).

Contents

Early life and education

Cimarosa was born in Aversa, near Naples.

His parents were poor, but, anxious to give their son a good education, they sent him to a free school connected with one of the monasteries in Naples after moving to that city. The organist of the monastery, Padre Polcano, was struck by the boy's intellect, and voluntarily instructed him in the elements of music and also in the ancient and modern literature of his country. Because of his influence, Cimarosa obtained a scholarship at the musical institute of Santa Maria di Loreto in Naples, where he remained for eleven years, chiefly studying the great masters of the old Italian school; Niccoló Piccinni, Antonio Maria Gaspare Sacchini, and other musicians of repute are mentioned among his teachers.

Early career

At the age of twenty-three, Cimarosa began his career as a composer with an opera buffa called Le stravaganze del conte, first performed at the Teatro del Fiorentini at Naples in 1772. The work met with approval, and was followed in the same year by Le pazzie di Stelladaura e di Zoroastro, a farce full of humour and eccentricity. This work was also successful, and the fame of the young composer began to spread all over Italy. In 1774, he was invited to Rome to write an opera for the stagione of that year; and there he produced another comic opera called L'italiana in Londra.

Midlife

Domenico Cimarosa

Over the next thirteen years, Cimarosa wrote a number of operas for the various theatres of Italy, living temporarily in Rome, in Naples, or wherever else his vocation as conductor of his works happened to take him. From 1784 to 1787, he lived in Florence, writing exclusively for the theatre of that city. The productions of this period of his life are very numerous, consisting of operas (both comic and serious), cantatas, and various sacred compositions. The following works may be mentioned, among many others: Cajo Mario; the three Biblical operas, Assalone, La giuditta, and Il sacrificio d'Abramo; Il convito di pietra; and La ballerina amante, a comic opera first performed at Venice with enormous success.

Around 1788, Cimarosa went to St. Petersburg by invitation of Empress Catherine II. He remained at her court for four years and wrote an enormous number of compositions, mostly of the nature of pièces d'occasion; of most of these, not even the names are on record. In 1792, Cimarosa left St. Petersburg and went to Vienna at the invitation of Emperor Leopold II. Here, he produced his masterpiece, Il matrimonio segreto, which ranks among the highest achievements of light operatic music. In 1793, Cimarosa returned to Naples, where Il matrimonio segreto and other works were received with great acclaim. Among the works belonging to his last stay in Naples that may be mentioned is the charming opera, Le astuzie femminili.

This period of his life is said to have been embittered by the intrigues of envious and hostile persons, among whom figured his old rival, Giovanni Paisiello. During the occupation of Naples by the troops of the French Republic, Cimarosa joined the liberal party, and on the return of the Bourbons, was, like many of his political friends, condemned to death. By the intercession of influential admirers, his sentence was commuted to banishment, and he left Naples with the intention of returning to St. Petersburg—but his health was broken, and after much suffering, he died in Venice on 11 January 1801 of inflammation of the intestines. The nature of his disease led to the rumor of his having been poisoned by his enemies; however, a formal inquest proved this to be unfounded. He worked till the last moment of his life, and one of his operas, Artemizia, remained unfinished at his death. The place of his death is marked by a memorial in Campo San Angelo near the calle de Caffetier.

Main works

Domenico Cimarosa
  • Le stravaganze del conte (carnival 1772 Naples Teatro San Giovanni dei Fiorentini) [Le magie di Merlina e Zoroastro; Le pazzie di Stelladaura e Zoroastro]
  • La finta parigina (carnival 1773 Naples Teatro Nuovo)
  • I sdegni per amore (1.1776 Naples Teatro Nuovo)
  • I matrimoni in ballo (carnival 1776 Naples Teatro Nuovo)
  • La frascatana nobile (winter 1776 Naples Teatro Nuovo) [La finta frascatana]
  • I tre amanti (carnival 1777 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [Le gare degl'amanti]
  • Il fanatico per gli antiche Romani (spring 1777 Naples Teatro San Giovanni dei Fiorentini)
  • L'Armida immaginaria (summer 1777 Naples Teatro (San Giovanni) dei Fiorentini)
  • Gli amanti comici, o sia La famiglia in scompiglio (1778? ?Naples Teatro (San Giovanni) dei Fiorentini; carnival 1796 Crema) [Il matrimonio in commedia; La famiglia stravagante, ovvero Gli amanti comici]
  • Il ritorno di Don Calandrino (carnival 1778 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [Armidoro e Laurina]
  • Le stravaganze d'amore (1778 Naples Teatro San Giovanni dei Fiorentini)
  • Il matrimonio per industria (1778? Naples?) [?]
  • La contessina (summer 1778 Bologna) [?] [+ G. Astaritta, F.L. Gassmann]
  • Il matrimonio per raggiro (1778/9? Rome?; carnival 1802 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [La donna bizzarra]
  • L'italiana in Londra (carnival 1779 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [La virtù premiata]
  • L'infedeltà fedele (summer 1779 Naples Teatro del Fondo)
  • Le donne rivali (carnival 1780 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [et al.]
  • Cajo Mario (carnival 1780 Teatro delle Dame)
  • I finti nobili (carnival 1780 Naples Teatro San Giovanni dei Fiorentini)
  • Il falegname (1780 Naples F) [L'artista]
  • L'avviso ai maritati (1780? ?Naples Teatro San Giovann) dei Fiorentini) [?]
  • Il capriccio drammatico (1781? Turin?; 1794 London)
  • Il pittor parigino (carnival 1781 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [Le brame deluse]
  • Alessandro nell'Indie (carnival 1781 Rome A)
  • L'amante combattuto dalle donne di Punto (1781 Naples Teatro San Giovanni dei Fiorentini) [La biondolina; La giardiniera fortunata]
  • Giunio Bruto (aut.1781 Verona)
  • Giannina e Bernardone (aut.1781 Venice SS) [Il villano geloso]
  • Il convito (carnival 1782 Venice SS) [Der Schmaus]
  • L'amor costante (carnival 1782 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [Giulietta ed Armidoro]
  • L'eroe cinese (13.8.1782 Naples SC)
  • La ballerina amante (1782 Naples Teatro San Giovanni dei Fiorentini) [L'amante ridicolo]
  • La Circe (carnival 1783 Milan S)
  • I due baroni di Rocca Azzurra (carnival 1783 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [Dve nevesty; I due baroni; La sposa in contrasto; Il barone deluso]
  • La villana riconosciuta (1783 Naples Teatro del Fondo) [La villanella rapita]
  • Oreste (13.8.1783 Naples SC)
  • Chi dell'altrui si veste presto si spoglia (1783 Naples F) [Nina e Martuffo]
  • Il vecchio burlato (1783 Venice) [?]
  • I matrimoni impensati (carnival 1784 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [La bella greca]
  • L'apparenza inganna, o sia La villeggiatura (spring 1784 Naples F)
  • La vanità delusa (spring 1784 Florence P) [Il mercato di Malmantile]
  • L'Olimpiade (10.7.1784 Vicenza)
  • I due supposti conti, ossia Lo sposo senza moglie (aut.1784 Milan S) [Lo sposo ridicolo]
  • Artaserse (26.12.1784 Turin TR)
  • Il barone burlato (1784 Naples Teatro Nuovo) [rev. Il pittor parigino] [+ F. Cipolla]
  • Li finti conti (spring 1785 Turin, Gallo-Ughetti) [?]
  • I fratelli papamosche (spring 1785 Turin, Gallo-Ughetti) [?]
  • Le statue parlante (1785 Correggio) [?]
  • Il marito disperato (1785 Naples F) [Il marito geloso; Die bestrafte Eifersucht]
  • La donna sempre al suo peggior s'appiglia (1785 Naples Teatro Nuovo)
  • Il credulo (carnival 1786 Naples Teatro Nuovo) [La baronessa stramba; Il credulo deluso]
  • Le trame deluse (1786 Naples Teatro Nuovo) [L'amor contrastato; Li raggiri scoperti]
  • L'impresario in angustie (1786 Naples Teatro Nuovo) [Die theatralischen Abenteuer]
  • La baronessa stramba (1786 Naples Teatro Nuovo) [rev. I matrimoni in ballo] [Il credulo]
  • Gli amanti alla prova (1786 Naples) [?]
  • L'impostore punito (1786/7 Turin C) [?]
  • Volodimiro (carnival 1787 Turin TR)
  • Il fanatico burlato (1787 Naples Teatro del Fondo) [La burla felice; Der adelsüchtige Bürger]
  • La felicità inaspettata (3.1788 St Petersburg E)
  • La vergine del sole (1788? ?St Petersburg E; 6.11.1789 St Petersburg BK)
  • La scuffiara (1788) [?]
  • La Cleopatra (27.9.1789 St Petersburg E) [Cleopatra e Marc'Antonio]
  • Il matrimonio segreto (7.2.1792 Vienna B), score
  • Sophie et Dorval () [rev. Il matrimonio segreto]
  • Il matrimonio per susurro () [?]
  • La calamità dei cuori (1792/3 Vienna B) [?]
  • Contrattempi (1793 Bonn) [?]
  • Amor rende sagace (1.4.1793 Vienna B)
  • I traci amanti (19.6.1793 Naples Teatro Nuovo) [Il padre alla moda, ossia Lo Sbarco di Mustanzir Bassà; Gli turchi amanti; Les amants turcs]
  • Il maestro di cappella (2.7.1793 Berlin, Germany)
  • Le astuzie femminili (26.8.1794 Naples Teatro (San Giovanni) dei Fiorentini)
  • La pupilla astuta (1794 Naples Teatro del Fondo) [?]
  • La serva innamorata (1794 Naples F) [?]
  • Penelope (carnival 1795 Naples Teatro del Fondo)
  • Le nozze in garbuglio (1795 Messina)
  • L'impegno superato (1795 Naples Teatro del Fondo)
  • La finta ammalata (1796 Lisbon)
  • I nemici generosi (carnival 1796 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle) [Il duello per complimento]
  • Gli Orazi ed i Curiazi (carnival 1797 Venice F)
  • La morte di Assalonne (? Florence, Oratorio) [rev. Gli Orazi ed i Curiazi]
  • Achille all'assedio di Troja (carnival 1797 Rome A)
  • L'imprudente fortunato (carnival 1797 Rome Teatro Della alla Valle)
  • Artemisia regina di Caria (summer 1797 Naples SC)
  • Attilio Regolo (carnival 1797 Reggio) [?]
  • Le nozze di Lauretta (1797? Turin) [?]
  • L'apprensivo raggirato (1798 Naples Teatro San Giovanni dei Fiorentini)
  • Il secreto (aut.1798 Turin C)
  • Semiramide (1799 Naples F) [?]
  • Il conte di bell'amore () [?]
  • L'arte contro l'arte (carnival 1800 Alexandria) [?]
  • Artemisia (carnival 1801 Venice F)
  • Il nuovo podestà (spring 1802 Bologna) [?]
  • Tiro Vespasiano (1821 Lisbon) [?]
  • La discordia fortunata () [?]
  • L'ajo nell'imbarazzo () [?]
  • Le donne vendicate () [?]
  • Il cavalier del dente () [?]
  • La Molinara (inc) [?]

References

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

DOMENICO CIMAROSA (1749-1801), Italian musical composer, was born at Aversa, in the kingdom of Naples, on the 17th of December 1749 His parents were poor, but anxious to give their son a good education; and after removing to Naples they sent him to a free school connected with one of the monasteries of that city. The organist of the monastery, Padre Polcano, was struck with the boy's intellect, and voluntarily instructed him in the elements of music, as also in the ancient and modern literature of his country. To his influence Cimarosa owed a free scholarship at the musical institute of Santa Maria di Loreto, where he remained for eleven years, studying chiefly the great masters of the old Italian school. Piccini, Sacchini and other musicians of repute are mentioned amongst his teachers. At the age of twenty-three Cimarosa began his career as a composer with a comic opera called Le Stravaganze del Conte, first performed at the Teatro dei Fiorentini at Naples in 1772. The work met with approval, and was followed in the same year by Le Pazzie di Stellidanza e di Zoroastro, a farce full of humour and eccentricity. This work also was successful, and the fame of the young composer began to spread all over Italy. In 1774 he was invited to Rome to write an opera for the stagione of that year; and he there produced another comic opera called L'Italiana in Londra. The next thirteen years of Cimarosa's life are not marked by any event worth mentioning. He wrote a number of operas for the various theatres of Italy, living temporarily in Rome, in Naples, or wherever else his vocation as a conductor of his works happened to call him. From 1784-1787 he lived at Florence, writing exclusively for the theatre of that city. The productions of this period of his life are very numerous, consisting of operas, both comic and serious, cantatas, and various sacred compositions. The following works may be mentioned amongst many others: - Caio Mario; the three biblical operas, Assalone, La Giuditta and Il Sacrificio d'Abramo; also Il Convito di Pietra; and La Ballerina amante,. a pretty comic opera first performed at Venice with enormous succes$.

About the year 1788 Cimarosa went to St Petersburg by invitation of the empress Catherine II. At her court he remained four years and wrote an enormous number of compositions, mostly of the nature of pieces d'occasion. Of most of these not even the names are on record. In 1792 Cimarosa left St Petersburg, and went to Vienna at the invitation of the emperor Leopold II. Here he produced his masterpiece, Il Matrimonio segreto, which ranks amongst the highest achievements of light operatic music. In 1793 Cimarosa returned to Naples, where Il Matrimonio segreto and other works were received with great applause. Amongst the works belonging to his last stay in Naples may be mentioned the charming opera Le Astuzie feminili. This period of his life is said to have been embittered by the intrigues of envious and hostile persons, amongst whom figured his old rival Paisiello. During the occupation of Naples by the troops of the French Republic, Cimarosa joined the liberal party, and on the return of the Bourbons, was, like many of his political friends, condemned to death. By the intercession of influential admirers his sentence was commuted into banishment, and he left Naples with the intention of returning to St Petersburg. But his health was broken, and after much suffering he died at Venice on the 11th of January 1801, of inflammation of the intestines. The nature of his disease led to the rumour of his having been poisoned by his enemies, which, however, a formal inquest proved to be unfounded. He worked till the last moment of his life, and one of his operas, Artemizia, remained unfinished at his death.


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