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Domoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 14277-97-5
PubChem 5282253
ChemSpider 4445428
SMILES
Properties
Molecular formula C15H21NO6
Molar mass 311.3303 g/mol
Density 1.273 g/cm3
Boiling point

607.2 degrees Celsius at 760 mmHg (101.3 kPa)

Vapor pressure 2.62×10−16 mmHg (34.9 fPa) at 25 °C
Hazards
R-phrases R20 R21 R22
S-phrases S36 S37
Flash point 321°C
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Domoic acid (DA), the neurotoxin which causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), is a kainic acid analog, heterocyclic amino acid associated with certain harmful algal blooms.[1]

Contents

Occurrence

In 1958, domoic acid was originally isolated from the red alga called "doumoi" or "hanayanagi" (Chondria armata[2]) in Japan. "Doumoi" is used as an anthelmintic in Tokunoshima, Kagoshima.[citation needed] Domoic acid is also produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia.[3][4]

Chemistry

Domoic acid is a structural analog of kainic acid and proline.

Toxicology

Considerable recent research has been carried out by the Marine Mammal Center and other scientific centers on the association of domoic acid-producing harmful algal blooms and neurological damage in marine mammals of the Pacific Ocean.

Domoic acid can bioaccumulate in marine organisms such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines that feed on the phytoplankton known to produce this toxin. DA can accumulate in high concentrations in the tissues of these plankton feeders when the toxic phytoplankton itself is high in concentration in the surrounding waters.

In mammals, including humans, domoic acid acts as a neurotoxin, causing short-term memory loss, brain damage and, in severe cases, death. DA-producing algal blooms are associated with the phenomenon of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). In marine mammals, domoic acid typically causes seizures and tremors. In the brain, domoic acid especially damages the hippocampus and amygdaloid nucleus. It damages the neurons by activating AMPA and kainate receptors, causing an influx of calcium. Although calcium flowing into cells is a normal event, the uncontrolled increase of calcium causes the cell to degenerate. Because the hippocampus may be severely damaged, long-term memory loss occurs.

See also

  1. Harmful algal blooms
  2. Pseudo-nitzschia

References

  1. ^ Domoic Acid and Pseudo-nitzschia References Domoic Acid and Pseudo-nitzschia References
  2. ^ Picture
  3. ^ Pseudo-nitzschia H. Peragallo in H. & M. Peragallo 1900, emend Hasle 1993
  4. ^ Diatoms (12 species)

External links

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