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Don D. Robey (1 November 1903, Houston, Texas – 16 June 1975, Houston) was a record label executive, songwriter and record producer. As the founder of Peacock Records and the eventual owner of Duke Records, he was responsible for nurturing the careers of many rhythm and blues artists in the 1950s and 1960s.

He has been credited with writing or co-writing many of the songs done by Duke/Peacock artists either under his real name or under the pseudonym Deadric Malone. However in many cases, he was merely a publisher and wasn't actually involved in the writing. (Many other label owners paid little for songs and controlled the publishing, but Robey was one of the few to disguise the real writers, making it nearly impossible to assess who wrote what on Duke, Peacock, Backbeat and his other labels.)[1]


Robey's entrepreneurial spirit developed while growing up around Houston's black business community, where he began as a professional gambler, then a taxicab business manager. He managed a nightclub in Los Angeles, California before returning to Houston, where he opened the Bronze Peacock Dinner Club in 1945. Soon he began to promote dances. The Peacock was soon featuring stars such as Ruth Brown, Louis Jordan, Lionel Hampton, and T-Bone Walker.

In 1947 he became manager for blues singer Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown, and two years later started Peacock Records, with Brown as his first artist. He found success both with Brown and with other R&B artists, the biggest success coming with "Big Mama" Thornton's # 1 hit "Hound Dog". The label also recorded Little Richard at the start of his career.

In 1952, Robey merged his Peacock label with Duke Records of Memphis, and Duke-Peacock was born. Robey took over full ownership of the label the following year. Initially the company's biggest star was Johnny Ace, but after Ace's death the gap was filled by other artistes including Junior Parker, Bobby "Blue" Bland, and Johnny Otis. He co-wrote "Farther Up The Road" with Joe Medwich Veasey which was initially a hit for Bobby "Blue" Bland in 1957, and later became a live staple for Eric Clapton.

Besides blues and R&B, Robey's label was responsible for issuing much gospel music, with successful artistes such as the Dixie Hummingbirds, the Mighty Clouds of Joy, the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi, and the Swan Silvertones. Robey also started Back Beat, an R&B label that had hits with O.V. Wright and Roy Head. He sold his labels to ABC Dunhill Records in 1973.

Like many other owners of independent record labels at the time — especially those who put out music intended for African-American audiences and who worked with African-American performers — Robey developed a reputation for unscrupulous business practices. Allegations against him were made in particular in relation to the death of Johnny Ace.


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