The Full Wiki

Douglas B-66 Destroyer: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to B-66 Destroyer article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

B-66 Destroyer
Role Light bomber
Manufacturer Douglas Aircraft Company
Designed by Ed Heinemann
First flight 28 June 1954
Introduced 1956
Retired 1973 (USAF)
Primary user United States Air Force
Number built 294 [1]
Unit cost US$2.55 million (RB-66B)[2]
Developed from A-3 Skywarrior

The Douglas B-66 Destroyer was a Tactical Air Command light bomber based on the United States Navy's A-3 Skywarrior, and was intended to replace the Douglas A-26 Invader. An RB-66 photo-reconnaissance version was ordered simultaneously. The B-66 retained the three-man crew of the A-3 Skywarrior.

Contents

Design and development

At first, the USAF thought the conversion would be an easy matter of removing the carrier-specific features, so no prototypes were ordered, just five pre-production RB-66A models (the reconnaissance mission being considered a higher priority). The list of modifications grew, and before long, the easy conversion became a substantially new aircraft. Many of the changes were due to the Air Force's requirement for low-level operations, while the Navy plane was usually a high-altitude bomber. A major difference between the A-3 and the B-66 was that the A-3 has two J57 jet engines, but the B-66 had two J71 engines.

The first RB-66A preproduction aircraft flew in 1954, while the first production RB-66B aircraft flew in early 1955.

The B-66 "Destroyer" was produced or modified into an astonishingly-wide variety of versions, including the B-66, EB-66, RB-66, and the WB-66. Likewise, the A-3 Skywarrior was used as the A-3, EA-3, KA-3, and the RA-3. Its basic design was a very versatile one, indeed.

Operational history

Deliveries to the USAF began in 1956 with 145 of this model were produced. RB-66s were used as the major night photo-reconnaissance aircraft of the USAF during this period. 72 of the B-66B bomber version were built, 69 fewer than originally planned. Thirteen B-66B aircraft later were modified into EB-66B electronic countermeasures aircraft for the Vietnam War. Unlike the Navy's A-3 Skywarrior, which performed some bombing missions, the Destroyer was not used as a bomber in Vietnam.

The RB-66C was a specialized electronic reconnaissance and ECM aircraft with an expanded crew of seven, including additional electronics warfare experts. 36 of these aircraft were built with the additional crewmembers housed in what was the camera/bomb bay of other variants. RB-66C aircraft had distinctive wingtip pods and were used in the vicinity of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis and later over Vietnam. In 1966, these were redesignated EB-66C.

The final B-66 variant was the WB-66D weather reconnaissance aircraft, 36 of which were constructed.

The EB-66C/E was removed from USAF service by 1973 and most examples either scrapped in place or placed in storage for eventual scrapping. One RB-66B is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. Other examples on display are located at: Shaw AFB, South Carolina; Lackland AFB, Texas; Robins AFB, Georgia; Dyess AFB, Texas; the Chanute Aerospace Museum at the former Chanute AFB in Rantoul, Illinois and the Pima Air and Space Museum adjacent to Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, Arizona.

Northrop X-21

Douglas EB-66E Destroyer in flight. Aircraft of the 355th Tactical Fighter Wing, 41st or 42nd TEWS based at Takhli Royal Thai Air Force base over Southeast Asia on 30 March 1970.

The Northrop X-21A modified the WB-66D with an unusual wing to conduct Laminar Flow Control studies. Laminar-flow control was thought to potentially reduce drag by as much as 25%. Control would be by removal of a small amount of the boundary-layer air by suction through porous materials, multiple narrow surface slots, or small perforations.

The B-66 fuselage was modified with a large hump on the top of the fuselage, with additional modifications to the wings, engines, laminar flow exhausts, and tail cone. Slots were incorporated in the wing's surface to inject air into the boundary layer. However, rain, dirt, dust and other particulates clogged the slots.

Northrop began flight research in April 1963 at Edwards Air Force Base, but with all of the problems encountered, and money going into the war, the X-21 would be the last experiment involving this concept.[3]

B-66 in the media

Douglas RB-66B Destroyer

The shooting down of an EB-66 over North Vietnam became the subject for the book Bat*21 by William Charles Anderson, and later a film version (1988) starring Gene Hackman and Danny Glover.

The story depicts the controversial rescue of Lieutenant Colonel Iceal Hambleton, USAF, the senior navigator/electronic warfare officer of an EB-66 (call sign "Bat 21"), and only survivor after the aircraft was struck by a surface to air missile on 2 April 1972. Lt Col Hambleton landed in an area containing over 30,000 North Vietnamese forces that were about to be ambushed and attacked by South Vietnamese forces.

As a result, the attack was canceled while efforts were made to secure the rescue of Lt Col Hambleton. The delay resulted in the loss of an indeterminate but sizable number of South Vietnamese soldiers as their positions were overrun, before American advisers initiated artillery attacks on the enemy forces in defiance of orders.

Lt Col Hambleton was finally rescued by American and South Vietnamese Navy SEALs Thomas R. Norris and Nguyen Van Kiet 11 and a half days later, but not before five aircraft and crews were shot down while attempting to rescue him, including:

  • a Bell UH-1H Huey (Blue Ghost 39) shot down on 2 April with the loss of three of five crewmen (and two POWs)
  • an OV-10 Bronco (Nail 38) that was lost on 3 April with the pilot captured
  • an A-1 Skyraider shot down on 4 April with the loss of its crew
  • a Sikorsky HH-53 "Jolly Green Giant" (Jolly Green 67) shot down on 6 April, resulting in the loss of all six crewmen
  • another OV-10 Bronco (Covey 282) shot down on 7 April, resulting in the weapons officer/observer being captured and later executed

Nine additional aircraft and helicopters were badly damaged during the rescue attempts, most never to fly again. The OV-10A weapons officer/observer who was rescued, was General Mark Clark's grandson.

Operators

Specifications (B-66)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 3
  • Length: 75 ft 2 in (22.9 m)
  • Wingspan: 72 ft 6 in (22.1 m)
  • Height: 23 ft 7 in (7.2 m)
  • Wing area: 780 ft² (72.5 m²)
  • Empty weight: 42,540 lb (19,300 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 57,800 lb (26,200 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 83,000 lb (38,000 kg)
  • Powerplant:Allison J71-A-11 or -13 turbojets, 10,200 lbf (45 kN) each

Performance

Armament

  • Guns: 2 × 20 mm (0.79 in) cannon in radar/remotely operated tail turret
  • Bombs: 15,000 lb (6,804 kg)

Avionics

  • APS-27 and K-5 radars

See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ National Museum of the USAF
  2. ^ Knaack, Marcelle Size. Post-World War II bombers, 1945-1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1988. ISBN 0-16-002260-6.
  3. ^ B-66 Information
Bibliography
  • Baugher, Joe. Douglas B-66 Destroyer. US Military Aircraft, 2001. Retrieved: 27 July 2006.
  • Donald, David and Jon Lake, eds. Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. London: AIRtime Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-880588-24-2.
  • Douglas RB-66B 'Destroyer'. USAF Museum. Retrieved: 27 July 2006.
  • Winchester, Jim, ed. "Douglas A-3 Skywarrior." Military Aircraft of the Cold War (The Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2006. ISBN 1-84013-929-3.

External links

Advertisements

B-66 Destroyer
Role Light bomber
Manufacturer Douglas Aircraft Company
Designed by Ed Heinemann
First flight 28 June 1954
Introduced 1956
Retired 1973 (USAF)
Primary user United States Air Force
Number built 294 [1]
Unit cost US$2.55 million (RB-66B)[2]
Developed from A-3 Skywarrior

The Douglas B-66 Destroyer was a U.S. Air Force Tactical Air Command light bomber based on the United States Navy's A-3 Skywarrior. It was intended to replace the Douglas A-26 Invader. An RB-66 photo-reconnaissance version was ordered simultaneously. The B-66 retained the three-man crew from the A-3.

Contents

Design and development

At first, the USAF thought the conversion would be an easy matter of removing the carrier-specific features, so no prototypes were ordered, just five pre-production RB-66A models (the reconnaissance mission being considered a higher priority). The list of modifications grew, and before long, the supposedly "easy" conversion became what was a substantially new aircraft. Many of the changes were due to the Air Force's requirement for low-level operations, while the Navy version was originally designed and initially employed as a high-altitude nuclear strike bomber. Two major differences between the A-3 and the B-66 were in terms of powerplants and emergency crew egress systems. In terms of engines, the A-3 had two J57 turbojet engines, while the B-66 had two Allison J71s. Secondly, the B-66 was equipped with ejection seats while the A-3 was not.

The first RB-66A preproduction aircraft flew in 1954, while the first production RB-66B aircraft flew in early 1955.

The basic B-66 "Destroyer" design proved itself to be a versatile one, and was produced or modified into a variety of versions, including the EB-66, RB-66, and the WB-66. Likewise, the A-3 Skywarrior was used as the A-3, EA-3, KA-3, EKA-3, TA-3, RA-3, ERA-3 and the UA-3.

Operational history

Deliveries to the USAF began in 1956 with 145 of this model produced. RB-66s were used as the major night photo-reconnaissance aircraft of the USAF during this period. A total of 72 of the B-66B bomber version were built, 69 fewer than originally planned. Thirteen B-66B aircraft later were modified into EB-66B electronic countermeasures aircraft for the Vietnam War. Unlike the Navy's A-3 Skywarrior, which performed some bombing missions, the Destroyer was not used as a bomber in Vietnam.

The RB-66C was a specialized electronic reconnaissance and ECM aircraft with an expanded crew of seven, including additional electronics warfare experts. A total of 36 of these aircraft were built with the additional crew members housed in what was the camera/bomb bay of other variants. RB-66C aircraft had distinctive wingtip pods and were used in the vicinity of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis and later over Vietnam. In 1966, these were redesignated EB-66C.

On 10 March 1964, a 19th TRS RB-66C flying on a photo-reconnaissance mission from Toul-Rosières Air Base in France was shot down over East Germany by a Soviet MiG-21 after it crossed over the border due to a compass malfunction. The crew ejected and were taken prisoner briefly before being repatriated.

The final B-66 variant was the WB-66D weather reconnaissance aircraft, 36 of which were constructed.

The EB-66C/E was removed from USAF service by 1975 and most examples either scrapped in place or placed in storage for eventual scrapping. One RB-66B is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. Other examples on display are located at: Shaw AFB, South Carolina; Lackland AFB, Texas; Robins AFB, Georgia; Dyess AFB, Texas; the Chanute Aerospace Museum at the former Chanute AFB in Rantoul, Illinois and the Pima Air and Space Museum adjacent to Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, Arizona.

Variants

RB-66A
(Douglas Model 1326) All-weather photo-reconaissance variant, five built.
RB-66B
(Douglas Model 1329) Variant of the RB-66A with production J71-A-13 engines and higher gross weight, 149 built.
B-66B
(Douglas Model 1327A) Tactical bomber variant of the RB-66B, 72 built.
NB-66B
One B-66B used for testing and a RB-66B used for F-111 radar trials.
RB-66C
Electronic reconnaissance variant of the RB-66B, included an additional compartment for four equipment operators, 36 built
EB-66C
Four RB-66Cs with uprated electronic counter measures equipment.
WB-66D
Electronic weather reconnaissance variant with the crew compartment modified for two observers, 36 built with two later modified to X-21A.
EB-66E
Specialised electronic reconnaissance conversion of the RB-66B.

Northrop X-21

File:Douglas EB-66E Destroyer in flight
Douglas EB-66E Destroyer in flight. Aircraft of the 355th Tactical Fighter Wing, 41st or 42nd TEWS based at Takhli Royal Thai Air Force base over Southeast Asia on 30 March 1970.

The Northrop X-21 modified the WB-66D with an unusual wing to conduct Laminar Flow Control studies. Laminar-flow control was thought to potentially reduce drag by as much as 25%. Control would be by removal of a small amount of the boundary-layer air by suction through porous materials, multiple narrow surface slots, or small perforations. Northrop began flight research in April 1963 at Edwards Air Force Base, but with all of the problems encountered, and money going into the war, the X-21 would be the last experiment involving this concept.[3]

B-66 in the media

[[File:|right|thumb|Douglas RB-66B Destroyer]]

The shooting down of an EB-66 over North Vietnam became the subject for the book Bat*21 by William Charles Anderson, and later a film version (1988) starring Gene Hackman and Danny Glover.

The story depicts the controversial rescue of Lieutenant Colonel Iceal Hambleton, USAF, the senior navigator/electronic warfare officer of an EB-66 (call sign "Bat 21"), and only survivor after the aircraft was struck by a surface to air missile on 2 April 1972. Lt Col Hambleton landed in an area containing over 30,000 North Vietnamese forces that were about to be ambushed and attacked by South Vietnamese forces.

As a result, the attack was canceled while efforts were made to secure the rescue of Lt Col Hambleton. The delay resulted in the loss of an indeterminate but sizable number of South Vietnamese soldiers as their positions were overrun, before American advisers initiated artillery attacks on the enemy forces in defiance of orders.

Lt Col Hambleton was finally rescued by American and South Vietnamese Navy SEALs Thomas R. Norris and Nguyen Van Kiet 11 and a half days later, but not before five aircraft and crews were shot down while attempting to rescue him, including:

  • a Bell UH-1H Huey (Blue Ghost 39) shot down on 2 April with the loss of three of five crewmen (and two POWs)
  • an OV-10 Bronco (Nail 38) that was lost on 3 April with the pilot captured
  • an A-1 Skyraider shot down on 4 April with the loss of its crew
  • a Sikorsky HH-53 "Jolly Green Giant" (Jolly Green 67) shot down on 6 April, resulting in the loss of all six crewmen
  • another OV-10 Bronco (Covey 282) shot down on 7 April, resulting in the weapons officer/observer being captured and later executed

Nine additional aircraft and helicopters were badly damaged during the rescue attempts, most never to fly again. The OV-10A weapons officer/observer who was rescued, was General Mark Clark's grandson.

Operators

Specifications (B-66)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 3
  • Length: 75 ft 2 in (22.9 m)
  • Wingspan: 72 ft 6 in (22.1 m)
  • Height: 23 ft 7 in (7.2 m)
  • Wing area: 780 ft² (72.5 m²)
  • Empty weight: 42,540 lb (19,300 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 57,800 lb (26,200 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 83,000 lb (38,000 kg)
  • Powerplant:Allison J71-A-11 or -13 turbojets, 10,200 lbf (45 kN) each

Performance

Armament
  • Guns: 2 × 20 mm (0.79 in) cannon in radar/remotely operated tail turret
  • Bombs: 15,000 lb (6,804 kg)
 

Avionics

  • APS-27 and K-5 radars

See also

United States Air Force portal

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ "Douglas B-66 Destroyer." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 5 August 2010.
  2. ^ Knaack, Marcelle Size. Post-World War II Bombers, 1945-1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1988. ISBN 0-16-002260-6.
  3. ^ "B-66 Information." B66.info. Retrieved: 5 August 2010.
Bibliography
  • Baugher, Joe. "Douglas B-66 Destroyer." USAAC/USAAF/USAF Bomber Aircraft: Third Series of USAAC/USAAF/USAF Bombers, 2001. Retrieved: 27 July 2006.
  • Donald, David and Jon Lake, eds. Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. London: AIRtime Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-880588-24-2.
  • "Douglas RB-66B 'Destroyer'." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 27 July 2006.
  • Winchester, Jim, ed. "Douglas A-3 Skywarrior." Military Aircraft of the Cold War (The Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2006. ISBN 1-84013-929-3.

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message