Doxycycline: Wikis

  

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Doxycycline
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6R,12aS)-4-(dimethylamino)-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-
6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide
Identifiers
CAS number 564-25-0
ATC code J01AA02 A01AB22
PubChem 11256
DrugBank APRD00597
ChemSpider 10482106
Chemical data
Formula C22H24N2O8 
Mol. mass 444.435 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100%
Metabolism hepatic,minimally
Half life 18-22 hours
Excretion urine, feces
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. D(US)
Legal status POM (UK) ? (US)
Routes oral, buccal, iv, im
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
Generic 100 mg doxycycline capsules
.Doxycycline (INN) (pronounced /ˌdɒksɪˈsaɪkliːn/) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections.^ Doxycycline are antibiotics and used to treat bacterial infection.
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^ Noroxin Noroxin (Norfloxacin) is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
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^ It's an antibiotic used to treat infection.
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.Doxycycline is a semi-synthetic tetracycline invented and clinically developed in the early 1960s by Pfizer Inc. and marketed under the brand name Vibramycin.^ Doxycycline is sometimes sold with the brand name Vibramycin but can also be sold generically as Doxycycline.
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^ Doxycyclin is a semi-synthetic structural isomer of the tetracycline family.
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^ Doxycycline is a member of the Tetracycline group derived semi synthetically.
  • In-vitro red blood cell partitioning of doxycycline Deshmukh PV, Badgujar PC, Gatne MM - Indian J Pharmacol 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

.Vibramycin received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1967, becoming Pfizer's first once-a-day broad-spectrum antibiotic.^ It is a broad spectrum, synthetic antibiotic.
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^ FDA plastid in 1967, peninsular Pfizer's first once-a-day broad-spectrum antibiotic.
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^ Doxycycline is broad spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic.
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.Other brand names include Monodox, Microdox, Periostat, Vibra-Tabs, Oracea, Doryx, Vibrox, Adoxa, Doxyhexal, Doxylin, and Atridox (topical doxycycline hyclate for periodontitis).^ Doxycycline Hyclate Oral tablet [Periodontitis] .

^ DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE 100MG TABLET DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE 100MG TABLET GENERIC VIBRA-TABS (DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE) .
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^ Doxycycline is the generic ingredient in a whole host of brand name antibiotics, such as Adoxa, Doryx, Monodox, Periostat, and Vibramycin.

Contents

Indicated uses

.As well as the general indications for all members of the tetracycline antibiotics group, Doxycycline is frequently used to treat chronic prostatitis, sinusitis, syphilis, chlamydia, pelvic inflammatory disease,[1][2] acne, rosacea,[3][4] and Rickettsial infections.^ Doxycycline are antibiotics and used to treat bacterial infection.
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^ It's an antibiotic used to treat infection.
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^ Tetracycline antibiotics are used for the treatment of a variety of infections.
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Antiprotozoal

.It is used in prophylaxis against malaria.^ Used as the drug to be active against malaria.

^ Doxycycline is also used as a prophylaxis against malaria.
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^ In addition, it is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Lyme disease, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever and in prophylaxis against malaria.
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.It should not be used alone for initial treatment of malaria, even when the parasite is doxycycline-sensitive, because the antimalarial effect of doxycycline is delayed.^ Doxycycline may also be used for the treatment of malaria.
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^ After that i had to keep initiating this opportunistic infections doxycycline because of importance effects.
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^ Use of doxycycline malaria!
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This delay is related to its mechanism of action. .Its mechanism of action against malaria is to specifically impair the progeny of the apicoplast genes resulting in their abnormal cell division.^ DOXYCYCLINE will only receive doxycycline for animals in the progeny the apicoplast genes resulting in thrush infections.
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^ Tetracyclines supersede other antibiotics, spectrum wise, by virtue of action against haemoprotozoan infections like Anaplasma, Theileria, Eherlichia and Malaria.
  • In-vitro red blood cell partitioning of doxycycline Deshmukh PV, Badgujar PC, Gatne MM - Indian J Pharmacol 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.It can be used in a treatment plan in combination with other agents, such as quinine.^ In this situation if the benefits of using Doxycycline outweigh the risks and there are few or no other alternatives available, such as with Rocky Mountain spotted fever and anthrax, Doxycycline can be used.
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^ Doxycycline is used to treat many different bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections, acne, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, periodontitis (gum disease), and others.
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^ Zithromax 250mg x 48 Tabs Zithromax is used for treatment of many types of bacterial infections, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, skin, ear infections, and STDs.
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[6]

Antibacterial

.It is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax).^ Treatment and prevention of anthrax (unlicensed use).
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^ In addition, it is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Lyme disease, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever and in prophylaxis against malaria.
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^ Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Bacillus anthracis.
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.It is also effective against Yersinia pestis (the infectious agent of bubonic plague) and is prescribed for the treatment of Lyme disease,[7][8][9], ehrlichiosis[10][11] and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.^ Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
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^ Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (0 reviews) .
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^ Buckingham SC. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a review for the pediatrician.
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.In fact, because doxycycline is one of the few medications shown to be effective in treating Rocky Mountain spotted fever (with the next best alternative being chloramphenicol), doxycycline is indicated even for use in children for this illness.^ Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
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^ Because it can stop the production of bacteria, doxycycline is used to treat acne.

^ Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (0 reviews) .
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.Otherwise, doxycycline is not indicated for use in children under the age of 8 years.^ Generally, children under 8 years old should not take doxycycline.
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^ Children-Use in children up to 8 years of age is not recommended.
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^ Avoid in children 8 years of age.
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.Doxycycline, like other antibiotics, will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.^ It will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

^ Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.
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^ It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu).
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When bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug, doxycycline may be used to treat and prevent:

Antihelmintic

.Elephantiasis is the end-stage condition of lymphatic filariases caused by one of two genera of filarial nematodes (roundworms): Wuchereria or Brugia (primarily Wuchereria bancrofti).^ Acceptability is a sacrificer caused by a dilaudid (worm) Wuchereria bancrofti .
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.Elephantiasis is characterized by permanently swollen limbs or genitals and permanent damage to the lymph system (often accompanied by severe secondary fungal and bacterial infections).^ Doxycycline is used to treat bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections; Lyme disease; acne; infections of skin, genital, and urinary systems; and anthrax (after inhalational exposure).
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^ Bacterial vaginosis and lower genital tract infections in women attending out-patient clinics at a tertiary institution serving a developing community.
  • A randomized controlled trial of azithromycin versus doxycycline/ciprofloxacin for the syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections in a resource-poor setting -- Rustomjee et al. 49 (5): 875 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC jac.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Severe form of gangrene caused by bacterial infection that results in death and decay of tissue in an infected wound (gas gangrene).
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.This results from blockage of lymph flow caused by immune response against dead or dying adult worms in the lymphatics.^ Doxycycline is used to treat many different bacterial infections as it is active against a number of different bacteria including those responsible for causing: .
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This condition affects over 120 million people worldwide, with 1 billion at risk[12]. .Previous anti-nematode treatments have been limited by poor levels of effectiveness, drug side effects and high costs.^ Side effects of drug.
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^ The higher DOXYCYCLINE doesn't have the potential side effects and high costs.
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^ Doxycycline is relatively safe, although dangerous drug interactions may occur; side effects are not very common and include photosensitivity and digestive problems.

.Doxycycline was shown in 2003 to kill the symbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in the filarial worms' reproductive tracts, rendering them sterile, thus reducing transmission of the disease.^ Unfortunately, the mutations that reverse the response to doxycycline also reduce binding affinity for doxycycline ten-fold, thus requiring higher levels of doxycycline for maximal induction.
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^ Doxycycline in the treatment of human onchocerciasis: Kinetics of Wolbachia endobacteria reduction and of inhibition of embryogenesis in female Onchocerca worms.
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^ In conclusion, we have shown that doxycycline reduces cytokine-induced NO production from murine lung epithelial cells.
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[13] .Field trials in 2005 showed that Doxycycline almost completely eliminates the release of microfilariae when given for an 8 week course.^ You should complete the 60-day course of antibiotics that you were given.

^ DOXYCYCLINE told me as recently as today that Doxycycline authentically furtively eliminates blood-borne tuff when given for 7 to 14 sahara.
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^ As shown in Table 1 , sustained-release doxycycline hyclate completely protected mice (100 %) from both B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum infection transmitted simultaneously by infected ticks.
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[14][15] .However, doxycycline only reduces transmission and the relatively light pathology associated with microfilaraemia; there is currently no cure for lymphatic filariasis.^ However there were some lasix kentucky derby weeks that went along with the daily sinusitis use of the phase as geriatric a doxycycline, like the nausea, vomiting.
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^ In this situation if the benefits of using Doxycycline outweigh the risks and there are few or no other alternatives available, such as with Rocky Mountain spotted fever and anthrax, Doxycycline can be used.
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^ However, after 12 weeks of open label treatment with doxycycline, the ulcer had reduced in size by about 60%.
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Cautions and side effects

.Cautions and side effects are similar to other members of the tetracycline antibiotic group.^ What if I develop side effects from the antibiotic?

^ Both have similar side effects.
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^ Precautions Cautions and side effects are similar to other members of the Tetracycline Antibiotic group.
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.However, the risk of photosensitivity skin reactions is of particular importance for those intending long-term use for malaria prophylaxis because it can cause permanent sensitive and thin skin.^ Doxycycline is also used as a prophylaxis against malaria.
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^ This medicine is not for long-term use.
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^ Long term use of doxycycline.
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.Reports of GERD have been cited with the use of doxycycline.^ Photosensitivity after treatment with doxycycline has been reported by others 7 , 16 and may be lessened by the use of ultraviolet A and B blockers or by having patients avoid direct sunlight while receiving treatment.
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^ DOXYCYCLINE is also used to decimate reported albanian events.
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^ Most case reports of esophageal ulcer resulting from doxycycline use indicate that patients complained of odynophagia, retrosternal pain and dysphagia.
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[citation needed]
.Unlike some other members of the tetracycline group, it may be used in those with renal impairment.^ It also has the advantage that, unlike some other tetracyclines, it can be given (with care) to patients with renal impairment.
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^ In studies of patients with erythema migrans, those with multiple lesions or other evidence of acute disseminated disease have been grouped together with patients with only local infection.
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^ Tetracycline drugs, therefore, should not provide used in this age group and in pregnant or doxycycline hyclate 100 mg blacks unless the potential pyogenes may validate acceptable despite the potential risks.
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.Previously, it was believed that doxycycline impairs the effectiveness of many types of hormonal contraception due to CYP450 induction.^ Doxycycline decreases the effectiveness of some oral contraceptives; another form of birth control should be used while taking this drug.
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^ Minerals Many minerals can decrease the absorption and reduce effectiveness of doxycycline, including calcium , magnesium , iron , zinc , and others.
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^ Awhile, DOXYCYCLINE was believed that Doxycycline impairs the pathologist of unmanned types of antibiotics that longterm?
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.Recent research has shown no significant loss of effectiveness in oral contraceptives while using most tetracycline antibiotic (including doxycycline), although many physicians still recommend the use of barrier contraception for people taking the drug to prevent unwanted pregnancy.^ Although recent research has indicated that there is no significant loss in their effectiveness, many health care professionals still recommend the use of additional barrier contraceptives.
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^ Doxycycline Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections.

^ Doxycycline, along with many other antibiotics, was thought to interfere with the effectiveness of oral contraceptives.
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[16][17][18]
.It should be taken with a full glass of water, after food, and patients should be upright for at least 30 minutes after administration to prevent irritation of the esophagus and stomach.^ How to use It should be taken with a full glass of water and patients should be upright for at least 30 minutes after administration to prevent irritation of the esophagus and stomach.
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^ In any event, you should remain upright for at least 30 minutes after taking Doxycycline.
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^ Doxycycline may be taken with or without food and should be taken with a full glass of water.
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.Failure to take food prior to ingesting Doxycycline may induce vomiting.^ Doxycycline may be given with or without food.
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^ Doxycycline causes less nausea and vomiting but may cause yeast infections in women.
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^ DOXYCYCLINE has a tendency towards taking prior problems/conditions and causing them to quit smoking.
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.[19]Also, there is a slim risk of liver damage during prolonged use of the drug.^ Also, there is a slim risk of liver damage during prolonged use of the drug.
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^ Risks and benefits of using this drug .
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^ IF YOU PLAN ON BECOMING PREGNANT, discuss with your doctor the benefits and risks of using this medicine during pregnancy.
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[20] .It is also recommended that it be taken with a small meal of a non-dairy nature if upset stomach, nausea, or fatigue occurs.^ It is also recommended that it be taken with a small meal of a non-dairy nature if upset stomach, nausea, or fatigue occurs.
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^ Give hydroxychloroquine sulfate after a meal to lessen nausea and stomach upset.
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^ Stomach upset, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting may occur.
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.Doxycycline is not approved for use in children under the age of 8 years for two reasons: 1) it can cause permanent yellowing or graying of the teeth, and 2), according to CDC patient information on doxycycline, it can inhibit bone growth in premature infants during the time the medication is taken; this last effect disappears when the doxycycline treatment is over.^ Generally, children under 8 years old should not take doxycycline.
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^ Tetracyclines also cause abnormalities of developing bones and teeth in the fetus and in children under age 8.
  • Practice Parameter: Treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology -- Halperin et al. 69 (1): 91 -- Neurology 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.neurology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Children-Use in children up to 8 years of age is not recommended.
  • Doxycycline- For Dental Use (Systemic) 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Specific exceptions are made for potentially fatal illnesses where the benefits outweigh the risks and there are few or no other alternatives, such as with Rocky Mountain spotted fever and anthrax.^ Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (0 reviews) .
  • Doxycycline for Acne - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Rocky Mountain spotted fever treated?
  • • Doxycycline • $$$. doxycycline. Save Up To 70% On ... • doxycycline hyclate 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC sejo.2trom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rocky Mountain spotted fever .
  • Doxycycline | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.It should also not be used in pregnant and nursing women, as the drug can cause damage to a fetus and nursing child.^ Do not use in pregnant, nursing, or growing animals since this medication may cause slowing of bone growth and discoloration of teeth.
  • Doxycycline in Medications and Healthcare - Medications - Prescription available in our Dogs Department at PetCareRx.com 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.petcarerx.com [Source type: General]

^ All assistance here is used at your own risk and we take no responsibility should there be damage to the system in question.
  • Malwarebytes Forum 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.malwarebytes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Malwarebytes Forum 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.malwarebytes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You should avoid using antimalarial drugs that are not recommended unless your child has been diagnosed with life-threatening malaria and no other treatment options are available.
  • Prevention in Children, Public Info | CDC Malaria 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Experimental applications

.At subantimicrobial doses, doxycycline is an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases, and has been used in various experimental systems for this purpose; such as for recalcitrant recurrent corneal erosions.^ Stemolecule™ Doxycycline hyclate (Dox) is a broad spectrum antibiotic derivative of tetracycline and an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases in vivo .
  • Stemolecule™ Doxycycline hyclate - Stemgent - Reprogramming the Reagent 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC stemgent.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pyritinol has been used in Europe since 1961 for various cognitive conditions such as dementia, head injury, stroke aftermath, coma, and cerebral circulatory disorders.
  • order antibiotics from England, doxycycline, penicilin, tetracycline, cipro, Roxithromycine 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.smart-drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Effects of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline in the treatment of moderate acne.
  • Doxycycline. Anti-Aging-Guide -- Your plan to stay young 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.anti-aging-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

[21] .Doxycycline has been used successfully in the treatment of one patient with lymphangioleiomyomatosis, an otherwise progressive and fatal disease.^ Doxycycline may also be used for the treatment of malaria.
  • Doxycycline: MedlinePlus Drug Information 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: General]

^ Doxycycline use for rickettsial disease in pediatric patients.
  • Doxycycline. Anti-Aging-Guide -- Your plan to stay young 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.anti-aging-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Doxycycline has the advantages of nearly complete absorption and long duration of action, and is therefore one of the most commonly used tetracyclines.
  • Effect of food on doxycycline absorption. Kshirsagar NA, Ankalesaria PS J Postgrad Med 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] Doxycyline has also been shown to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy (in mice), a deadly consequence of prolonged hypertension.[23]
.Doxycycline is also used in "Tet-on" and "Tet-off" tetracycline controlled transcriptional activation to regulate transgene expression in organisms and cell cultures.^ Regulated expression of an essential gene by the 'tet-off' system .
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Doxycycline-regulated gene expression in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This system has been adapted for experimental gene regulation in eukaryotes by fusing TetR to the VP16 transcriptional activating domain of herpes simplex virus VP16, thereby creating a synthetic tetracycline-regulatable transcriptional activator protein (tTA) that can be used to regulate a gene that is under the control of a tetracycline-responsive promoter (reviewed in [ 9 ] and shown schematically in Fig.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Doxycycline-regulated gene expression in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Schematic overview of the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system used in this study.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Doxycycline-regulated gene expression in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

Other experimental applications include:
.
  • Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE)[24]
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Infected animal bite wounds (Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella pneumotropica)[25]
  • Rheumatoid arthritis[26][27] and reactive arthritis.
  • Chronic inflammatory lung diseases (panbronchiolitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchitis)[28][29]
  • Sarcoidosis[30][31]
  • Prevention of aortic aneurysm in people with Marfan Syndrome.
  • Multiple sclerosis[32]
  • Meibomian Gland Dysfunction
  • Treatment of filariasis and onchocerciasis due to filariae and onchocercae generally harbouring endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria.^ Doxycycline frequently is used to treat chronic prostatitis, sinusitis, syphilis, chlamydia, pelvic inflammatory disease, acne and rosacea.
    • Recognizing Doxycycline-Induced Esophageal Ulcers in Dental Practice: A Case Report and Review -- Segelnick and Weinberg 139 (5): 581 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Doxycycline in the treatment of human onchocerciasis: Kinetics of Wolbachia endobacteria reduction and of inhibition of embryogenesis in female Onchocerca worms.
    • Doxycycline. Anti-Aging-Guide -- Your plan to stay young 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.anti-aging-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Therefore, other potential anti-inflammatory therapies which might not induce resistance, such as doxycycline, would be beneficial for treatment of chronic inflammatory lung diseases.
    • Doxycycline Modulates Nitric Oxide Production in Murine Lung Epithelial Cells -- Hoyt et al. 176 (1): 567 -- The Journal of Immunology 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

    Doxycycline kills the bacteria, and (by removal of the endosymbiotes) the nematodes.

References

  1. ^ Sweet RL, Schachter J, Landers DV, Ohm-Smith M, Robbie MO (1988). "Treatment of hospitalized patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease: comparison of cefotetan plus doxycycline and ana doxycycline". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158 (3 Pt 2): 736–41. PMID 3162653. 
  2. ^ Gjønnaess H, Holten E (1978). "Doxycycline (Vibramycin) in pelvic inflammatory disease". Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 57 (2): 137–9. doi:10.3109/00016347809155893. PMID 345730. 
  3. ^ Määttä M, Kari O, Tervahartiala T, et al. (2006). "Tear fluid levels of MMP-8 are elevated in ocular rosacea--treatment effect of oral doxycycline". Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244 (8): 957–62. doi:10.1007/s00417-005-0212-3. PMID 16411105. 
  4. ^ Quarterman MJ, Johnson DW, Abele DC, Lesher JL, Hull DS, Davis LS (1997). "Ocular rosacea. Signs, symptoms, and tear studies before and after treatment with doxycycline". Arch Dermatol 133 (1): 49–54. doi:10.1001/archderm.133.1.49 (inactive 2010-03-11). PMID 9006372. 
  5. ^ Dahl EL, Shock JL, Shenai BR, Gut J, DeRisi JL, Rosenthal PJ (2006). "Tetracyclines specifically target the apicoplast of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50 (9): 3124–31. doi:10.1128/AAC.00394-06. PMID 16940111. 
  6. ^ Lalloo DG, Shingadia D, Pasvol G, et al. (February 2007). "UK malaria treatment guidelines". J. Infect. 54 (2): 111–21. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2006.12.003. PMID 17215045. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0163-4453(06)00416-6. 
  7. ^ Nadelman RB, Luger SW, Frank E, Wisniewski M, Collins JJ, Wormser GP (1992). "Comparison of cefuroxime axetil and doxycycline in the treatment of early Lyme disease". Ann. Intern. Med. 117 (4): 273–80. doi:10.1001/archinte.117.2.273. PMID 1637021. 
  8. ^ Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Fish D, et al. (2001). "Prophylaxis with single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease after an Ixodes scapularis tick bite". N. Engl. J. Med. 345 (2): 79–84. doi:10.1056/NEJM200107123450201. PMID 11450675. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/345/2/79. 
  9. ^ Karlsson M, Hammers-Berggren S, Lindquist L, Stiernstedt G, Svenungsson B (1994). "Comparison of intravenous penicillin G and oral doxycycline for treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis". Neurologe 44 (7): 1203–7. PMID 8035916. 
  10. ^ Weinstein RS (1996). "Human ehrlichiosis". Am Fam Physician 54 (6): 1971–6. PMID 8900357. 
  11. ^ Karlsson U, Bjöersdorff A, Massung RF, Christensson B (2001). "Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis--a clinical case in Scandinavia". Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 33 (1): 73–4. doi:10.1080/003655401750064130. PMID 11234985. 
  12. ^ Watkins, B.M. Drugs for the control of parasitic diseases: current status and development. TRENDS in Parasitology (2003)19:11
  13. ^ Hoerauf A, Mand S, Fischer K, et al. (2003). "Doxycycline as a novel strategy against bancroftian filariasis-depletion of Wolbachia endosymbionts from Wuchereria bancrofti and stop of microfilaria production". Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 192 (4): 211–6. doi:10.1007/s00430-002-0174-6. PMID 12684759. 
  14. ^ Taylor MJ, Makunde WH, McGarry HF, Turner JD, Mand S, Hoerauf A (2005). "Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti: a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial". Lancet 365 (9477): 2116–21. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66591-9. PMID 15964448. 
  15. ^ Outland, Katrina (2005 Volume 13). "New Treatment for Elephantitis: Antibiotics". The Journal of Young Investigators. http://www.jyi.org/news/nb.php?id=361. 
  16. ^ Archer JS, Archer DF (2002). "Oral contraceptive efficacy and antibiotic interaction: a myth debunked". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 46 (6): 917–23. doi:10.1067/mjd.2002.120448. PMID 12063491. 
  17. ^ Dréno B, Bettoli V, Ochsendorf F, Layton A, Mobacken H, Degreef H (2004). "European recommendations on the use of oral antibiotics for acne". Eur J Dermatol 14 (6): 391–9. PMID 15564203. http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/en/revues/medecine/ejd/e-docs/00/04/07/1B/article.md?type=text.html. 
  18. ^ DeRossi SS, Hersh EV (2002). "Antibiotics and oral contraceptives". Dent. Clin. North Am. 46 (4): 653–64. doi:10.1016/S0011-8532(02)00017-4. PMID 12436822. 
  19. ^ http://doublecheckmd.com/EffectsDetail.do?dname=doxycycline&sid=11973&eid=2158
  20. ^ Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (November-December 2004). "European recommendations on the use of oral antibiotics for acne". Food and Drug Administration. http://www.jle.com/en/revues/medecine/ejd/e-docs/00/04/07/1B/article.md?type=text.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  21. ^ Dursun D, Kim MC, Solomon A, Pflugfelder SC (2001). "Treatment of recalcitrant recurrent corneal erosions with inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-9, doxycycline and corticosteroids". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132 (1): 8–13. doi:10.1016/S0002-9394(01)00913-8. PMID 11438047. 
  22. ^ Moses MA, Harper J, Folkman J (2006). "Doxycycline treatment for lymphangioleiomyomatosis with urinary monitoring for MMPs". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (24): 2621–2. doi:10.1056/NEJMc053410. PMID 16775248. 
  23. ^ Errami M, Galindo CL, Tassa AT, Dimaio JM, Hill JA, Garner HR (2007). "Doxycycline attenuates isoproterenol- and transverse aortic banding- induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice". J Pharmacol Exp Ther 324 (3): 1196. doi:10.1124/jpet.107.133975. PMID 18089841. 
  24. ^ Saraiva IH, Jones RN, Erwin M, Sader HS (1997). "[Evaluation of antimicrobial sensitivity of 87 clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci]" (in Portuguese). Rev Assoc Med Bras 43 (3): 217–22. doi:10.1590/S0104-42301997000300009. PMID 9497549. 
  25. ^ Dibb WL, Digranes A (1981). "Characteristics of 20 human Pasteurella isolates from animal bite wounds". Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [B] 89 (3): 137–41. PMID 7315339. 
  26. ^ Sreekanth VR, Handa R, Wali JP, Aggarwal P, Dwivedi SN (2000). "Doxycycline in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis--a pilot study". J Assoc Physicians India 48 (8): 804–7. PMID 11273473. 
  27. ^ Nordström D, Lindy O, Lauhio A, Sorsa T, Santavirta S, Konttinen YT (1998). "Anti-collagenolytic mechanism of action of doxycycline treatment in rheumatoid arthritis". Rheumatol. Int. 17 (5): 175–80. doi:10.1007/s002960050030. PMID 9542777. 
  28. ^ Raza M, Ballering JG, Hayden JM, Robbins RA, Hoyt JC (2006). "Doxycycline decreases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human lung epithelial cells". Exp. Lung Res. 32 (1-2): 15–26. doi:10.1080/01902140600691399. PMID 16809218. 
  29. ^ Chodosh S, Tuck J, Pizzuto D (1988). "Comparative trials of doxycycline versus amoxicillin, cephalexin and enoxacin in bacterial infections in chronic bronchitis and asthma". Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 53: 22–8. PMID 3047855. 
  30. ^ Bachelez H, Senet P, Cadranel J, Kaoukhov A, Dubertret L (2001). "The use of tetracyclines for the treatment of sarcoidosis". Arch Dermatol 137 (1): 69–73. PMID 11176663. http://archderm.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/137/1/69. 
  31. ^ El Sayed F, Dhaybi R, Ammoury A (2006). "Subcutaneous nodular sarcoidosis and systemic involvement successfully treated with doxycycline". J Med Liban 54 (1): 42–4. PMID 17044634. 
  32. ^ "Antibiotics 'could help slow MS'". BBC News. 2007-12-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7136088.stm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

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