Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam: Wikis

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Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Chairperson M Karunanidhi
Secretary-General K Anbazhagan
Leader in Lok Sabha A.K.S. Vijayan[1]
Founded 1949
Headquarters Arivalayam, Anna Salai, Chennai - 600018
Newspaper Murasoli
Labour wing Labour Progressive Federation
Ideology Social Democratic/Populist
Alliance National Democratic Alliance (1999-2004)
United Progressive Alliance (2004-present)
Website
http://www.dmk.in
Politics of India
Political parties
Elections

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Tamil: திராவிட முன்னேற்றக் கழகம்) (literally "Dravidian Progress Federation" [2]) (founded 1949, Tamil Nadu, India) is a regional political party in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. It also has presence in nearby union territory of Puducherry. It is a Dravidian party founded by C. N. Annadurai as a breakaway faction from the Dravidar Kazhagam (known as Justice Party till 1944) headed by Periyar. Since 1969, DMK is headed by M Karunanidhi, the current Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. DMK is the first single party other than Congress to win elections in an Indian state with clear majority.

Contents

History

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Justice Party

DMK traces its roots to the South Indian Liberal Federation (Justice Party) formed in 1916, by P. Thiyagarayar, Dr. P.T. Rajan, Dr. Natesanar and few others. The Justice Party, whose objectives included social equality and justice, came to power in the first General Elections to Madras Presidency in 1920.[3] E. V. Ramasami Naicker, a popular Tamil leader of the time, who had joined Indian National Congress in 1919, to oppose what he considered as the Brahminic leadership of the party.[4] Naicker's experience at the Vaikom Satyagraha made him to start the Self-Respect Movement in 1926 which was rationalistic and "violently anti-Brahminic" [5]. He quit Congress and in 1935, he joined the Justice Party. In the 1937 elections, the Justice Party lost and the Indian National Congress under C. Rajagopalachari ("Rajaji") came to power in Madras Presidency. Rajaji's introduction of Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools led to the anti-Hindi agitations, led by Periyar and his associates.

Dravida Kazhagam

In August 1944, Periyar created the 'Dravida Kazhagham' out of the Justice Party and the Self-Respect Movement at the Salem Provincial Conference.[6] Dravidar Kazhagam insisted on an independent nation for Dravidians called Dravida Nadu consisting of areas that were covered under Madras Presidency.

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

Over the years, many disputes arose between Periyar and his followers. In 1949, several of his followers led by C. N. Annadurai, decided to split from Dravidar Kazhagham, after an aged Periyar married a young woman Maniammai and anointed his young wife to act as his successor to lead the party, superseding senior party leaders. Until then E. V. K. Sampath, the nephew of Periyar, was considered as his political heir.[7]

Annadurai, on September 17, 1949 along with V. R. Nedunchezhiyan, K.A. Mathialagan, K. Anbazhagan, N.V. Natarajan, E. V. K. Sampath and thousands of others in Robinson park in Royapuram in Chennai announced the formation of the DMK.

MGR's entry

MGR was a member of the DMK, and he was seen as an icon of the DMK and spread its message through films like Anbe Vaa. In 1953, MGR joined the DMK, popularised the party flag and symbol which at that time stood for secession from India by showing it in his movies. DMK entered the electoral fray rather unsuccessfully in 1957 with even senior leader V. R. Nedunchezhiyan losing from Salem although M Karunanidhi won after initially having opposed all Indian government and later supporting only those parties which promised to help its secession from India cause.

1960s

DMK leaders K. A. Mathialagan, V. P. Raman, C. N. Annadurai and M. Karunanidhi with Rajaji

Annadurai wanted a separate Dravida Nadu but the DMK changed its stance with the Chinese invasion in 1962 and suspended its demand for the length of the war and supported India raising funds for the war. When the war ended, nationalistic feelings were so strong that DMK gave up the separate Dravida nation idea.

The Anti-Hindi agitations of 1965 forced the central government to abandon its efforts to impose Hindi as the only official language of the country; still Hindi imposition continued as Indian government employees are asked to do write as much as 65% of the letters and memoranda in Hindi.

In 1967, DMK came to power in Madras province 18 years after formation and 10 years after it had first entered electoral politics. This began the Dravidian era in Madras province which later became Tamil Nadu.

In 1969, party general secretary and founder, CN Annadurai died. After his death, there was a power tussle between M Karunanidhi and Nenduncheziyan and the post of party president was created as a compromise with Karunanidhi becoming the president and Nendunchediyan becoming general secretary.

Karunanidhi's presidency

MGR's exit

M. G. Ramachandran (MGR) who was a popular actor and the then party treasurer had played a vital part in popularizing the party's ideologies. The political feud between MGR and the party president Karunanidhi emerged as an aftermath of the latter calling himself "Mujib of Tamil Nadu". In 1972, MGR called for a boycott of the party's General Council. With the crisis falling into call for corruption probe by MGR, he was eventually suspended from the General Council. Thus emerged a new party Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK).[8]

Post-MGR

In April 1974, the DMK government brought in a resolution in the House urging the Centre to accept the Rajamannar Committee recommendations on state autonomy and amend the Constitution of India to pave the way for a true federal system.

After MGR's death in December 1987, AIADMK split into two factions between Janaki (MGR's wife) and Jayalalithaa. DMK returned to power in 1989 State assembly elections. Karunanidhi took over as chief minister in January 1989. Subsequent to this, the LTTE "sent personal emissaries to Karunanidhi for seeking his active support in their battle against the IPKF".[9]

Then in 1991 elections are arranged to be held for both State and Central government. In 21 May 1991 Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, near Chennai in a election campaign meeting. It was later found the he has been killed by suicide bomber from LTTE, citing IPKF atrocities [10]in Srilanka as a reason.

This lead to sympathy wave favor of AIADMK - Congress alliance and DMK is deprived of any seats in the Parliament. This brings the rise of political rival J.Jayalalithaa to the DMK.

In 1996 election DMK came to power and M Karunanidhi form the government in the State. In 2004 parliamentary elections, DMK formed a alliance with Congress - Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) and swept a grand Victory, the alliance won all 40 seats including Puducherry. This enable 7 ministerial post in the Central government and influential power to DMK.

Two years later 2006 same alliance won in the state assembly election and DMK formed the government in the state. Mr. M Karunanidhi become fifth time the Chief Minister of the State.

Election history

See pdf for summary. DMK's worst poll performance ever in this state was registered in 1962 and its peak in 1996.

Madras State

Year General Election Votes Polled Seats Won
1962 3rd Assembly 3,435,633 50
1962 3rd Lok Sabha 2,315,610 7
1967 4th Assembly 6,230,552 137
1967 4th Lok Sabha 5,524,514 25

Tamil Nadu

Year General Election Votes Polled Seats Won Alliance(s)
1971 5th Assembly 7,654,935 184 INC(I)/CPI/AIFB/PSP/IUML
1971 5th Lok Sabha 5,622,758 23 INC(I)
1977 6th Assembly 4,258,771 48 None
1977 6th Lok Sabha 3,323,320 2 JP
1980 7th Assembly 4,164,389 37 INC(I)
1980 7th Lok Sabha 4,236,537 16 INC(I)
1984 8th Assembly 6,362,770 24 CPI/CPM]/JP
1984 8th Lok Sabha 5,597,507 2 CPI/CPM]/JP/TNC
1989 9th Assembly 8,001,222 150 None
1989 9th Lok Sabha 7,038,849 0 CPI/CPM]/JD
1991 10th Assembly 5,535,668 2 TMK/CPI/CPM]/JD
1991 10th Lok Sabha 5,601,597 0 NF
1996 11th Assembly 11,423,380 173 TMC
1996 11th Lok Sabha 6,967,679 17 UF
1998 12th Lok Sabha 5,140,266 5 UF
1999 13th Lok Sabha 6,298,832 12 NDA
2001 12th Assembly 8,669,864 31 NDA
2004 14th Lok Sabha 7,064,393 16 DPA/UPA
2006 13th Assembly 8,728,716 96 DPA/UPA
2009 15th Lok Sabha 7,625,397 18 UPA

Pondicherry

1974 3rd Assembly 47,823 2
1977 4th Assembly 30,441 3
1980 5th Assembly 68,030 14
1984 8th Lok Sabha 97,672 0
1985 6th Assembly 87,754 5
1989 9th Lok Sabha 157,250 0
1990 7th Assembly 101,127 9
1991 8th Assembly 96,607 4
1991 10th Lok Sabha 140,313 0
1996 9th Assembly 105,392 7
1996 11th Lok Sabha 183,702 0
1998 12th Lok Sabha 168,122 1
2001 10th Assembly 83,679 7
2006 11th Assembly 7

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200905251241.htm
  2. ^ Rao, MSA (1979) Urban Sociology in India Orient Longman Publishers.
  3. ^ Radhan, O.P. (2002). "A Time-Bound Plan for Muslim India". Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. Anmol Publications. pp. 187. ISBN 8174888659. 
  4. ^ Omvedt, Gail (2006). Dalit Visions: The Anti-caste Movement and the Construction on an Indian Identity. Orient Longman. pp. 54–55. ISBN 8125028951. 
  5. ^ "Ethnic balance". India Today. December 20, 2007. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&issueid=2138&id=2714&sectionid=30&Itemid=1. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  6. ^ Dirks, Nicholas B. (2001). Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton University Press. pp. 263. ISBN 978-0691088952. 
  7. ^ Priest-less weddings in TN VIP families - Sify News
  8. ^ Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr.(1973) Politics and the Film in Tamilnadu: The Stars and the DMK. Asian Survey. University of California Press.
  9. ^ "Jain commission interim report indicts FM, ex-Prime Minister". Indian Express. November 9, 1997. http://www.expressindia.com/news/fe/daily/19971109/31355243.html. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  10. ^ IPKF ATROCITIES http://pallavaram-ravi.blogspot.com/2009/03/monday-december-22-2008-touching-moment.html

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