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Druze دروز
Druze star.svg
Druze star
Total population
750,000 to 2,000,000
Regions with significant populations
 Syria 500,000[1]
 Lebanon 211,200[2]
 Israel (including the Golan Heights) 122,000[3]
 Jordan 20,000[4]
Outside the Middle East 100,000
 United States 20,000[5]
Religions
Unitarian Druze
Scriptures
Rasa'il al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom)
Languages
Arabic
English
Hebrew (in Israel)
French (in Lebanon and Syria)
Bismillahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim Part of a series on Shī‘ah Islam
Ismāʿīlism
Ismail lion 7.png
Concepts
Seven Pillars
History
Early Imams
Groups & leaders
.The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī‎, plural دروز, durūz, Hebrew: דרוזיםdruzim) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel/Palestine, and Jordan, whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of Islam, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnosticism, Neoplatonism and other philosophies, similar to other followers of Ismaili Shi'a Islam.^ The Druze people live in northern Israel, southern Syria and southern Lebanon.
  • Elder Druze by ~RoieG on deviantART 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC roieg.deviantart.com [Source type: General]

^ The Druze reside primarily in Lebanon , although there are smaller communities in Israel , Syria , and Jordan .
  • Druze at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Druze or Druse , religious community of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, with important overseas branches in the Americas and Australia.
  • Druze Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Druze 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[6]
Theologically, Druze consider themselves "an Islamic Unist, reformatory sect".[7][8] The Druze call themselves Ahl al-Tawhid "People of Unitarianism or Monotheism" or al-Muwaḥḥidūn "Unitarians, Monotheists."

Contents

Location

.The Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, the Palestinian Territories and with a smaller community in Jordan.^ The Druze are a group of people in Lebanon.

^ The Druze reside primarily in Lebanon , although there are smaller communities in Israel , Syria , and Jordan .
  • Druze at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 900,000 of them live in Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Jordan.
  • Adherents.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.adherents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The Israeli Druze are mostly in Galilee (81%) and around Haifa (19%).^ Using a hypergeometric test [22] significant enrichment of haplogroup X was localized in the Galilee region of the Israeli Druze population ( Figure 1b ).
  • PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]
  • The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike the Israeli Druze in Galilee, who took citizenship in 1948 and serve in the Israeli army, the Druze in the Golan resent Israel.
  • Between landmines and apples - RT Top Stories 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC rt.com [Source type: News]

^ The Israeli Druze population is estimated at 150,000, and is distributed over three geographical subregions: the Carmel, the Galilee, and the Golan Heights.
  • PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]
  • The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[3] .The Jordanian Druze can be found in Amman and Zarka; about 50% live in the town of Azraq, and a smaller number in Irbid and Aqaba.^ In Syria, the Druzes number about 260,000 people, of whom about 15,000 live in northern Syria near Aleppo, about 20,000 in and around Damascus, about 25,000 in the districts of Qantana and Qunaytira in southwestern Syria, and about 200,000 in Jabal ad-Duruz.

^ The Druzes now live in Latin America, especially in Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico, with smaller communities in Chile and Colombia.
  • http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.druze.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel should do more for the Druze people, like giving their towns equal funding to Jewish towns; I read a lot of negative news about this and I believe that it is true.
  • New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Golan Heights, the mountainous region between Israel and Syria, is home to about 20,000 Druze.^ The Golan Heights is a strategically important region that overlooks northern Israel.
  • Comments on A would-be happy link with Syria | The Economist 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 20,000 Druze live in the United States.
  • Druze at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And it is Syria of which the Golan Heights’ Druze consider themselves citizens.
  • Between landmines and apples - RT Top Stories 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC rt.com [Source type: News]

[10] .The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40%–50% of Druze live in Syria, 30%–40% in Lebanon, 6%–7% in Israel, and 1%–2% in Jordan.^ In recent years many Arab citizens in Israel have visited Syria and Lebanon without receiving special permission.
  • Druze visiting Syria article 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.arabhra.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lebanon’s Christians have been promiscuous, too—they’ve worked with the United States, France, Israel, Syria, and Saddam Hussein’s Iraq.
  • From Baghdad to Beirut by Michael J. Totten, City Journal 10 January 2010 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Israel, too, the Druze live in the mountains due to historical concerns for security.
  • The Druze Minority in Israel in the Mid-1990s by Gabriel Ben-Dor 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: Original source]

[11][12]
.Large communities of expatriate Druze also live outside the Middle East in Australia, Canada, Europe, Latin America, the United States and West Africa.^ There are also small Druze communities in Jordan, the United States, Canada and in Latin America.
  • THE DRUZE OF THE LEVANT 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About 20,000 Druze live in the United States.
  • Druze at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small communities of expatriates also live in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Australia, and Europe.

.They use the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to the other East Mediterraneans of the region.^ They use the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to the other Arab s of the region.
  • Druze at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They both speak French, English, and some Arabic and probably several additional languages, which I am not competent to evaluate.
  • SyriaComment.com: The ICRC, the Ticking Time Bomb, and Druze Shaykhs 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC faculty-staff.ou.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Druze represent a small percentage of the total population of the countries of the Near East in which they reside, their concentration in mountainous districts has produced a compact social structure, resulting in a nearly exclusive majority in some geographical regions, and therefore a low frequency of admixture with other populations.
  • The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[13]
.There are thought to be as many as 2 million Druze worldwide, the vast majority in the Levant or East Mediterranean.^ There are thought to be as many as 2.3 million Druze worldwide, the vast majority in the Levant or East Mediterranean.
  • Druze at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of that, there are many single Druze ladies, and many families are denied enjoying the marriages of their children .
  • The Social Image of the Druze Woman 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC americandruze.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like some Ismailis, the Druze believe there have been many (perhaps 70) incarnations of God.
  • The Druze Faith 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.muslimhope.com [Source type: Original source]

[14]

History

Origin of the name

.The most plausible theory of the origin of the name Druze is that it derived from the name of Anushtakīn ad-Darazī, one of the early leaders of the faith.^ The origins of the Druze faith can be traced to Egypt in the early eleventh century.
  • Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Druze faith is named after one of these supporters, Ismail al-Darazi / ad-Darazi.
  • The Druze Faith 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.muslimhope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The origin of the name Druze is traced to Muhammad ad-Darazī , reputed founder of the sect.
  • Druze at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the Druze consider ad-Darazī a heretic[15] who practiced ghuluww (Arabic, "exaggeration"), which refers to the belief that God was incarnated in human beings, especially ‘Ali and his descendants.^ However, the rest of the world tends to refer to them as "Druze" or "Druse", a name which some believe was derived from an early preacher Muhammad al-Darazi.

^ The early Druze community faced a strong challenge when Muḥammad ad-Darazī declared Ḥakīm's divinity and claimed to be his chief messenger.
  • Druze at AllExperts 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Epistle 35 of the Druze Scriptures, Hamza ibn 'Ali says, "Whoever fears a human being like himself falls under his sway; the Unitarian is valiant by virtue of his faith."
  • http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.druze.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ad-Darazī was a dā‘ī ("missionary") who first preached an unorthodox version of the faith to outsiders in 1016. He claimed to be the true leader of the faithful rather than Hamza ibn ‘Ali (the appointed leader) and also that al-Hakim and his ancestors were incarnations of God.^ It also has other epistles by al-Hakim, Hamza, and others.
  • The Druze Faith 19 January 2010 18:22 UTC www.muslimhope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was claimed that hamza is really Jesus Christ who came again in the look of hamza and the God (al hakim) he is the father!
  • - Druz</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.investigateislam.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=69">www.investigateislam.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="190"><a href="#citable__190"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Among the faith’s first leaders were Hamza Ben-Ali and Mohammad al-Darazi.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith and Community</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.goisrael.com/Tourism_Eng/Tourist+Information/Ethnic+Groups/Druze/The+Druze+Faith+and+Community.htm">www.goisrael.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__25" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="25">Although he is considered a <a href="/Renegade" title="Renegade">renegade</a> by the Unitarian community, the name "Druze" is still used for identification and for historical reasons.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many in the Druze community, however, remain doubtful as to the reasons behind Hezbollah's attack on their villages.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LEBANON: Druze Take On Hezbollah, Because They Must - IPS ipsnews.net</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=42450">www.ipsnews.net</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze reside primarily in Lebanon , although there are smaller communities in Israel , Syria , and Jordan .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze at AllExperts</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.allexperts.com/e/d/dr/druze.htm">en.allexperts.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With some 8,000 residents, Majdal Shams is considered to be the center of the Druze community in the Golan.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Focus on Israel- The Druze in Israel </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/12/Focus%20on%20Israel-%20The%20Druze%20in%20Israel">www.mfa.gov.il</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title> - Druz</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.investigateislam.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=69">www.investigateislam.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__185" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="185"><a href="/Al-Hakim_bi-Amr_Allah" title="Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah">Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah</a> executed ad-Darazi in 1018 for his teachings.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="185"><a href="#citable__185"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Darazi who later (1018) executed by the orders of Al-Hakim.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Beit Jan - Biblical Beth Dagon? </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://biblewalks.com/Sites/BeitJan.html">biblewalks.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="185"><a href="#citable__185"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After al-Darazi's death (1020), Hamza declared himself to be the true manifestation of the Divine reality of al-Hakim.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Druze Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Druze.aspx">www.encyclopedia.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="185"><a href="#citable__185"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze faith, an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, can be traced back to the times of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the 6th Fatimid Caliph in Egypt (996-1021 AD).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Beit Jan - Biblical Beth Dagon? </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://biblewalks.com/Sites/BeitJan.html">biblewalks.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_samy_6_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-samy-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_about_14_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-about-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__170" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="170">Some authorities see in the name "Druze" a descriptive epithet, derived from Arabic <em>derasa</em> ("those who read"), or <em>darrisa</em> (those in possession of Truth) or <em>dugs</em> ("the clever, initiated").</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="170"><a href="#citable__170"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze language is derived from Arabic.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="170"><a href="#citable__170"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some authorities see in it a descriptive epithet, derived from Arabic darasa (those who read the Book), or darisa (those in possession of Truth), etc.; but more connect it with the name of the first missionary, Isma'il Darazi.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="170"><a href="#citable__170"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, the rest of the world tends to refer to them as "Druze" or "Druse", a name which some believe was derived from an early preacher Muhammad al-Darazi.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DRUSE, DRUZE, MOWAHHIDOON</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm">www.religioustolerance.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__212" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="212">Others have speculated that the word comes from the Arabic-Persian word <em>Darazo</em> (<span lang="fa" xml:lang="fa">درز</span> "bliss") or from <a href="/Shaykh" title="Shaykh" class="mw-redirect">Shaykh</a> Hussayn ad-Darazī, who was one of the early converts to the faith.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="212"><a href="#citable__212"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The early Druze community faced a strong challenge when Muḥammad ad-Darazī declared Ḥakīm's divinity and claimed to be his chief messenger.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze at AllExperts</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.allexperts.com/e/d/dr/druze.htm">en.allexperts.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="212"><a href="#citable__212"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The name comes from French, and derives from Arabic durūz (plural), from the name of one of their founders, Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Daraz¯ (died 1019).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Druze Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Druze.aspx">www.encyclopedia.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="212"><a href="#citable__212"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For if, as it seems, the Bhavishya Purana mentions so many people who are going to come in the future, why should Satiricus not be one of them?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_najjar_16_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-najjar-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__201" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="201">In the early stages of the movement, the word "Druze" is rarely mentioned by historians, and in Druze religious texts only the word <em>Muwaḥḥidūn</em> ("Unitarian") appears.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="201"><a href="#citable__201"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Abu Abdullah was entrusted by the early Druze leader Hamza with the duty of assisting the oppressed, and is also said to have been the first Druze religious judge (qadi).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Abu Abdullah Shrine in Isfiya</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.goisrael.de/Tourism_Euk/Tourist+Information/Ethnic+Groups/Druze/The+Abu+Abdullah+Shrine+in+Isfiya.htm">www.goisrael.de</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="201"><a href="#citable__201"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The word Druzes, in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, occurs as " Dogziyin ," 5 but it is clear that this is a scribal error.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Origins of the Druze People and Religion: Chapter III. Racial Origins</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.sacred-texts.com/asia/odpr/odpr07.htm">www.sacred-texts.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="201"><a href="#citable__201"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze religious books are accessible only to the initiates, the uqqal ("knowers").</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Focus on Israel- The Druze in Israel </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/12/Focus%20on%20Israel-%20The%20Druze%20in%20Israel">www.mfa.gov.il</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title> - Druz</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.investigateislam.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=69">www.investigateislam.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__3" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="3">The only early Arab historian who mentions the Druze is the 11th century Christian scholar Yahyá ibn Sa‘īd al-Antākī, who clearly refers to the heretical group created by ad-Darazī rather than the followers of Hamza ibn ‘Alī.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze were not expelled; only Christians and Muslims were.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Palestine Chronicle: A Leading Online Newspaper on Palestine, Israel and the Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://palestinechronicle.com/view_article_details.php?id=15611">palestinechronicle.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ali Fares, who was born in the early 18th century to a poor family, became a religious scholar at a young age.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Sheikh Ali Fares</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.goisrael.nl/Tourism_Euk/Tourist+Information/Ethnic+Groups/Druze/Sheikh+Ali+Fares.htm">www.goisrael.nl</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Emir Fakhr al-Din al-Ma'ani II (1572-1635), was a remarkably enlightened Druze ruler who professed Sunni Islam to the Turkish authorities and was sympathetic to Christians.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE DRUZE OF THE LEVANT</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.angelfire.com/az/rescon/mgcdruze.html">www.angelfire.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_najjar_16_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-najjar-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__178" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="178">As for Western sources, <a href="/Benjamin_of_Tudela" title="Benjamin of Tudela">Benjamin of Tudela</a>, the Jewish traveler who passed through Lebanon in or about 1165, was one of the first European writers to refer to the Druzes by name.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="178"><a href="#citable__178"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Frequently one hears from sources about a calf in Druze religion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - LookLex Encyclopaedia</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://lexicorient.com/e.o/druze.htm">lexicorient.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="178"><a href="#citable__178"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The name Druze is met with first in the narrative of the travels of the Jew Benjamin of Tudela (c.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="178"><a href="#citable__178"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, the rest of the world tends to refer to them as "Druze" or "Druse", a name which some believe was derived from an early preacher Muhammad al-Darazi.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DRUSE, DRUZE, MOWAHHIDOON</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm">www.religioustolerance.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__242" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="242">The word <em>Dogziyin</em> ("Druzes") occurs in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, but it is clear that this is a scribal error.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="242"><a href="#citable__242"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In one edition early that month it reported that many Druze soldiers had deserted the gendarmerie to join the revolutionaries.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Al-Ahram Weekly | Chronicles | Tears for Damascus</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2001/526/chrncls.htm">weekly.ahram.org.eg</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Be that as it may, he described the Druze as "mountain dwellers, monotheists, who believe in "soul eternity" and <a href="/Reincarnation" title="Reincarnation">reincarnation</a>."<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Early_history">Early history</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__154" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="154">The Druze faith began as a movement in <a href="/Ismailism" title="Ismailism">Ismailism</a> that was mainly influenced by <a href="/Greek_philosophy" title="Greek philosophy" class="mw-redirect">Greek philosophy</a> and <a href="/Gnosticism" title="Gnosticism">gnosticism</a> and opposed certain religious and philosophical ideologies that were present during that epoch.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="154"><a href="#citable__154"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze faith, an offshoot of Islam accented by ancient Greek philosophy and other traditions, was founded in Fatimid Egypt at the end of the 10th century.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith and Community</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.goisrael.com/Tourism_Eng/Tourist+Information/Ethnic+Groups/Druze/The+Druze+Faith+and+Community.htm">www.goisrael.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="154"><a href="#citable__154"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Middle East, whose religion resembles Islam, but is influenced by Greek philosophy and other religions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Enlightenment - The Experience Festival</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.experiencefestival.com/kamal_jumblatt">www.experiencefestival.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="154"><a href="#citable__154"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The religion did not attempt to reform mainstream Islam but to create a whole new religious body influenced by Greek philosophy, Gnosticism and Christianity , among others.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DRUSE, DRUZE, MOWAHHIDOON</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm">www.religioustolerance.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__43" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="43">The faith was founded by <a href="/Hamza_ibn-%27Ali_ibn-Ahmad" title="Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad">Hamza ibn ‘Alī ibn Ahmad</a>, a <a href="/Persian_people" title="Persian people">Persian</a> <a href="/Ismaili" title="Ismaili" class="mw-redirect">Ismaili</a> mystic and scholar.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cairo Hamza ibn Ali, a Persian dai (preacher, propagandist) and Muhammad al-Darazi, a Turkish dai who gave his name to the sect, pronounced the sixth Fatimid caliph and Ismaili imam, al-Hakim, as Divine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Druze Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Druze.aspx">www.encyclopedia.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He assigned the leadership of the call to Imam Hamzah Ibn Ali Ibn Ahmad, and on that day, he issued a decision calling upon people to practice their faith without fear or concealment.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze (Muwahhidun)- an Introduction by Hammud Quteish</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mideastweb.org/druze.htm">www.mideastweb.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Al-Hakims vizier, Hamza bin Ali ibn Ahmad, a Persian mystic, helped ensure the al-Hakim was worshipped as the ultimate One who created the first cosmic principle.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__72" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="72">He came to Egypt in 1014 and assembled a group of scholars and leaders from across the Islamic world to form a new Unitarian movement.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fill out this form to ensure your group is one of the first to be migrated to the new message search system.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>beritamalaysia : Message: W.Post : Church attacks in Malaysia deepen racial tension </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://groups.yahoo.com/group/beritamalaysia/message/111766">groups.yahoo.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Unitarian Tawheed Faith was revealed when Al-Hakim announced the commencement of the new era and appointed Hamza Bin Ali Bin Ahmad as the leader and Imam of the Call.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The outcome means that a pro-West leader will form the new government, with or without Hezbollah.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Columnists - Winnipeg Free Press</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/opinion/columnists/s_segev/33527004.html">www.winnipegfreepress.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__207" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="207">The order's meetings were held in the Raydan Mosque, near the <a href="/Al-Hakim_Mosque" title="Al-Hakim Mosque">Al-Hakim Mosque</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="207"><a href="#citable__207"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While most Muslims believe he died in 1021, the Druze disagree and believe that al-Hakim is awaiting to return to the world in order to bring a new golden age to true believers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - LookLex Encyclopaedia</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://lexicorient.com/e.o/druze.htm">lexicorient.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="207"><a href="#citable__207"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze calendar begins 1016/1017 A.D. (A.H.408), when Hamza publicly declared that al-Hakim was visible God at the mosque in Cairo..</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="207"><a href="#citable__207"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But as these men were the most famous academics at the palace, they most likely encountered each other frequently at Dar al-Hikma, and at meetings with Caliph al-Hakim.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Chapter 10.  Precedent at Dar al-Hikma</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://mbdefault.org/10_precedent/default.asp">mbdefault.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__208" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="208">In 1017, Hamza officially revealed the Druze faith and began to preach his doctrine.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="208"><a href="#citable__208"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze calendar begins 1016/1017 A.D. (A.H.408), when Hamza publicly declared that al-Hakim was visible God at the mosque in Cairo..</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="208"><a href="#citable__208"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The doctrine of Taqiya (dissimulation) requires that to preserve the secrecy of their faith and to ensure Druze survival they may pretend to accept the faith of the religious majority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE DRUZE OF THE LEVANT</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.angelfire.com/az/rescon/mgcdruze.html">www.angelfire.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="208"><a href="#citable__208"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Assassins learned the secret preaching tactics from the Ismailite , and the Druze originated from the Ismaili doctrine .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__122" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="122">Hamza gained the support of the Fātimid Caliph <a href="/Al-Hakim_bi-Amr_Allah" title="Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah">al-Hakim</a>, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because of the disappearance of Al-Hakim, Hamza suspended the Call.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It also has other epistles by al-Hakim, Hamza, and others.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze calendar begins 1016/1017 A.D. (A.H.408), when Hamza publicly declared that al-Hakim was visible God at the mosque in Cairo..</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <a name="citable__138" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="138"><blockquote class="templatequote"> <div>Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__78" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="78">Do away with the corruption of delusion and conformity.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Do away with the corruption of delusion and conformity.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__125" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="125">Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He hath urged you to declare your belief openly.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By conveying to you the reality of his intention, the Prince of Believers hath spared you any excuse for doing so.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__270" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="270">He hath done thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and pretensions.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="270"><a href="#citable__270"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He hath urged you to declare your belief openly.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="270"><a href="#citable__270"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He hath done thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and pretensions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="270"><a href="#citable__270"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__267" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="267">By conveying to you the reality of his intention, the Prince of Believers hath spared you any excuse for doing so.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="267"><a href="#citable__267"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By conveying to you the reality of his intention, the Prince of Believers hath spared you any excuse for doing so.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="267"><a href="#citable__267"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In your selective parsing of the Salon article you do exactly the same thing you accuse the left of doing of being blind to reality.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Global Politician - Arab-Israeli Relations</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.globalpolitician.com/172-arab-israeli-relations">www.globalpolitician.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="267"><a href="#citable__267"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__132" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="132">He hath urged you to declare your belief openly.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He hath urged you to declare your belief openly.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He hath done thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and pretensions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="132"><a href="#citable__132"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Is it or is it not an excuse, to use the fact that you a few of your beliefs are vaguely based on Islam?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__191" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="191">Ye are now safe from any hand which may bringeth harm unto you.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="191"><a href="#citable__191"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ye are now safe from any hand which may bring the harm unto you.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="191"><a href="#citable__191"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="191"><a href="#citable__191"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__99" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="99">Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ye are now safe from any hand which may bring the harm unto you.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Having seen the far reaching and history shaking implications of the Arabic inscription concerning king Vikrama, we shall now piece together the story of its find.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__240" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="240">Let those who are present convey this message unto the absent so that it may be known by both the distinguished and the common people.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="240"><a href="#citable__240"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Let those who are present convey this message unto the absent so that it may be known by both the distinguished and the common people.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="240"><a href="#citable__240"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We believe that all people reincarnate, and when the Druze religion opened its doors and welcomed people to join it in 1017 AD, those who believed are Druze and those who didnt are simple not.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="240"><a href="#citable__240"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is true that the Koran is written for those who are educated, those who are both wise and lawful or who strive to be.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__166" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="166">It shall thus become a rule to mankind; and Divine Wisdom shall prevail for all the days to come.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="166"><a href="#citable__166"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It shall thus become a rule to mankind; and Divine Wisdom shall prevail for all the days to come".</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="166"><a href="#citable__166"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Since then he comes every day to the office after school where he has become like one of the staff.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Holy Land journey: Challenges for the church in Lebanon « CNS Blog</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cnsblog.wordpress.com/2010/01/09/holy-land-journey-challenges-for-the-church-in-lebanon/">cnsblog.wordpress.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="166"><a href="#citable__166"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze thus eliminated all elements of ritual and ceremony; there is no fixed daily liturgy, no defined holy days, and no pilgrimage obligations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Focus on Israel- The Druze in Israel </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/12/Focus%20on%20Israel-%20The%20Druze%20in%20Israel">www.mfa.gov.il</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title> - Druz</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.investigateislam.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=69">www.investigateislam.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></div> </blockquote> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__269" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="269">Al-Hakim became a central figure in the Druze faith even though his own religious position was disputed among scholars.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="269"><a href="#citable__269"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Al-Hakim is the central focus of the Druze faith.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="269"><a href="#citable__269"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze historians believe al-Hakim's reputation for instability was exaggerated, but they do describe him variously as capricious, whimsical, enigmatic, and prone to violence.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="269"><a href="#citable__269"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze calendar begins 1016/1017 A.D. (A.H.408), when Hamza publicly declared that al-Hakim was visible God at the mosque in Cairo..</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a href="/John_Esposito" title="John Esposito">John Esposito</a> states that al-Hakim believed that "he was not only the divinely appointed religio-political leader but also the <a href="/Nous" title="Nous">cosmic intellect</a> linking God with creation."<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup>, while others like Nissim Dana and <a href="/Mordechai_Nisan" title="Mordechai Nisan">Mordechai Nisan</a> state that he is perceived as the manifestation and the reincarnation of God or presumably the image of God.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__24" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="24">Some Druze and non-Druze scholars like Samy Swayd and <a href="/Sami_Makarem" title="Sami Makarem">Sami Makarem</a> state that this confusion is due to confusion about the role of the early heretical preacher ad-Darazi, whose teachings the Druze rejected as heretical.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, the rest of the world tends to refer to them as "Druze" or "Druse", a name which some believe was derived from an early preacher Muhammad al-Darazi.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DRUSE, DRUZE, MOWAHHIDOON</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm">www.religioustolerance.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The early Druze community faced a strong challenge when Muḥammad ad-Darazī declared Ḥakīm's divinity and claimed to be his chief messenger.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze at AllExperts</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.allexperts.com/e/d/dr/druze.htm">en.allexperts.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze will present a good face to you, smile and speak like they care about you , but don’t ever sleep in their house, even Muslims themselves will never do so, as they are known for stepping on their backs and their beliefs teach them that you are their enemy and have to die.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> - Druz</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.investigateislam.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=69">www.investigateislam.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__171" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="171">These sources assert that al-Hakim refused ad-Darazi's claims of divinity,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_samy_6_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-samy-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Dix_25_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Dix-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup> and ordered the elimination of his movement while supporting that of Hamza ibn Ali.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Movement was headed by Hamza ibn-’Ali, one of the Caliph’s ministers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze Culture Overview</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruzeheritage.com/Druze%20Culture%20Overview.html">americandruzeheritage.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1018 AD (409 Hijra) Al-Hakim ordered Hamza to suspend the call.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It also has other epistles by al-Hakim, Hamza, and others.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__169" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="169">Al-Hakim disappeared one night while out on his evening ride - presumably assassinated, perhaps at the behest of his formidable elder sister <a href="/Sitt_al-Mulk" title="Sitt al-Mulk">Sitt al-Mulk</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="169"><a href="#citable__169"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Al-Hakim disappeared around 1020.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="169"><a href="#citable__169"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Recognize al-Hakim as the One visible God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="169"><a href="#citable__169"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The caliph, al-Hakim, is said to have disappeared unexpectedly, after which large numbers of Druze migrated to a lightly inhabited mountainous section of Lebanon.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__249" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="249">The Druze believe he went into <a href="/The_Occultation" title="The Occultation">Occultation</a> with Hamza ibn Ali and three other prominent preachers, leaving the care of the "Unitarian missionary movement" to a new leader, Bahā'u d-Dīn.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="249"><a href="#citable__249"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Movement was headed by Hamza ibn-’Ali, one of the Caliph’s ministers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze Culture Overview</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruzeheritage.com/Druze%20Culture%20Overview.html">americandruzeheritage.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="249"><a href="#citable__249"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The main actors were Tariq al-Hakīm (meaning Ruler ), also known as al-Hakīm bi-Amr Allah or Ruler in the Name of God , and Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad, the main architect of the movement.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DRUSE, DRUZE, MOWAHHIDOON</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm">www.religioustolerance.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="249"><a href="#citable__249"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, the rest of the world tends to refer to them as "Druze" or "Druse", a name which some believe was derived from an early preacher Muhammad al-Darazi.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DRUSE, DRUZE, MOWAHHIDOON</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm">www.religioustolerance.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Persecution_during_the_Fatimid_times">Persecution during the Fatimid times</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__262" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="262">Al-Hakim was replaced by his underage son, <a href="/Ali_az-Zahir" title="Ali az-Zahir">‘Alī az-Zahir</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Al-Zahir wanted to eliminate the Mowahedoon, who were the followers of Al-Hakim.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Prince Ali, who was nicknamed Al-Zahir, succeeded Al-Hakim and became the new Caliphate of the Fatimid Dynasty.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The church was later rebuilt by Byzantine emperor Argyropulos and the successor of Hakim the Mad, his nephew Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali az-Zahir [1021-1036].</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__248" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="248">The sect founded by <a href="/Hamza_bin_Ali" title="Hamza bin Ali" class="mw-redirect">Hamzah ibn ‘Alī</a>, which was prominent in the <a href="/Levant" title="Levant">Levant</a>, North Africa, <a href="/Egypt" title="Egypt">Egypt</a>, <a href="/Arabia" title="Arabia" class="mw-redirect">Arabia</a>, <a href="/Iraq" title="Iraq">Iraq</a>, <a href="/Persia" title="Persia" class="mw-redirect">Persia</a>, <a href="/Yemen" title="Yemen">Yemen</a>, and other parts of the <a href="/Near_East" title="Near East">Near East</a>, acknowledged az-Zahir as the Caliph but followed Hamzah as its <a href="/Imam" title="Imam">Imam</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="248"><a href="#citable__248"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They Abbasids were succeeded by the Fatimids, who ruled from North Africa and later centered in Egypt.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="248"><a href="#citable__248"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He assigned the leadership of the call to Imam Hamzah Ibn Ali Ibn Ahmad, and on that day, he issued a decision calling upon people to practice their faith without fear or concealment.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze (Muwahhidun)- an Introduction by Hammud Quteish</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mideastweb.org/druze.htm">www.mideastweb.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="248"><a href="#citable__248"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Muslims set forth from the Arabian Peninsula and spread out into Syria, Egypt, Iraq, and Persia.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze Culture Overview</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruzeheritage.com/Druze%20Culture%20Overview.html">americandruzeheritage.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_samy_6_3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-samy-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__263" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="263">The young Caliph's regent, <a href="/Sitt_al-Mulk" title="Sitt al-Mulk">Sitt al-Mulk</a>, ordered the army to destroy the movement in 1021.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_about_14_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-about-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> At the same time, Bahā' ad-Dīn as-Samuki assumed leadership of the Druze.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="263"><a href="#citable__263"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1021 AD the Caliph al-Hakim mysteriously disappeared.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE DRUZE OF THE LEVANT</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.angelfire.com/az/rescon/mgcdruze.html">www.angelfire.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="263"><a href="#citable__263"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The beliefs of the Druze religion are kept secret from outsiders, but the sect reveres the Fatimid caliph Al Hakim (996-1021), the sixth of the Fatimid line, who in the year 1020 proclaimed himself to be an incarnation of God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Regions in Brief in Upper Galilee and the Golan Heights at Frommer's</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.frommers.com/destinations/uppergalileeandthegolanheights/3716010043.html">www.frommers.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="263"><a href="#citable__263"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Such a policy is necessary in order to develop the Druze villages and the young Druze leadership who will bear the burden of the Druze community and the nation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>"The Druze in Israel and the Question ofCompulsory Military Service," byZeidan Atashi</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp464.htm">www.jcpa.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_samy_6_4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-samy-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__219" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="219">The killing ranged from <a href="/Antioch" title="Antioch">Antioch</a> to <a href="/Alexandria" title="Alexandria">Alexandria</a>, where tens of thousands of Druze were slaughtered by the Fatimid army.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="219"><a href="#citable__219"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As for Israel, the druze are forced to join the army for the military service, and those who refuse that are jailed (just to clarify it to some who consider the druze as killing other palastinians).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="219"><a href="#citable__219"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The two most devastating persecutions were the carnage in Aleppo and in Antioch, where thousands of Mowahedoon were killed after being punished and tortured.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="219"><a href="#citable__219"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ten thousand Christians were killed in Damascus, including the Massabki brothers who refused to deny their faith.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Eparchy of Saint Maron of Brooklyn</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.stmaron.org/marhist10.html">www.stmaron.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_about_14_3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-about-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__112" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="112">The largest massacre was at Antioch, where 5000 Druze religious leaders were killed, followed by that of <a href="/Aleppo" title="Aleppo">Aleppo</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many orthodox Druze hold that they should not follow these traditions, but should follow a different fasting tradition still practiced by religious figures instead.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The two most devastating persecutions were the carnage in Aleppo and in Antioch, where thousands of Mowahedoon were killed after being punished and tortured.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze society is a theocracy, with the religious leaders having the last word in spiritual and in temporal matters.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE DRUZE OF THE LEVANT</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.angelfire.com/az/rescon/mgcdruze.html">www.angelfire.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_about_14_4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-about-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__203" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="203">The massacres are well described in the remaining scriptures written by as-Samuki, which recorded how the Fatimid army brutally put to death infants, women, and men.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="203"><a href="#citable__203"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Polygamy is not allowed, and women as well as men can initiate divorce.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="203"><a href="#citable__203"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Kassem Amine described society at the time as a divided unit (Munfasal) and not a mujtama' because women and men did not have chance to meet together; they were separated.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_about_14_5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-about-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_The_closing_of_the_faith">The closing of the faith</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__111" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="111">Az-Zahir finally agreed to leave the Druze alone in 1026 - notably, three years after Sitt al-Mulk's death - and as-Samuki sent feelers and missionaries deeper into the Levant.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many young Druze play a part in the daily defense of Israel's borders, serving the required three years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In their belief, they decided to leave Judaism and joined Christianity and Islam afterwards, and their final station was the Druze Tawhid.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="111"><a href="#citable__111"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sitt Nayfeh Shaykh Bashir's wife and daughter were pious and able women .Shaykh Bashir's daughter , Sitt Nayfeh , married into the prominent Shams family of Hasbaya in Wadi al - Taym .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__54" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="54">After two decades of building strong new communities in the Levant, as-Samuki declared that the sect would no longer accept new pledges in 1043, and since that time <a href="/Proselytization" title="Proselytization" class="mw-redirect">proselytization</a> has been prohibited.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because of their fear of outsiders, no new members have been admitted to the sect since 1043.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is known that since 1996 newly-borns no longer become automatic members of the denomination, which was formally separated from the State in 2000.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It's not productive to spend too much time analyzing the expiring Bush Administration's bridge loan/bailout of two U.S. automakers, since the new Obama Administration will either have to enhance, ignore, or unravel the deal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/sec1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/secnoframes1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_samy_6_5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-samy-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_During_the_Crusades">During the Crusades</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__175" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="175">It was during the period of Crusader rule in Syria (1099–1291) that the Druze first emerged into the full light of history in the Gharb region of the <a href="/Chouf" title="Chouf" class="mw-redirect">Chouf</a> Mountains.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="175"><a href="#citable__175"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Chouf Mountains, homeland of Lebanon's Druze .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="175"><a href="#citable__175"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She ruled, during the first quarter of the 19th century, the Gharb district including the plain of Beirut to the exclusion of several Arslan emirs qualified to occupy the position .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="175"><a href="#citable__175"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the second half of the sixteenth century, and the first half of the seventeenth century, the Druze Emir of the Ma’nid dynasty, Fakhruddin 11, was the first to establish in the Lebanon a state practically independent from Ottoman rule.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze Culture Overview</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruzeheritage.com/Druze%20Culture%20Overview.html">americandruzeheritage.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__19" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="19">As powerful warriors serving the Muslim rulers of Damascus against the foreign invaders, the Druze were given the task of keeping watch over the Crusaders in the seaport of Beirut, with the aim of preventing them from making any encroachments inland.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>According to Druze tradition, Saladin had a dream on the eve of his battle against the Crusaders at this site, in which an angel promised him victory on condition that after the battle he gallop westward on his horse.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Focus on Israel- The Druze in Israel </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/12/Focus%20on%20Israel-%20The%20Druze%20in%20Israel">www.mfa.gov.il</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title> - Druz</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.investigateislam.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=69">www.investigateislam.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the Crusader invasions of 1095-1272, many Maronites, encouraged by their clerical leaders, sided with the Crusaders against the Muslim-Arab Empire.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In practical terms, the right thing to do is to make sure that the state responds to the historical Druze demand to bring the subsidies given to their municipal authorities to the level of the subsidies given to Jewish municipalities.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Minority in Israel in the Mid-1990s by Gabriel Ben-Dor</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.jcpa.org/jl/hit06.htm">www.jcpa.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__101" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="101">Subsequently, the Druze chiefs of the Gharb placed their considerable military experience at the disposal of the <a href="/Mamluk_Sultanate_(Cairo)" title="Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)">Mamluk</a> rulers of Egypt (1250–1516); first, to assist them in putting an end to what remained of Crusader rule in coastal Syria, and later to help them safeguard the Syrian coast against Crusader retaliation by sea.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When Lebanon later turned against Syria, he helped lead the charge.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the coastal cities and in the Bekaa valley near Syria, the population adopted Sunni Islam with the Sunni revival of Saladin and his successors in the medieval period in Egypt, which continued under the Sunni Ottoman Empire (1516-1918 in Syria).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon: Background and Forecast - by Juan Cole</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiwar.com/cole/?articleid=5019">www.antiwar.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon: Background and Forecast - by Juan Cole</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.anti-war.com/cole/?articleid=5019">www.anti-war.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They Abbasids were succeeded by the Fatimids, who ruled from North Africa and later centered in Egypt.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__85" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="85">In the early period of the <a href="/Crusades" title="Crusades">Crusader</a> era, the Druze feudal power was in the hands of two families, the <a href="/Tanukh" title="Tanukh" class="mw-redirect">Tanukhs</a> and the Arslans.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The first period from the early Druze immigrants to 1946 where the community established and sustained itself.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In contrast to the Druzes, the Alawites of Syria's western mountains had little political clout during the early independence era.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The leading families of the Jabal saw themselves as guardians of the Druze way of life and communal traditions which was anchored in the quasi-feudal and tribal institutions, or mashyakha system, of the Jabal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__158" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="158">From their fortresses in the Gharb district (modern <a href="/Aley" title="Aley">Aley</a> Province) of southern Mount Lebanon, the Tanukhs led their incursions into the Phoenician coast and finally succeeded in holding Beirut and the marine plain against the <a href="/Franks" title="Franks">Franks</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>From their fortresses in the Gharb district east of Beirut, they raided the coastal plain and finally succeeded in holding Beirut and the maritime plain against the Franks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE DRUZE OF THE LEVANT</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.angelfire.com/az/rescon/mgcdruze.html">www.angelfire.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>According to witnesses, Hezbollah militants operating in Mount Lebanon set up checkpoints between the villages of Qmatiye and Souk el-Gharb, two kilometres southwest of Aley.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> IRIN Middle East | LEBANON: Opposition continues military takeover, enforces siege | Middle East | Lebanon | Early Warning Governance Conflict | News Item</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportID=78144">www.irinnews.org</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After clashes with the Christian Maronites, supported by the French, and the Druze, encouraged by the British, in 1860-1, a French expeditionary force established the semi-autonomous district of Mount Lebanon under a Christian governor and many Druze emigrated to the Houran mountains in southern Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__106" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="106">Because of their fierce battles with the <a href="/Crusaders" title="Crusaders" class="mw-redirect">crusaders</a>, the Druzes earned the respect of the <a href="/Sunni" title="Sunni" class="mw-redirect">Sunni</a> Muslim Caliphs and thus gained important political powers.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In Lebanon, the Druze have been important and powerful in both the military and political fields.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Minority in Israel in the Mid-1990s by Gabriel Ben-Dor</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.jcpa.org/jl/hit06.htm">www.jcpa.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the Middle East, the Druzes, although a minority, have filled an important and sometimes a leading role in the political and social life of the area and its economic and cultural affairs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze Culture Overview</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruzeheritage.com/Druze%20Culture%20Overview.html">americandruzeheritage.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many of the Druze have reached important positions in the political, social, economic and agnate sectors of the countries in which they have settled.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze Culture Overview</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruzeheritage.com/Druze%20Culture%20Overview.html">americandruzeheritage.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__157" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="157">After the middle of the twelfth century, the Ma’an family superseded the Tanukhs in Druze leadership.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="157"><a href="#citable__157"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At the end of the 17th century the Shihab family succeeded the Ma'ans as the leaders of the Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE DRUZE OF THE LEVANT</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.angelfire.com/az/rescon/mgcdruze.html">www.angelfire.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="157"><a href="#citable__157"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>From the middle of the 12th century, the Ma'an family from the Chouf mountains overlooking the southern maritime plain of Lebanon came to power.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE DRUZE OF THE LEVANT</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.angelfire.com/az/rescon/mgcdruze.html">www.angelfire.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="157"><a href="#citable__157"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze are a community in the Middle East that maintains a unique religion which separated from Shiite Islam in the 11 th century.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Druze visiting Syria article</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.arabhra.org/Hra/Pages/PopupTemplatePage.aspx?PopupTemplate=181&Language=2">www.arabhra.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__239" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="239">The origin of the family goes back to a Prince Ma’an who made his appearance in the Lebanon in the days of the ‘Abbasid Caliph <a href="/Al-Mustarshid" title="Al-Mustarshid">al-Mustarshid</a> (1118 AD-1135 AD).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="239"><a href="#citable__239"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The origin of the Jumblatt family is the Kurdish Janboulad family dating back to Janboulad Ibn Kassem al Kirdi al Kaisari, known as Ibn Arabou (1530-1580), governor of Aleppo.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Enlightenment - The Experience Festival</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.experiencefestival.com/kamal_jumblatt">www.experiencefestival.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="239"><a href="#citable__239"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Shihab family (who were Sunnite Muslims and originally Hira Arabs), which had governed Hauran under the early caliphs of Damascus and thereafter held power in Hermon, intermarried with the Maan; and in the latter's day of weakness sided with the Qaisi faction and obtained the supreme amirate of the Mountain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="239"><a href="#citable__239"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1009 A.D (400 Hijra), Al-Hakim decided to abandon all the glorious and majestic appearances that were practiced by the rulers in those days.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__135" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="135">The Ma’ans chose for their abode the Chouf district in the southern part of Western Lebanon, overlooking the maritime plain between Beirut and Sidon, and made their headquarters in <a href="/Baaqlin" title="Baaqlin" class="mw-redirect">Baaqlin</a>, which is still a leading Druze village.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>From the middle of the 12th century, the Ma'an family from the Chouf mountains overlooking the southern maritime plain of Lebanon came to power.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>THE DRUZE OF THE LEVANT</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.angelfire.com/az/rescon/mgcdruze.html">www.angelfire.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I have worked with a number of Druze in Southern Lebanon.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After clashes with the Christian Maronites, supported by the French, and the Druze, encouraged by the British, in 1860-1, a French expeditionary force established the semi-autonomous district of Mount Lebanon under a Christian governor and many Druze emigrated to the Houran mountains in southern Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__40" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="40">They were invested with feudal authority by Sultan <a href="/Nur_ad-Din_Zangi" title="Nur ad-Din Zangi">Nur-al-Dīn</a> and furnished respectable contingents to the Muslim ranks in their struggle against the Crusaders.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To demonstrate how in tune they were with the new spirit of independence, they characterized their struggle as being "the inevitable clash between the feudal and democratic systems."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze in Syria and Lebanon played a key role in the building of their respective countries and had an important part in the Arab struggles against French colonialism that began in the 1920s.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>"The Druze in Israel and the Question ofCompulsory Military Service," byZeidan Atashi</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp464.htm">www.jcpa.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the Crusader invasions of 1095-1272, many Maronites, encouraged by their clerical leaders, sided with the Crusaders against the Muslim-Arab Empire.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Persecution_during_the_Mamluk_and_Ottoman_period">Persecution during the Mamluk and Ottoman period</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__226" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="226">Having cleared Syria of the Franks, the <a href="/Mamluk" title="Mamluk">Mamluk</a> Sultans of Egypt turned their attention to the schismatic Muslims of Syria.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="226"><a href="#citable__226"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Muslims set forth from the Arabian Peninsula and spread out into Syria, Egypt, Iraq, and Persia.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze Culture Overview</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruzeheritage.com/Druze%20Culture%20Overview.html">americandruzeheritage.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__150" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="150">In 1305, after the issuing of a <a href="/Fatwa" title="Fatwa" class="mw-redirect">fatwa</a> by the Hanbali Sunni scholar <a href="/Ibn_Taymiyyah" title="Ibn Taymiyyah">Ibn Taymiyyah</a> calling for <a href="/Jihad" title="Jihad">jihad</a> against the Druze, <a href="/Alawites" title="Alawites" class="mw-redirect">Alawites</a>, <a href="/Ismaili" title="Ismaili" class="mw-redirect">Ismaili</a>, and <a href="/Shia_Muslim" title="Shia Muslim" class="mw-redirect">twelver</a> Shiites, <a href="/Al-Nasir_Muhammad" title="Al-Nasir Muhammad">al-Malik al-Nasir</a> inflicted a disastrous defeat on the Druze at <a href="/Keserwan_District" title="Keserwan District">Keserwan</a> and forced outward compliance on their part to orthodox Sunni Islam.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="150"><a href="#citable__150"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze mix elements of Christianity, Islam and Judaism, and parts of the religion are kept secret even from some of the Druze themselves.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Mexican game mimics�border crossing, Emotions�mixed at Druze wedding - CNN.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2007/EDUCATION/03/13/transcript.wed/index.html">www.cnn.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="150"><a href="#citable__150"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze religion is an offshoot of Islam, but very different from either of the major branches, Sunni and Shiite.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Regions in Brief in Upper Galilee and the Golan Heights at Frommer's</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.frommers.com/destinations/uppergalileeandthegolanheights/3716010043.html">www.frommers.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="150"><a href="#citable__150"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During 1925 (the Revolution of Jabal Al Druze in Syria) against the French Mandate, a number of women participated in an active role : .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__151" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="151">Later, under the <a href="/Ottoman_Empire" title="Ottoman Empire">Ottoman</a> Turks, they were severely attacked at Ayn-Ṣawfar in 1585 after the Ottomans claimed that they assaulted their caravans near <a href="/Tripoli" title="Tripoli">Tripoli</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="151"><a href="#citable__151"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At their peak under Fakrud-din Maan II, they controlled Antioch, Palmyra, Beirut, Sidon, Latakia, and Tripoli under the Turks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="151"><a href="#citable__151"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To the ignorant of the Druze in Israel one should know the amount of persecution the Druze recieved under the Ottomans and later by neighboring Muslim Arabs (today the Palestinians) before they decided to side with the Jews upon their immigration from Europe.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="151"><a href="#citable__151"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Under a recent accord with Tripoli, criticised by human rights groups, immigrants are turned back in the open seas before they reach Italian waters.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__26" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="26">Consequently, the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were to witness a succession of armed Druze rebellions against the Ottomans, countered by repeated Ottoman punitive expeditions against the Chouf, in which the Druze population of the area was severely depleted and many villages destroyed.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="26"><a href="#citable__26"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the second half of the sixteenth century, and the first half of the seventeenth century, the Druze Emir of the Ma’nid dynasty, Fakhruddin 11, was the first to establish in the Lebanon a state practically independent from Ottoman rule.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze Culture Overview</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruzeheritage.com/Druze%20Culture%20Overview.html">americandruzeheritage.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="26"><a href="#citable__26"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At independence the Druzes, made confident by their successes, expected that Damascus would reward them for their many sacrifices on the battlefield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="26"><a href="#citable__26"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For translations of several eleventh-century Druze epistles concerning reincarnation, see al-Najjar 87-107.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Chapter 10.  Precedent at Dar al-Hikma</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://mbdefault.org/10_precedent/default.asp">mbdefault.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__145" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="145">These military measures, severe as they were, did not succeed in reducing the local Druze to the required degree of subordination.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the Druze Catechism , question 44 says the Alawites split from the Druze because they did not worship al-Hakim and worshipped Ali instead.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While they are respectful of other religions, the Druze are convinced that a severe judgment awaits all non-Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The extent of the contribution of the Druze to the state in the framework of their relation to the military is much greater than the rights they receive.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>"The Druze in Israel and the Question ofCompulsory Military Service," byZeidan Atashi</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp464.htm">www.jcpa.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__130" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="130">This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different <a href="/Nahiyes" title="Nahiyes" class="mw-redirect">nahiyes</a> (districts) of the <a href="/Chouf" title="Chouf" class="mw-redirect">Chouf</a> would be granted in <em>iltizam</em> ("fiscal concession") to one of the region's <a href="/Amir" title="Amir" class="mw-redirect">amirs</a>, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed amir.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The conflict between the Populars and Atrashes led to a number of full pitched battles during the Fall of 1947 which served only to harden the animosities dividing, on the one hand, the leading Druze families from the secondary shaykhs, and on the other, the Druze community as a whole from the government.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>That discovery made Harun-al-Rashid order Abu Amir to compile a collection of all earlier compositions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__10" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="10">This arrangement was to provide the cornerstone for the privileged status which ultimately came to be enjoyed by the whole of Mount Lebanon in Ottoman Syria, Druze and Christian areas alike.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druzes were settled in the areas of southern Syria, Lebanon, and Galilee.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It had been carved out of the Ottoman Empire, but there existed a unique history of Christian-dominated autonomy in the Mount Lebanon area ("Little Lebanon") under Ottoman government, partly as a result of French pressures on behalf of the Maronites.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Enlightenment - The Experience Festival</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.experiencefestival.com/kamal_jumblatt">www.experiencefestival.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Further, The writer seems to ignore the origination of the Mouwhadeen (Druze)as an old Arab tribes who came from Yemen and later were assigned the duty by the Abassi Calif to dfened the Mediterranean coastal area of old Syria(Syria, Lebanon and Palestine now).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Ma_E2_80_99an_dynasty">Ma’an dynasty</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/Maan_family" title="Maan family">Maan family</a></div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:322px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/04/2/4/4/04973763173665990.jpg" width="320" height="222" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption">Fakhreddin castle in Palmyra</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__218" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="218">With the advent of the Ottoman Turks and the conquest of Syria by <a href="/Selim_I" title="Selim I">Sultan Selim I</a> in 1516, the <a href="/Ma%E2%80%99ans" title="Ma’ans" class="mw-redirect">Ma’ans</a> were acknowledged by the new rulers as the feudal lords of southern Lebanon.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="218"><a href="#citable__218"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By the time of the Ottoman conquest of Syria (1516), Druze also lived in the hill country near Aleppo, and Sultan Selim I recognized Fakhr al-Din as Emir of the Druze, with local authority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Focus on Israel- The Druze in Israel </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/12/Focus%20on%20Israel-%20The%20Druze%20in%20Israel">www.mfa.gov.il</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title> - Druz</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.investigateislam.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=69">www.investigateislam.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="218"><a href="#citable__218"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>From the inception of the religion, the Druze faced severe persecution, which led them to migrate from Egypt and settle in southern Lebanon , in a region that now straggles the borders of Lebanon , Syria , and Israel .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Druze visiting Syria article</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.arabhra.org/Hra/Pages/PopupTemplatePage.aspx?PopupTemplate=181&Language=2">www.arabhra.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="218"><a href="#citable__218"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As you know, from the southern border of Syria to South Lebanon, they are the majority, and we are in the middle."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MEMRI - Middle East Media Research Institute</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.memri.org/index.php/?ID=SD238309">www.memri.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__264" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="264">Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under Ma’an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of <em>Jabal Bayt-Ma’an</em> (the mountain of the Ma’an family) or <em>Jabal al-Druze</em>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="264"><a href="#citable__264"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During 1925 (the Revolution of Jabal Al Druze in Syria) against the French Mandate, a number of women participated in an active role : .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="264"><a href="#citable__264"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Such a policy is necessary in order to develop the Druze villages and the young Druze leadership who will bear the burden of the Druze community and the nation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>"The Druze in Israel and the Question ofCompulsory Military Service," byZeidan Atashi</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp464.htm">www.jcpa.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="264"><a href="#citable__264"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The leading families of the Jabal saw themselves as guardians of the Druze way of life and communal traditions which was anchored in the quasi-feudal and tribal institutions, or mashyakha system, of the Jabal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__223" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="223">The latter title has since been usurped by the <a href="/Hawran" title="Hawran" class="mw-redirect">Hawran</a> region, which since the middle of the nineteenth century has proven a haven of refuge to Druze emigrants from Lebanon and has become the headquarters of Druze power.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="223"><a href="#citable__223"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the meeting, Jumblatt conveyed a clear and unequivocal message, namely that in light of the growing power of the Shi’ites in Lebanon and the decline in the power of the Druze, the latter must accept the new reality, stop fighting the Shi’ites, and coexist with them.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Syria Comment » Archives » Steps Syria has Taken to Win US Favor</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://joshualandis.com/blog/?p=3213">joshualandis.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="223"><a href="#citable__223"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>South of Kafr Sumei', Kisra was the smallest Druze village in the country in the nineteenth century.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Focus on Israel- The Druze in Israel </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/12/Focus%20on%20Israel-%20The%20Druze%20in%20Israel">www.mfa.gov.il</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="223"><a href="#citable__223"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>So, the druze in Israel have been there since centuries and would never leave their land, the same applies to the druze in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__168" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="168">Under <a href="/Fakhreddin_II" title="Fakhreddin II" class="mw-redirect">Fakhreddin II</a>, the Druze dominion increased until it included almost all Syria, extending from the edge of the Antioch plain in the north to <a href="/Safad" title="Safad" class="mw-redirect">Safad</a> in the south, with a part of the Syrian desert dominated by <a href="/Fakhreddin_Almaani_Castle" title="Fakhreddin Almaani Castle" class="mw-redirect">Fakhreddin's castle</a> at Tadmur (<a href="/Palmyra" title="Palmyra">Palmyra</a>), the ancient capital of <a href="/Zenobia" title="Zenobia">Zenobia</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="168"><a href="#citable__168"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Worldwide there are probably about one million Druze living mainly in Syria and Lebanon, with 104,000 in Israel, including about 18,000 in the Golan (which came under Israeli rule in 1967) and several thousands who emigrated to Europe and North and South America.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> - Druz</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.investigateislam.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=69">www.investigateislam.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="168"><a href="#citable__168"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At one time, this state extended almost as far as Antolia in the north; in the east, it included Palmyra and in the south reached as fir as the Sinai Peninsula.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze Culture Overview</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruzeheritage.com/Druze%20Culture%20Overview.html">americandruzeheritage.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="168"><a href="#citable__168"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fakr ud-Din Maan II increased Druze dominion until it included all the N. Syrian region from the edge of the Antioch plain to Acre, with part of the eastern desert, dominated by his castle at Tadmor (Palmyra), and the important towns of Latakia, Tripoli, Beirut and Saida; and forming further ambitious designs, he intrigued with Christians and broke with the Turks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The ruins of this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town. Fakhr-al-Dīn became too strong for his Turkish sovereign in Constantinople. He went so far in 1608 as to sign a commercial treaty with <a href="/Ferdinando_I_de%27_Medici,_Grand_Duke_of_Tuscany" title="Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany">Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany</a> containing secret military clauses. The Sultan then sent a force against him, and he was compelled to flee the land and seek refuge in the courts of <a href="/Tuscany" title="Tuscany">Tuscany</a> and <a href="/Naples" title="Naples">Naples</a> in 1614.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__174" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="174">In 1618 political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many enemies of Fakhr-al-Din from power, signaling the prince's triumphant return to Lebanon soon afterwards.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="174"><a href="#citable__174"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In other words, Lebanese can, and many do, marry civilly outside of Lebanon and return with their marriages recognized as valid.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="174"><a href="#citable__174"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fakhr al - Din held his mother in high honor .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="174"><a href="#citable__174"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Commemoration of Prince Fakhr El-Din Al-Maani II - The government and Druze of Lebanon decided to commemorate the Great Maanid Prince's 400th anniversary by forming a committee to build a monument in Baakline honoring the great leader who "combined legendary courage with wisdom, shrewdness and sincerity."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">In 1632 Ahmad Koujak was named Lord of <a href="/Damascus" title="Damascus">Damascus</a>. <a name="citable__68" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="68">Koujak was a rival of Fakhr-al-Din and a friend of the sultan <a href="/Murad_IV" title="Murad IV">Murad IV</a>, who ordered Koujak and the sultanat navy to attack Lebanon and depose Fakhr-El-Din.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Also see Hasan Amin al-B`ayni, Sultan Basha al-Atrash , Lebanon, 1985, p.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fakhr al - Din held his mother in high honor .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Commemoration of Prince Fakhr El-Din Al-Maani II - The government and Druze of Lebanon decided to commemorate the Great Maanid Prince's 400th anniversary by forming a committee to build a monument in Baakline honoring the great leader who "combined legendary courage with wisdom, shrewdness and sincerity."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__109" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="109">This time the prince decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali in Wadi el-Taym was the beginning of his defeat.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She remained in this position until the time when her son, Prince Talal, took over .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>His many missionary travels, especially in Syria where he spent much time in the Wadi al-Taym area at the foot of Mt.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Her son, Andrew Ali, met Neda El Awar from Detroit, Michigan at the 45th convention, and they married in 1995.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__116" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="116">He later took refuge in <a href="/Jezzine" title="Jezzine">Jezzine</a>'s grotto, closely followed by Koujak who eventually caught up with him and his family.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="116"><a href="#citable__116"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The shadow home secretary, Chris Grayling, spoke out after Munir Hussain was jailed for beating a man who tied up his family in their home.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="116"><a href="#citable__116"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He has followed up his plans for a Wootton Bassett demo by organising a sick letter-writing campaign to families of fallen British heroes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__247" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="247">Fakhr-al-Din finally traveled to <a href="/Turkey" title="Turkey">Turkey</a>, appearing before the sultan, defending himself so skillfully that the sultan gave him permission to return to Lebanon.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="247"><a href="#citable__247"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By the time of the Ottoman conquest of Syria (1516), Druze also lived in the hill country near Aleppo, and Sultan Selim I recognized Fakhr al-Din as Emir of the Druze, with local authority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Focus on Israel- The Druze in Israel </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/12/Focus%20on%20Israel-%20The%20Druze%20in%20Israel">www.mfa.gov.il</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="247"><a href="#citable__247"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Al-Buni said Turkey and Syria would lay the foundation of the dam before the end of 2010.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="247"><a href="#citable__247"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Before returning to Egypt, Moses asks Jethro's permission to embark on the journey (Exodus 4:18).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Later, however, the sultan changed his orders and had Fakhr-al-Din and his family killed on 13 April 1635 in <a href="/Istanbul" title="Istanbul">Istanbul</a>, the capital city of the <a href="/Ottoman_Empire" title="Ottoman Empire">Ottoman Empire</a>, bringing an end to an era in the history of Lebanon, a country which would not regain its current boundaries, which Fakhr-al-Din once ruled, until Lebanon was proclaimed a <a href="/Republic" title="Republic">republic</a> in 1920.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__84" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="84">Fakhr-al-Din was the first ruler in modern Lebanon to open the doors of his country to foreign Western influences.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fakhr al - Din held his mother in high honor .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>One reason for Lebanon’s unusual liberalism is its history of Western influence.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>From Baghdad to Beirut by Michael J. Totten, City Journal 10 January 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://city-journal.org/2010/eon0110mt.html">city-journal.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With the help of her brother , the Tanukhid Emir Sayf al - Din , Sitt Nasab brought up her children and preserved their patrimony until Fakhr al - Din came of age .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__198" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="198">Under his auspices the French established a khān (hostel) in Sidon, the <a href="/Florentine" title="Florentine" class="mw-redirect">Florentines</a> a consulate, and Christian missionaries were admitted into the country.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="198"><a href="#citable__198"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After clashes with the Christian Maronites, supported by the French, and the Druze, encouraged by the British, in 1860-1, a French expeditionary force established the semi-autonomous district of Mount Lebanon under a Christian governor and many Druze emigrated to the Houran mountains in southern Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__39" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="39">Beirut and Sidon, which Fakhr-al-Dīn beautified, still bear traces of his benign rule.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sunnis were and somewhat are still concentrated in the important port cities of Lebanon: Tripoli, Beirut, Sidon and Tyre.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Shihab_Dynasty">Shihab Dynasty</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/Shihab_family" title="Shihab family">Shihab family</a></div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/3/4/8/75360611562538813.jpg" width="220" height="294" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Druze woman wearing a <a href="/Tantur" title="Tantur" class="mw-redirect">tantur</a>, <a href="/Chouf" title="Chouf" class="mw-redirect">Chouf</a>, 1870s.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__257" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="257">As early as the days of <a href="/Saladin" title="Saladin">Saladin</a>, and while the Ma’ans were still in complete control over southern Lebanon, the <a href="/Shihab" title="Shihab" class="mw-redirect">Shihab</a> tribe, originally <a href="/Hijaz" title="Hijaz" class="mw-redirect">Hijaz</a> Arabs but later settled in Ḥawran, advanced from Ḥawran, in 1172, and settled in Wadi-al-Taym at the foot of <a href="/Hermon" title="Hermon" class="mw-redirect">Mt.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="257"><a href="#citable__257"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Further, The writer seems to ignore the origination of the Mouwhadeen (Druze)as an old Arab tribes who came from Yemen and later were assigned the duty by the Abassi Calif to dfened the Mediterranean coastal area of old Syria(Syria, Lebanon and Palestine now).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="257"><a href="#citable__257"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>His many missionary travels, especially in Syria where he spent much time in the Wadi al-Taym area at the foot of Mt.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="257"><a href="#citable__257"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Shihab family (who were Sunnite Muslims and originally Hira Arabs), which had governed Hauran under the early caliphs of Damascus and thereafter held power in Hermon, intermarried with the Maan; and in the latter's day of weakness sided with the Qaisi faction and obtained the supreme amirate of the Mountain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Hermon</a>. <a name="citable__33" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="33">They soon made an alliance with the Ma’ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in <em>Wadi-al-Taym</em>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze historians believe al-Hakim's reputation for instability was exaggerated, but they do describe him variously as capricious, whimsical, enigmatic, and prone to violence.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A large list of leading Druze women struggled and made their way through with difficulty , and to them, we are indebted because they opened highways for the coming generations .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sitt Nayfeh Shaykh Bashir's wife and daughter were pious and able women .Shaykh Bashir's daughter , Sitt Nayfeh , married into the prominent Shams family of Hasbaya in Wadi al - Taym .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__141" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="141">At the end of the seventeenth century (1697) the Shihabs succeeded the Ma’ans in the feudal leadership of Druze southern Lebanon, although they professed Sunni Islam.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I have worked with a number of Druze in Southern Lebanon.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze religion is an offshoot of Islam, but very different from either of the major branches, Sunni and Shiite.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Regions in Brief in Upper Galilee and the Golan Heights at Frommer's</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.frommers.com/destinations/uppergalileeandthegolanheights/3716010043.html">www.frommers.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In their belief, they decided to leave Judaism and joined Christianity and Islam afterwards, and their final station was the Druze Tawhid.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__67" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="67">Secretly, they showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their subjects.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="67"><a href="#citable__67"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The respect they showed towards other people's religions was fully in keeping with their Vedic spiritual tradition.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="67"><a href="#citable__67"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In addition, they are permitted to outwardly conform to the prevailing religion, and practice their own secretly.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__82" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="82">The Shihab leadership continued until the middle of the 19th century and culminated in the illustrious governorship of <a href="/Bashir_Shihab_II" title="Bashir Shihab II">Amir Bashir Shihab II</a> (1788–1840) who, after Fakhr-al-Din, was the most powerful feudal lord Lebanon produced.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She was married to a professor of Islamic law who taught at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, the oldest and most renowned Sunni institution of learning in the world.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The majority were peasants who would soon revolt against the Druze and Maronite feudal lords.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Unlike any other country in the world, and different from any other Middle Eastern country, Lebanon has had for centuries an almost even population distribution of Christians and Muslims.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__182" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="182">Though governor of the Druze Mountain Bashir was a crypto-Christian, and it was he whose aid <a href="/Napoleon" title="Napoleon" class="mw-redirect">Napoleon</a> solicited in 1799 during his campaign against Syria.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="182"><a href="#citable__182"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After clashes with the Christian Maronites, supported by the French, and the Druze, encouraged by the British, in 1860-1, a French expeditionary force established the semi-autonomous district of Mount Lebanon under a Christian governor and many Druze emigrated to the Houran mountains in southern Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="182"><a href="#citable__182"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During 1925 (the Revolution of Jabal Al Druze in Syria) against the French Mandate, a number of women participated in an active role : .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="182"><a href="#citable__182"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In contrast to the Druzes, the Alawites of Syria's western mountains had little political clout during the early independence era.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__156" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="156">Having consolidated his conquests in Syria (1831–1838), <a href="/Ibrahim_Pasha" title="Ibrahim Pasha">Ibrahim Pasha</a>, son of the viceroy of Egypt, <a href="/Muhammad_Ali_Pasha" title="Muhammad Ali Pasha" class="mw-redirect">Muhammad Ali Pasha</a>, made the fatal mistake of trying to disarm the Christians and Druzes of the Lebanon and to draft the latter into his army.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="156"><a href="#citable__156"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After clashes with the Christian Maronites, supported by the French, and the Druze, encouraged by the British, in 1860-1, a French expeditionary force established the semi-autonomous district of Mount Lebanon under a Christian governor and many Druze emigrated to the Houran mountains in southern Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="156"><a href="#citable__156"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As the LAF moved slowly eastward into the foothills of the Shuf, accounts of massacres, conducted by Christians and Druze alike, began to be reported.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Report of the DoD Commission on Beirut Int'l Airport Terrorist Act, October 23, 1983--Forward</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AMH/XX/MidEast/Lebanon-1982-1984/DOD-Report/Beirut-Fwd.html">www.ibiblio.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="156"><a href="#citable__156"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But an insurrection by the Christians turned many of the Druze into serfs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__59" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="59">This was contrary to the principles of the life of independence which these mountaineers had always lived, and resulted in a general uprising against Egyptian rule.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sultan Pasha, like Hasan al-Atrash, always maintained that he in particular, and the Druze community in general, epitomized the true Arab principles of freedom and independence, the essential values of the nation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The uprising was encouraged, for political reasons, by the British. <a name="citable__121" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="121">The Druzes of Wadi-al-Taym and Ḥawran, under the leadership of Shibli al-Aryan, distinguished themselves in their stubborn resistance at their inaccessible headquarters, <em>al-Laja</em>, lying southeast of Damascus.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>His many missionary travels, especially in Syria where he spent much time in the Wadi al-Taym area at the foot of Mt.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For example, when Adeeb al-Shishakli took over the government and began persecuting Syrias Druze, the region joined with the Druze in the Hawran area to mount a resistance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Under the military leadership of Sultan Pasha al-Atrash, the Druzes provided much of the military force behind the Great Syrian Revolt of 1925-1927.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Qaysites_and_the_Yemenites">Qaysites and the Yemenites</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/Battle_of_Ain_Darra" title="Battle of Ain Darra">Battle of Ain Darra</a></div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/1/0/1/66254352833214262.jpg" width="220" height="71" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Meeting of Druze and Ottoman leaders in Damascus, about the control of Jebel Druze.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__246" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="246">The conquest of Syria by the Muslim Arabs in the middle of the seventh century introduced into the land two political factions later called the Qaysites and the <a href="/Yemenites" title="Yemenites">Yemenites</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="246"><a href="#citable__246"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After independence, the region was fully integrated into Syria, and members from the community participated in the political life of the state.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="246"><a href="#citable__246"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Later in the late seventh century, at the advent of Islam, a man named John Maron left Syria for Lebanon because of inter-Christian and pagan rivalries and oppression.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="246"><a href="#citable__246"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>So, the druze in Israel have been there since centuries and would never leave their land, the same applies to the druze in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__255" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="255">The Qaysite party represented the Ḥijaz and <a href="/Bedouin" title="Bedouin">Bedouin</a> Arabs who were regarded as inferior by the Yemenites who were earlier and more cultured emigrants into Syria from southern Arabia.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="255"><a href="#citable__255"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>See more articles cited in this paragraph Extensive female-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa into near eastern Arab populations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="255"><a href="#citable__255"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the 50's and 60's Lebanon , a place where all political views were interacting , educated Druze women in Beirut were entering into political parties more than before.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="255"><a href="#citable__255"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To the elites of Syria's two great southern cities, Hama and Damascus, who had always used their alliance with Egypt and Saudi Arabia to undergird their commanding role in Syria politics, the Iraqi option could only spell disaster.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__0" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="0">Druzes and Christians grouped in political rather than religious parties so the party lines in Lebanon obliterated racial and religious lines and the people grouped themselves regardless of their religious affiliations, into one or the other of these two parties.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze are a group of people in Lebanon.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>What makes one truth more truthful than the other ( "religious truth")?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our group was included in the finale presentation of "One Planet, One People", a song written by Michael Sembello.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Community Outreach</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.kanzaman.org/outreach.html">www.kanzaman.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__253" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="253">The sanguinary feuds between these two factions depleted, in course of time, the manhood of the Lebanon and ended in the decisive <a href="/Battle_of_Ain_Dara" title="Battle of Ain Dara" class="mw-redirect">battle of Ain Dara</a> in 1711, which resulted in the utter defeat of the Yemenite party.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="253"><a href="#citable__253"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Haidar Shihab, third of the line, inflicted a notable defeat on the pasha of Saida and the Yemenite Druze at Ain Dara, near Zahleh, in 1711, and proceeded to consolidate Shihab power, breaking up the old feudal society.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="253"><a href="#citable__253"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syria entered Lebanon during the civil war, ostensibly to keep the peace between the warring factions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Syria Out Doesn't Mean U.S. In - by Ilana Mercer</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiwar.com/mercer/?articleid=4931">www.antiwar.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="253"><a href="#citable__253"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Times picks up the story: “In a way, a friendship between two wounded children from opposing backgrounds is not that surprising.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__16" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="16">Many Yemenite Druzes thereupon immigrated to the <a href="/Hawran" title="Hawran" class="mw-redirect">Hawran</a> region and thus laid the foundation of Druze power there.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Yemenite Druze thereupon emigrated in large numbers to the Hauran, and laid the foundation of Druze power there.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As a result of that, there are many single Druze ladies, and many families are denied enjoying the marriages of their children .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Like some Ismailis, the Druze believe there have been many (perhaps 70) incarnations of God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze Faith</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.muslimhope.com/Druze.htm">www.muslimhope.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Civil_War_of_1860">Civil War of 1860</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/1860_Lebanon_conflict" title="1860 Lebanon conflict">1860 Lebanon conflict</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__176" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="176">The Druzes and their Christian <a href="/Maronite" title="Maronite" class="mw-redirect">Maronite</a> neighbors, who had thus far lived as religious communities on friendly terms, entered a period of social disturbance in the year 1840, which culminated in the <a href="/1860_Lebanon_conflict" title="1860 Lebanon conflict">civil war of 1860</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="176"><a href="#citable__176"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the troubles of 1860 when Druzes besieged the fortress of Hasbaya , Sitt Nayfeh went to the castle, under battle fire , brought out Christian women and children who had been gathered there , and gave them protection in her home .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Social Image of the Druze Woman</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://americandruze.com/TheSocialImageoftheDruzeWoman.html">americandruze.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="176"><a href="#citable__176"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It also made them an easier target for French, British, and, later, Israeli occupying forces that wanted to undermine Arab nationalism after World War I. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, the Druze lived under Christian rulers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="176"><a href="#citable__176"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syria entered Lebanon during the civil war, ostensibly to keep the peace between the warring factions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Syria Out Doesn't Mean U.S. In - by Ilana Mercer</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiwar.com/mercer/?articleid=4931">www.antiwar.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> For this disturbance the Ottoman Sultan was, in a great measure, responsible. The Sultan, realizing that the only way to bring the semi-independent people of Lebanon under his direct control was to sow the seeds of discord among the people themselves, inaugurated in the mountain a policy long tried and found successful in the Ottoman provinces, the policy of "divide and rule".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__32" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="32">Also, after the <a href="/Shehab" title="Shehab" class="mw-redirect">Shehab</a> dynasty converted to Christianity, the Druze community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with the collaboration of the <a href="/Catholic_Church" title="Catholic Church">Catholic Church</a>, and the Druze lost most of their political and feudal powers.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the 1600s and 1700s, the Druze were the most powerful community on the Levantine coast.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon: Background and Forecast - by Juan Cole</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiwar.com/cole/?articleid=5019">www.antiwar.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon: Background and Forecast - by Juan Cole</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.anti-war.com/cole/?articleid=5019">www.anti-war.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It's because FDR stood up to the most concentrated and vicious attacks by the men he called "economic royalists," and came out on top nearly every time.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/sec1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/secnoframes1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>USNA, J. Moose (Damascus) to Dept of State, "Decline in Influence of the Druze Community under Shishakli," (15 August 1953) 783.00/8-1553.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__90" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="90">Also, the Druze formed a strong ally with <a href="/United_Kingdom_of_Great_Britain_and_Ireland" title="United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland">Britain</a> and allowed <a href="/Protestant" title="Protestant" class="mw-redirect">Protestant</a> missionaries to enter Mount Lebanon, creating tension between them and the Catholic Maronites, who were supported by the French.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After clashes with the Christian Maronites, supported by the French, and the Druze, encouraged by the British, in 1860-1, a French expeditionary force established the semi-autonomous district of Mount Lebanon under a Christian governor and many Druze emigrated to the Houran mountains in southern Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syria entered Lebanon during the civil war, ostensibly to keep the peace between the warring factions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Syria Out Doesn't Mean U.S. In - by Ilana Mercer</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiwar.com/mercer/?articleid=4931">www.antiwar.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A peace treaty was then signed between the Druze and Maronite leaders which has enabled them to live peacefully together and later become allies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__124" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="124">The <a href="/Maronite" title="Maronite" class="mw-redirect">Maronite</a>-Druze conflict in 1840-60 was an outgrowth of the Maronite Christian independence movement directed against the Druze and Ottoman-Turks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although the Druze were not really part of the Arab Nationalist movement, they were at odds with Christian leaders, especially the French.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The majority were peasants who would soon revolt against the Druze and Maronite feudal lords.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Nevertheless, the Druze faith descending from the Fatimid religious trend was not independent from its precedent esoteric movement of Isma'ilism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The civil war was not therefore a religious war, except in Damascus where it spread and where the population was anti-Christian. <a name="citable__46" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="46">The movement culminated with the 1859-60 massacre and defeat of the Christians by the Druzes, who were aided by the Turks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="46"><a href="#citable__46"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although the Druze were not really part of the Arab Nationalist movement, they were at odds with Christian leaders, especially the French.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="46"><a href="#citable__46"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Maronites flew to arms, but were defeated by the Druze, but the conflict was continued and culminated in the famous Damascus massacre of Christians.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__113" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="113">The civil war of 1860 cost the Christians some ten thousand lives in <a href="/Damascus" title="Damascus">Damascus</a>, <a href="/Zahle" title="Zahle">Zahle</a>, <a href="/Deir_al-Qamar" title="Deir al-Qamar" class="mw-redirect">Deir al-Qamar</a>, <a href="/Hasbaya" title="Hasbaya">Hasbaya</a> and other towns of Lebanon.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="113"><a href="#citable__113"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syria entered Lebanon during the civil war, ostensibly to keep the peace between the warring factions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Syria Out Doesn't Mean U.S. In - by Ilana Mercer</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiwar.com/mercer/?articleid=4931">www.antiwar.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="113"><a href="#citable__113"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Lebanese Greek Orthodox Christians generally agree that they are of indigenous Arab origin, with some reservation and qualification depending on where in Lebanon they live and on the prevailing political sentiment of their region.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="113"><a href="#citable__113"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Every druze can know his/her religion, but some of them prefer to be religious people(as shown in the pix), while others live a normal life like all other people.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__222" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="222">The European powers then determined to intervene and authorized the landing in Beirut of a body of French troops under General Beaufort d’Hautpoul, whose inscription can still be seen on the historic rock at the mouth of <a href="/Nahr_al-Kalb" title="Nahr al-Kalb">Nahr al-Kalb</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="222"><a href="#citable__222"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The European powers, by a protocol of the 3rd of May 1860 , decided that the Lebanon should be occupied by a force of 20,000 men, of whom half were to be French.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="222"><a href="#citable__222"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Hafez al-Assad determined to intervene to stop it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon: Background and Forecast - by Juan Cole</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiwar.com/cole/?articleid=5019">www.antiwar.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon: Background and Forecast - by Juan Cole</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.anti-war.com/cole/?articleid=5019">www.anti-war.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="222"><a href="#citable__222"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In accordance with the recommendation of the European powers the Porte appointed a Christian governor not belonging to the district, and independent of the pasha of Beirut, to hold office for 3 years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__62" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="62">French intervention on behalf of the Maronites did not help the Maronite national movement since France was restricted in 1860 by Britain which did not want the <a href="/Ottoman_Empire" title="Ottoman Empire">Ottoman Empire</a> dismembered.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It also made them an easier target for French, British, and, later, Israeli occupying forces that wanted to undermine Arab nationalism after World War I. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, the Druze lived under Christian rulers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The concern that the Maronites of Lebanon would again seek foreign intervention in order to overpower their fellow countrymen, as they did during the Crusades, still reverberates in Lebanon.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Atrashes did not want the government to supplant them or undermine their authority in the name of Arab nationalism, republicanism, or Syrian independence.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> But European intervention pressured the Turks to treat the Maronites more justly.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__193" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="193">Following the recommendations of the powers, the Ottoman Porte granted Lebanon local autonomy, guaranteed by the powers, under a Christian governor.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="193"><a href="#citable__193"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After clashes with the Christian Maronites, supported by the French, and the Druze, encouraged by the British, in 1860-1, a French expeditionary force established the semi-autonomous district of Mount Lebanon under a Christian governor and many Druze emigrated to the Houran mountains in southern Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="193"><a href="#citable__193"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>(Because he isn't a Christian, Sunni, or Shia, he can never hold any of Lebanon's three most powerful posts which are reserved for them.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="193"><a href="#citable__193"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic Christians are descendents of the great Byzantine Empire under which Christianity flourished and remained prominent in Lebanon and the Middle East for over one thousand years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> This autonomy was maintained until World War I.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Modern_history">Modern history</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__162" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="162">In Lebanon, Syria, and Israel, the Druze have official recognition as a separate religious community with its own religious court system.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="162"><a href="#citable__162"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"The Druzes live mainly in Lebanon, Syria, and Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="162"><a href="#citable__162"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syria's Druze community.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="162"><a href="#citable__162"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This was attended by ADS members, their relatives, government officials, representatives of Druze social and religious institutions, and newspaper, radio, and T.V. reporters.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__94" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="94">Their symbol is an array of five colors: green, red, yellow, blue, and white.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="94"><a href="#citable__94"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He was referring to the second comma that appears in a list, like "red, white, and blue."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/sec1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/secnoframes1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="94"><a href="#citable__94"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Red symbolizes the heart and love of humanity, green the farmer and life, white the air and purity, yellow the sun and wheat, and blue the sky and faith.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="94"><a href="#citable__94"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It combines a green triangle on the hoist side and four horizontal stripes of red, yellow, blue, and white.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__172" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="172">Each color pertains to a symbol defining its principles: green for <em><span class="Unicode">Aql</span></em> "the Universal Mind", red for <em>Nafs</em> "the Universal Soul", yellow for <em>Kalima</em> "the Truth/Word", blue for <em>Sabq</em> "the Potentiality/Cause", and white for <em>Talī</em> "the Actuality/Effect". These principles are why the number <a href="/5_(number)" title="5 (number)">five</a> has special considerations among the religious community; it is usually represented symbolically by a five-pointed star.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="172"><a href="#citable__172"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These principles are why the number 5 has special considerations among the religious community.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="172"><a href="#citable__172"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Instead, nationalism existed as an ideal, but in actuality each community envisioned it in a different way by investing it with their own religious and social values.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="172"><a href="#citable__172"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>All of these factors have deeply affected relations among the main religious communities of Lebanon.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_In_Syria">In Syria</span></h3> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/04/4/1/6/2723144802358081.jpg" width="220" height="154" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Druze warriors preparing to go to battle with Sultan Pasha al-Atrash in 1925.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__9" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="9">In Syria, most Druze live in the <a href="/Jebel_al-Druze" title="Jebel al-Druze" class="mw-redirect">Jebel al-Druze</a>, a rugged and mountainous region in the southwest of the country, which is more than 90 percent Druze inhabited; some 120 villages are exclusively so.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In Syria, most Druze live in the Jabal al-Druz, a rugged and mountainous region in the southwest of the country, which is more than 90 percent Druze inhabited; some 120 villages are exclusively so.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It’s true that Lebanon suffers from “brain drain” to such countries as the United States and Brazil—both of which contain more Lebanese than Lebanon itself does—and to the Persian Gulf states, where most people in the creative class are Lebanese.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>From Baghdad to Beirut by Michael J. Totten, City Journal 10 January 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://city-journal.org/2010/eon0110mt.html">city-journal.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although the Druze represent a small percentage of the total population of the countries of the Near East in which they reside, their concentration in mountainous districts has produced a compact social structure, resulting in a nearly exclusive majority in some geographical regions, and therefore a low frequency of admixture with other populations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<em>citation needed</em>]</sup></div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/2/9/7/41872411345670216.png" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Flag of <a href="/Jabal_el_Druze_(state)" title="Jabal el Druze (state)" class="mw-redirect">Jabal el Druze</a> representing the 5 Druze principles; other variations of the flag exist.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__180" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="180">The Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="180"><a href="#citable__180"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I learned it was far more than that.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/sec1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/secnoframes1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="180"><a href="#citable__180"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Jabal Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="180"><a href="#citable__180"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With a community of little more than 100,000 in 1949, or roughly three percent of the Syrian population, the Druzes of Syria's southeastern mountains constituted a potent force in Syrian politics and played a leading role in the nationalist struggle against the French.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__233" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="233">With a community of little more than 100,000 in 1949, or roughly three percent of the Syrian population, the Druze of Syria's southeastern mountains constituted a potent force in Syrian politics and played a leading role in the nationalist struggle against the French.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="233"><a href="#citable__233"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Jabal Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="233"><a href="#citable__233"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syria's Druze community.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="233"><a href="#citable__233"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No community in Syria was more outspoken in its opposition to Shishakli than the Druzes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__123" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="123">Under the military leadership of <a href="/Sultan_Pasha_al-Atrash" title="Sultan Pasha al-Atrash" class="mw-redirect">Sultan Pasha al-Atrash</a>, the Druze provided much of the military force behind the <a href="/Syrian_Revolution" title="Syrian Revolution">Syrian Revolution</a> of 1925-1927. In 1945, Amir Hasan al-Atrash, the paramount political leader of the Jebel al-Druze, led the Druze military units in a successful revolt against the French, making the Jebel al-Druze the first and only region in Syria to liberate itself from French rule without British assistance.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1945 Amir Hasan al-Atrash, the paramount political leader of the Jabal, led the Druze military units in a successful revolt against the French, making the Jabal Druze the first and only region in Syria to liberate itself without British assistance from French rule.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The French had to put down a Druze revolt in Syria in 1927.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syrias political parties also wooed Amir Hasan al-Atrash.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__266" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="266">No Syrians played a more heroic role in the struggle against colonialism or shed more blood for independence than the Druze.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="266"><a href="#citable__266"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No Syrians played a more heroic role in the struggle against colonialism or shed more blood for independence than the Druzes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="266"><a href="#citable__266"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With a community of little more than 100,000 in 1949, or roughly three percent of the Syrian population, the Druzes of Syria's southeastern mountains constituted a potent force in Syrian politics and played a leading role in the nationalist struggle against the French.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="266"><a href="#citable__266"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze also played a major role in the Lebanese Civil War (19751990).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__20" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="20">At independence the Druze, made confident by their successes, expected that Damascus would reward them for their many sacrifices on the battlefield.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At independence the Druzes, made confident by their successes, expected that Damascus would reward them for their many sacrifices on the battlefield.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Therefore as a Druze, I am understanding of other Druze in Israel who support it not only as their state, but as their identity and protector and every Israeli knows the sacrifices the Druze have made to show their loyalties to Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Besides the Druze, it was the large Maronite community that spearheaded the drive for Lebanese independence by 1943 and would since hold the office of the presidency of Lebanon.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__147" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="147">They demanded to keep their autonomous administration and many political privileges accorded them by the French and sought generous economic assistance from the newly independent government.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="147"><a href="#citable__147"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They demanded to keep their autonomous administration and many political privileges accorded them by the French and sought generous economic assistance from the newly independent government.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="147"><a href="#citable__147"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The political leaders of the Druzes were not content to demand only economic benefits from the government in Damascus in exchange for Druze cooperation, they also insisted that the Jabal be permitted most of the political privileges and autonomy it had enjoyed under the French.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="147"><a href="#citable__147"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Government generally respected these rights in practice; however, there were some restrictions, and the constitutional provision for apportioning political offices according to religious affiliation may be viewed as inherently discriminatory.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127352.htm">www.state.gov</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<em>citation needed</em>]</sup></div> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/10/2/5/4/22526663661593707.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Druze leaders meeting in <a href="/Jebel_al-Druze" title="Jebel al-Druze" class="mw-redirect">Jebel al-Druze</a>, <a href="/Syria" title="Syria">Syria</a>, 1926.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__229" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="229">Well-led by the Atrash household and jealous of their reputation as Arab nationalists and proud warriors, the Druze leaders refused to be beaten into submission by Damascus or cowed by threats.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="229"><a href="#citable__229"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ably led by the Atrash household and jealous of their reputation as Arab nationalists and proud warriors, the Druze leaders refused to be beaten into submission by Damascus or cowed by threats.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="229"><a href="#citable__229"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although the Druze were not really part of the Arab Nationalist movement, they were at odds with Christian leaders, especially the French.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="229"><a href="#citable__229"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"The Atrash family by right of conquest and tradition are the natural and historical leaders" of the Druzes, he proclaimed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__4" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="4">When a local paper in 1945 reported that President <a href="/Shukri_al-Quwatli" title="Shukri al-Quwatli">Shukri al-Quwatli</a> (1943–1949) had called the Druzes a "dangerous minority", Sultan Pasha al-Atrash flew into a rage and demanded a public retraction.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze don't like to be called with that name , they prefer to be called Unitarians , Al Muwahidoon .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It forms the Scriptures of the Druze, who call them Rasail al-Hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>One of the Druze holy books is called the Kitab ul-Hikma or "Book of Wisdom", largely compiled by Baha ud-Din al-Muqtana.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__268" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="268">If it were not forthcoming, he announced, the Druzes would indeed become "dangerous" and a force of 4,000 Druze warriors would "occupy the city of Damascus."</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="268"><a href="#citable__268"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If it were not forthcoming, he announced, the Druzes would indeed become "dangerous," and a force of 4,000 Druze warriors would "occupy the city of Damascus."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="268"><a href="#citable__268"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The European powers, by a protocol of the 3rd of May 1860 , decided that the Lebanon should be occupied by a force of 20,000 men, of whom half were to be French.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="268"><a href="#citable__268"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The souls of all pious Druze are supposed to be occupying in large numbers certain cities in the west of China.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__73" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="73">Quwwatli could not dismiss Sultan Pasha's threat.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="73"><a href="#citable__73"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Quwwatli could not dismiss Sultan Pasha's threat.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__155" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="155">The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Hinnawi called for the return to power of Syria's traditional politicians, and for the quick unification of Syria and Iraq, both policies the Druzes supported.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In contrast to the Druzes, the Alawites of Syria's western mountains had little political clout during the early independence era.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__108" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="108">One advisor to the Syrian Defense Department warned in 1946 that the Syrian army was "useless", and that the Druzes could "take Damascus and capture the present leaders in a breeze."</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="108"><a href="#citable__108"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>One advisor to the Syrian Defense Department warned in 1946 that the Syrian army was "useless," and that the Druzes could "take Damascus and capture the present leaders in a breeze."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="108"><a href="#citable__108"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Strangers are readily enough admitted to the khalwas; but as long as they are present the ordinary ceremonies are neglected, and the Qur'an takes the place of the Druze Scriptures.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="108"><a href="#citable__108"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The broader Druze community's faith in and support for its traditional leaders was not to be undermined so easily by the Syrian government.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<em>citation needed</em>]</sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__47" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="47">During the four years of <a href="/Adib_Shishakli" title="Adib Shishakli">Adib Shishakli</a>'s rule in Syria (December 1949 to February 1954), the Druze community was subjected to a heavy attack by the Syrian regime.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The four years of `Adib Shishakli's rule in Syria (December 1949 to February 1954) illustrates the extent to which the process of national integration was carried out by force.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syria's Druze community.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1944 the Druze area in Syria lost its autonomy and Druze leaders have participated in various coups, including the one that overthrew Adib Shishakli in 1954.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__97" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="97">Shishakli believed that among his many opponents in Syria, the Druzes were the most potentially dangerous, and he was determined to crush them.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Shishakli believed that among his many opponents in Syria, the Druzes were the most potentially dangerous, and he was determined to crush them.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1944 the Druze area in Syria lost its autonomy and Druze leaders have participated in various coups, including the one that overthrew Adib Shishakli in 1954.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No community in Syria was more outspoken in its opposition to Shishakli than the Druzes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__86" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="86">He frequently proclaimed: "My enemies are like a serpent: the head is the Jebel al-Druze, the stomach <a href="/Hims" title="Hims">Hims</a>, and the tail Aleppo.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He frequently proclaimed: "My enemies are like a serpent: the head is the Jabal Druze, the stomach Homs, and the tail Aleppo.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze historians believe al-Hakim's reputation for instability was exaggerated, but they do describe him variously as capricious, whimsical, enigmatic, and prone to violence.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Despite an attempt by Shishakli to appease Sultan Pasha by releasing Mansur, the Druze chieftain refused to announce his support for Shishakli as the President had anticipated; rather, he proclaimed: "I did not ask Shishakli for the freedom of my son; I asked him for the freedom of the country."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__260" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="260">If I crush the head the serpent will die."</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="260"><a href="#citable__260"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If I crush the head the serpent will die."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__237" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="237">Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jebel al-Druze.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="237"><a href="#citable__237"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When a small column of gendarmes was cut down outside of Qraya, the home of Sultan Pasha, where they had been sent to arrest the Druze leader, Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jabal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="237"><a href="#citable__237"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For example, when Adeeb al-Shishakli took over the government and began persecuting Syrias Druze, the region joined with the Druze in the Hawran area to mount a resistance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="237"><a href="#citable__237"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If it were not forthcoming, he announced, the Druzes would indeed become "dangerous," and a force of 4,000 Druze warriors would "occupy the city of Damascus."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__179" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="179">Several towns were bombarded with heavy weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="179"><a href="#citable__179"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Several towns were bombarded with heavy weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="179"><a href="#citable__179"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But many should also agree that in retaliation, the killing of dozens of innocent civilians in Lebanon by Israel is worse than that action.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Global Politician - Arab-Israeli Relations</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.globalpolitician.com/172-arab-israeli-relations">www.globalpolitician.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__49" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="49">According to Druze accounts, Shishakli encouraged neighboring bedouin tribes to plunder the defenseless population and allowed his own troops to run amok.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>According to Druze accounts, Shishakli encouraged neighboring bedouin tribes to plunder the defenseless population and allowed his own troops to run amok.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He stationed large numbers of troops in the Jabal, removed Druze officers from the upper echelons of the army, and brought the full force of Syrian law to bear on the Jabal population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Moreover, Shishakli did not hesitate to use his control of the courts to intimidate the Druze population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__6" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="6">Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Moreover, Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Shishakli sought to make an example of the Druze community in his campaign to crack down on insubordination, illegal activities, and external influence in Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Shishakli pursued a relentless campaign to integrate the Druze community into Syria and to destroy the independent power of its Druze chieftains.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__143" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="143">He accused the entire community of treason, at times claiming they were agents of the British and <a href="/Hashemite" title="Hashemite">Hashimites</a>, at others that they were fighting for Israel against the Arabs.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They are servants of the British and Jews in Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He accused the entire community of treason, at times claiming they were agents of the British and Hashimites, at others that they were fighting for Israel against the Arabs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At times in Lebanese history, different communities fought fierce battles with each other, followed by long periods of co-existence, only to resurface in war, time and again.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__81" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="81">He even produced a cache of Israeli weapons allegedly discovered in the Jabal.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="81"><a href="#citable__81"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He even produced a cache of Israeli weapons allegedly discover in the Jabal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__8" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="8">Even more painful for the Druze community was his publication of "falsified Druze religious texts" and false testimonials ascribed to leading Druze sheikhs designed to stir up sectarian hatred.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even more painful for the Druze community was his publication of "falsified Druze religious texts" and false testimonials ascribed to leading Druze shaykhs designed to stir up sectarian hatred.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Designed for druze to fit in european communities .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>What is more remarkable about the Druze on this subject is the adoption of monasticism by some sheikhs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__11" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="11">This propaganda was also broadcast in the Arab world, mainly Egypt.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="11"><a href="#citable__11"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Egypt, fearful that the British and Hashimites might be behind the unrest in Syria, lent the prestige of their Sawt al-Arab broadcasts to Shishakli's propaganda campaign.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__95" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="95">Shishakli was assassinated in Brazil on September 27, 1964 by a Druze seeking revenge for Shishakli's bombardment of the Jebel al-Druze.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="95"><a href="#citable__95"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze seeking revenge for Shishakli's bombardment of the Jabal Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="95"><a href="#citable__95"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For example, when Adeeb al-Shishakli took over the government and began persecuting Syrias Druze, the region joined with the Druze in the Hawran area to mount a resistance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="95"><a href="#citable__95"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>According to this account, which seems reliable, Salah al-Shishakli pushed the Druzes out of the drug trade, slashing Atrash finances and harming the Druze community as a whole.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__217" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="217">After the Shishakli's military campaign, the Druze community lost a lot of its political influence, but many Druze military officers played an important role when it comes to the <a href="/Baath_Party" title="Baath Party" class="mw-redirect">Baathist</a> regime currently ruling Syria.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="217"><a href="#citable__217"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As Druze agriculture lost its competitive edge, the financial and political influence of the community also diminished.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="217"><a href="#citable__217"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syria's Druze community.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="217"><a href="#citable__217"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The community enjoyed semi-autonomy during the Ottoman Empire and in 1921 France tried and failed to establish a Druze state within the French Mandate of Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Minority Rights Group International : Israel : Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.minorityrights.org/5006/israel/druze.html">www.minorityrights.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_In_Lebanon">In Lebanon</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/4/2/0/10169842908159473.jpg" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> <a href="/Job_(Bible)" title="Job (Bible)" class="mw-redirect">Prophet Job</a> shrine in Lebanon the <a href="/Chouf" title="Chouf" class="mw-redirect">Chouf</a> region.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__21" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="21">The Druze community played an important role in the formation of the modern state of Lebanon, and even though they are a minority they played an important role in the Lebanese political scene.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With increasing tensions among Druze and state-backed Jewish settlers in the north, some Druze warn that their community's willingness to serve the state will further decline.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Minority Rights Group International : Israel : Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.minorityrights.org/5006/israel/druze.html">www.minorityrights.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The community enjoyed semi-autonomy during the Ottoman Empire and in 1921 France tried and failed to establish a Druze state within the French Mandate of Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Minority Rights Group International : Israel : Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.minorityrights.org/5006/israel/druze.html">www.minorityrights.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, continuing discrimination against Druze and growing sympathy with Palestinians in the occupied territories has led some to question the community's strategy of cooperation with the state.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Minority Rights Group International : Israel : Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.minorityrights.org/5006/israel/druze.html">www.minorityrights.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__104" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="104">Before and during the <a href="/Lebanese_Civil_War" title="Lebanese Civil War">Lebanese Civil War</a> (1975–1990), the Druze were in favor of <a href="/Pan-Arabism" title="Pan-Arabism">Pan-Arabism</a> and Palestinian resistance represented by the <a href="/PLO" title="PLO" class="mw-redirect">PLO</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze also played a major role in the Lebanese Civil War (19751990).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even the fourth grade text is said to cease reporting history in the year 1975, the start of the Lebanese civil and foreign war.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Macdonald Center - Online Articles</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/articles_hajjar.htm">macdonald.hartsem.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__204" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="204">Most of the community supported the <a href="/Progressive_Socialist_Party" title="Progressive Socialist Party">Progressive Socialist Party</a> formed by the Lebanese leader <a href="/Kamal_Jumblatt" title="Kamal Jumblatt">Kamal Jumblatt</a> and they fought alongside other leftist and Palestinian parties against the <a href="/Lebanese_Front" title="Lebanese Front">Lebanese Front</a> that was mainly constituted of Christians.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="204"><a href="#citable__204"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Soviet Union got involved, aiding Druze leader Kamal Jumblatt’s Progressive Socialist Party militia in its “resistance” against these “right-wing” Christians and in its struggle on behalf of the Palestinians.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>From Baghdad to Beirut by Michael J. Totten, City Journal 10 January 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://city-journal.org/2010/eon0110mt.html">city-journal.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="204"><a href="#citable__204"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze Kamal Jumblatt founded the Lebanese Progressive Socialist Party in the mid-20th century and was a major thinker and philosopher.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="204"><a href="#citable__204"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The fighting, which took place in the capital and other parts of Lebanon, pitted the Shiite party and its allies against supporters of current Prime Minister Saad Hariri and Jumblatt’s Progressive Socialist Party.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> After the assassination of Kamal Jumblatt on March 16, 1977, his son <a href="/Walid_Jumblatt" title="Walid Jumblatt">Walid Jumblatt</a> took the leadership of the party and played an important role in preserving his father's legacy and sustained the existence of the Druze community during the sectarian bloodshed that lasted until 1990.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__61" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="61">In August 2001, <a href="/Nasrallah_Boutros_Sfeir" title="Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir">Patriarch Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir</a> toured the predominantly Druze Chouf region of Mount Lebanon and visited Mukhtara, the ancestral stronghold of Druze leader Walid Jumblatt.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="61"><a href="#citable__61"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Chouf Mountains, homeland of Lebanon's Druze .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="61"><a href="#citable__61"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Now that Lebanon, and the region as a whole, is in a holding pattern and no one knows who will come out on top, Jumblatt doesn't know which way to jump.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="61"><a href="#citable__61"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Lebanon's Druze leader Walid Jumblatt recently abandoned the anti-Syrian and anti-Hezbollah "March 14" coalition and declared himself politically neutral.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__5" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="5">The tumultuous reception that Sfeir received not only signified a historic reconciliation between Maronites and Druze, who fought a bloody war in 1983-1984, but underscored the fact that the banner of Lebanese sovereignty had broad multi-confessional appeal<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup> and was a cornerstone for the <a href="/Cedar_Revolution" title="Cedar Revolution">Cedar Revolution</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="5"><a href="#citable__5"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It did not matter who you were, but only the fact that you were Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="5"><a href="#citable__5"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A peace treaty was then signed between the Druze and Maronite leaders which has enabled them to live peacefully together and later become allies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="5"><a href="#citable__5"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As we toured through the home we met hundreds of Druze youth and infants who were not only given shelter and education, but also love, hope and ambition.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__197" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="197">The second largest political party supported by Druze is the <a href="/Lebanese_Democratic_Party" title="Lebanese Democratic Party">Lebanese Democratic Party</a> led by <a href="/Talal_Arslan" title="Talal Arslan">Prince Talal Arslan</a> the son of one of the independence leaders <a href="/Emir_Magid_Arslan" title="Emir Magid Arslan" class="mw-redirect">Prince Magid Arslan</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="197"><a href="#citable__197"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Support for the spread of the 7 Noahide Commandments by the Druze leaders reflects the Biblical narrative itself.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="197"><a href="#citable__197"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In contrast to the Druzes, the Alawites of Syria's western mountains had little political clout during the early independence era.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="197"><a href="#citable__197"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Lebanon's Druze leader Walid Jumblatt recently abandoned the anti-Syrian and anti-Hezbollah "March 14" coalition and declared himself politically neutral.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__137" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="137">Also political parties such as the <a href="/Syrian_Social_Nationalist_Party" title="Syrian Social Nationalist Party">Syrian Social Nationalist Party</a>, <a href="/Lebanese_Unification_Movement" title="Lebanese Unification Movement">Lebanese Unification Movement</a> and <a href="/Lebanese_Communist_Party" title="Lebanese Communist Party">Lebanese Communist Party</a> have a considerable amount of supporters in the community.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="137"><a href="#citable__137"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Baath party is a cultural political view with communist oriented principles .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="137"><a href="#citable__137"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>De Charette meets Syrian and Lebanese leaders, says his idea for security committee to guarantee a cease-fire is getting support.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MAR | Data | Chronology for Druze in Lebanon</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/mar/chronology.asp?groupId=66001">www.cidcm.umd.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="137"><a href="#citable__137"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>More surprising for Israelis was the unanimous support given by the traditional and religious leadership and the community in general to members of an underground movement who were caught engaging in pro-Syrian activities and tried before a military court.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_In_Israel">In Israel</span></h3> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/3/6/5/74258934195556521.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> <a href="/Nabi_Shu%27ayb" title="Nabi Shu'ayb">Prophet Jethro shrine</a> in Israel.</div> </div> </div> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/05/3/6/6/13225972727502691.jpg" width="220" height="440" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Druze man in <a href="/Peki%27in" title="Peki'in">Peki'in</a>.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__177" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="177">In Israel, the majority of the approximately 120,000 Druze consider themselves a distinct religious group.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="177"><a href="#citable__177"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Several other major branches of Brethren consider themselves direct descendants of the group organized at Schwarzenau:...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="177"><a href="#citable__177"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Despite trying to avoid conflict with large religious groups, Druze living among Muslims in the Middle East faced retribution.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="177"><a href="#citable__177"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Around 200,000 Druze live in Lebanon, 100,000 in Syria, and 50,000 in Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__74" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="74">Since 1957, the Israeli government has also designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community, at the request of the community's leaders.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Designed for druze to fit in european communities .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The broader Druze community's faith in and support for its traditional leaders was not to be undermined so easily by the Syrian government.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Leaders of the Popular Front, seated next to Amir Hasan, spoke of how the only defense of the Druze community against its enemies lay in its unshakable unity.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/3/6/1/59149782587801075.jpg" width="220" height="149" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> <a href="/Daliyat_Al-Karmel" title="Daliyat Al-Karmel" class="mw-redirect">Daliyat Al-Karmel</a>, Israeli Memorial to 355 Druze killed while fighting for Israel</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__133" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="133">A minority of the Druze in the <a href="/Golan_Heights" title="Golan Heights">Golan region</a>, controlled by Israel since the <a href="/Six-Day_War" title="Six-Day War">Six-Day War</a> of 1967 and officially annexed by Israel in 1981, but not internationally recognized, have a separate legal status from those in the <a href="/Galilee" title="Galilee">Galilee</a> region, and are considered permanent residents under the <a href="/Golan_Heights_Law" title="Golan Heights Law">Golan Heights Law</a> of 1981. Few of them have accepted full Israeli citizenship, and the majority are citizens of <a href="/Syria" title="Syria">Syria</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many Druze living in the Golan Heights consider themselves Syrian and refuse Israeli citizenship, while the remainder consider themselves Israeli.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Israel since the 1967 War.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Mexican game mimics�border crossing, Emotions�mixed at Druze wedding - CNN.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2007/EDUCATION/03/13/transcript.wed/index.html">www.cnn.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Soon after the war, Israel announced that the retention of the Golan would be permanent.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__202" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="202">Druze in the Golan are not drafted into the Israeli army (although a minority serve voluntarily) and many travel to Syria regularly to visit family or receive university degrees in <a href="/Damascus" title="Damascus">Damascus</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="202"><a href="#citable__202"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Israeli Druze also serve in the Israeli army, voluntarily since 1948, and at the community's requestcompulsorily since 1956.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="202"><a href="#citable__202"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But an insurrection by the Christians turned many of the Druze into serfs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="202"><a href="#citable__202"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Their privileges and responsibilities are the same as those of Israeli Jews; thus, all Druze are drafted, but exemptions are given for religious students and for various other reasons.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> A year after Israel annexed the Golan, on April 14, 1982, the Druze communities around <a href="/Mt._Hermon" title="Mt. Hermon" class="mw-redirect">Mt. <a name="citable__92" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="92">Hermon</a> launched a six-month non-violent general strike in protest of Israel's annexation of the Golan.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the six months of this strike, many public meetings were held in all villages to reach decisions and discuss strategies for dealing with the new assault on their identity.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the period of civil and political unrest in the 1960s and 1970s, some Druze protested Israel's annexation of the Golan Heights, and a minority of Druze was involved in violent acts.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Israel assumed that the northern villages on the Golan would follow their Palestinian co-religionists in supporting the Jewish state and its planned annexation of the region.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__58" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="58">The rest of the Druze population are citizens of Israel.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The present Druze population in Syria is about 200,000 with rather more than 70,000 in Lebanon and 33,000 in Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Among these groups, Israel came to consider its Druze citizens as a favored minority on the grounds that they are more loyal to the Jewish state than others.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Find this article online CBS (2005) The Druze Population of Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__181" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="181">Druze citizens are prominent in the <a href="/Israel_Defense_Forces" title="Israel Defense Forces">Israel Defense Forces</a> and in <a href="/Politics_of_Israel" title="Politics of Israel">politics</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="181"><a href="#citable__181"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many young Druze play a part in the daily defense of Israel's borders, serving the required three years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="181"><a href="#citable__181"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In Israel, Druze judges have forced the government to waive the requirement for a Druze woman's photograph to appear on official documents, such as identity cards.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="181"><a href="#citable__181"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the period of civil and political unrest in the 1960s and 1970s, some Druze protested Israel's annexation of the Golan Heights, and a minority of Druze was involved in violent acts.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__259" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="259">A considerable number of Israeli Druze soldiers have fallen in Israel's wars since the <a href="/1948_Arab-Israeli_War" title="1948 Arab-Israeli War" class="mw-redirect">1948 Arab-Israeli War</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="259"><a href="#citable__259"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Israel since the 1967 War.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Mexican game mimics�border crossing, Emotions�mixed at Druze wedding - CNN.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2007/EDUCATION/03/13/transcript.wed/index.html">www.cnn.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="259"><a href="#citable__259"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It also made them an easier target for French, British, and, later, Israeli occupying forces that wanted to undermine Arab nationalism after World War I. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, the Druze lived under Christian rulers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="259"><a href="#citable__259"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze have traditionally adopted a practice of cooperating with national authorities, and Druze fought voluntarily alongside Jews in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war that accompanied Israel's birth.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Minority Rights Group International : Israel : Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.minorityrights.org/5006/israel/druze.html">www.minorityrights.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__100" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="100">The bond between Jewish and Druze soldiers is commonly known by the term "a covenant of blood" (Hebrew: ברית דמים, <em>brit damim</em>), although in recent years the phrase has been criticized as the Israeli government has been accused for failing to open up employment opportunities to Druze youth outside of the army.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jethro, The Druze And Vedic Origins A serendipitous, though intensive, case study of Israeli Druze reveals striking similarities between Vedic and Druze philosophy and culture.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Government documents refer to Jewish Lebanese citizens as Israelis, even though they are not Israeli citizens.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127352.htm">www.state.gov</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They are commonly referred to as "Druze" or "Druze", a name derived from el-Drzi, the name of one of the known propagandists of the Druze religion at its beginning.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Joshua Project - Druze of Syria Ethnic People Profile</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rog3=SY&rop3=102733">www.joshuaproject.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__13" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="13">In 1996, <a href="/Azzam_Azzam" title="Azzam Azzam">Azzam Azzam</a>, a Druze Israeli businessman, was accused by Egypt of spying for Israel and was imprisoned for eight years, an accusation denied by the Israeli government.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many young Druze play a part in the daily defense of Israel's borders, serving the required three years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"If you marry out, you convert out," said Haeyl Azaam, a 30-year-old Israeli Druze who was quoted in The Jewish Bulletin of Northern California .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When the mayor of Majdal Shams died in the late 1980s, Israel appointed Turki al-Ajami, an Israeli Druze who had fled the Golan in 1950 after the Syrian government learned about his spying activity for Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__12" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="12">Until his death in 1993, the Druze community in Israel was led by Shaykh <a href="/Amin_Tarif" title="Amin Tarif">Amin Tarif</a>, a charismatic figure regarded by many within the Druze community internationally as the preeminent religious leader of his time.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="12"><a href="#citable__12"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The only options are to marry within the community or with Druze from Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="12"><a href="#citable__12"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even more painful for the Druze community was his publication of "falsified Druze religious texts" and false testimonials ascribed to leading Druze shaykhs designed to stir up sectarian hatred.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="12"><a href="#citable__12"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The community enjoyed semi-autonomy during the Ottoman Empire and in 1921 France tried and failed to establish a Druze state within the French Mandate of Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Minority Rights Group International : Israel : Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.minorityrights.org/5006/israel/druze.html">www.minorityrights.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__244" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="244">In January 2004, the spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel, <a href="/Shaykh" title="Shaykh" class="mw-redirect">Shaykh</a> <a href="/Mowafak_Tarif" title="Mowafak Tarif">Mowafak Tarif</a>, signed a declaration calling on all non-Jews in Israel to observe the <a href="/Seven_Noahide_Laws" title="Seven Noahide Laws" class="mw-redirect">Seven Noahide Laws</a> as laid down in the <a href="/Bible" title="Bible">Bible</a> and expounded upon in <a href="/Judaism" title="Judaism">Jewish</a> tradition.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="244"><a href="#citable__244"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They are the leaders of the spiritual life of the Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="244"><a href="#citable__244"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In January 2004, the spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel , Sheikh Mowafak Tarif, signed a declaration calling on all non-Jews in Israel to observe the 7 Noahide / Noachide Laws as laid down in the Hebrew Bible and expounded upon in Jewish tradition.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="244"><a href="#citable__244"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The seven duties that all Druze are required to observe are recognition of al-Hakim and strict adherence to monotheism; negation of all non-Druze tenets; rejection of Satan and unbelief; acceptance of God's acts; submission to God for good or ill; truthfulness; and mutual solidarity and help between fellow Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__261" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="261">The mayor of the <a href="/Galilee" title="Galilee">Galilean</a> city of <a href="/Shefa-%27Amr" title="Shefa-'Amr">Shefa-'Amr</a> also signed the document.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="261"><a href="#citable__261"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The mayor of the Galilean city of Shefa-'Amr (Shfaram) - where Muslim, Christian and Druze communities live side by side - also signed the document.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Institute_of_Noahide_Code_38_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Institute_of_Noahide_Code-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__65" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="65">The declaration includes the commitment to make a "...better humane world based on the Seven Noahide Commandments and the values they represent commanded by the Creator to all mankind through Moses on Mount Sinai."</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="65"><a href="#citable__65"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The declaration includes the commitment to make a better, more humane world based on the 7 Noachide Commandments and the values they represent commanded by the Creator to all mankind through Moses on Mount Sinai .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="65"><a href="#citable__65"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When the Souls settled in the human body they desired to know their creator.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="65"><a href="#citable__65"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But atoms, too, are very tiny yet make up all the wide variety of things in the world.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Global Politician - Arab-Israeli Relations</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.globalpolitician.com/172-arab-israeli-relations">www.globalpolitician.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Institute_of_Noahide_Code_38_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Institute_of_Noahide_Code-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__93" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="93">Support for the spread of the Seven Noahide Commandments by the Druze leaders reflects the biblical narrative itself.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Support for the spread of the 7 Noahide Commandments by the Druze leaders reflects the Biblical narrative itself.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The broader Druze community's faith in and support for its traditional leaders was not to be undermined so easily by the Syrian government.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This is also reflected in the diversity parameters, which we have obtained using the directed sampling approach, and which do not support a recent population bottleneck or founder effect for the Druze population as a whole.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__144" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="144">The Druze community reveres the non-Jewish father-in-law of Moses, <a href="/Jethro_(Bible)" title="Jethro (Bible)">Jethro</a>, whom some Muslims identify with <a href="/Shoaib" title="Shoaib">Shuʻayb</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They told me that they were the desendents of Jethro, Moses' father-in-law.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze community reveres the non-Jewish father-in-law of Moses, Jethro (Shu'aib).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Therefore, they do not consider Jethro to be the father-in-law of Moses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__42" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="42">According to the biblical narrative, Jethro joined and assisted the Jewish people in the desert during the <a href="/The_Exodus" title="The Exodus">Exodus</a>, accepted monotheism, but ultimately rejoined his own people.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="42"><a href="#citable__42"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>According to international law, the Jewish people are the sole beneficiary of Self-determination in the land of Palestine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Global Politician - Arab-Israeli Relations</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.globalpolitician.com/172-arab-israeli-relations">www.globalpolitician.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="42"><a href="#citable__42"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>According to Exodus, "Moses did all that he [Jethro] had said."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__271" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="271">The <a href="/Nabi_Shu%27ayb" title="Nabi Shu'ayb">tomb of Jethro</a> near <a href="/Tiberias" title="Tiberias">Tiberias</a> is the most important religious site for the Druze community.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="271"><a href="#citable__271"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The tomb is the most important religious site for the Druze community, second in importance only to their spiritual centre at Bayyada near Hasbaya in Lebanon .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="271"><a href="#citable__271"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It has been claimed that the Druze are actually descendents of Jethro, despite their community's composite ethnography.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="271"><a href="#citable__271"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze minority communities in Lebanon, Israel, and Syria have worked out a survival formula that works better than most.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Institute_of_Noahide_Code_38_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Institute_of_Noahide_Code-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__196" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="196">It has been claimed that the Druze are actually descendants of Jethro.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="196"><a href="#citable__196"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It has been claimed that the Druze are actually descendents of Jethro, despite their community's composite ethnography.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="196"><a href="#citable__196"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jethro, known as Nabi Schweib by the Druze, was a Midianite (Exodus 18:1), a tribe descending from Keturah, a wife of Abraham (Genesis 25:1-2).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<em>citation needed</em>]</sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__71" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="71">Five Druze lawmakers currently have been elected to serve in the <a href="/Israeli_legislative_election,_2009" title="Israeli legislative election, 2009">18th Knesset</a>, a disproportionately large number considering their population.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These findings have been uncovered due to the unique demographic features of the Druze population, and the adjusted sampling method employed in the current study.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The following populations were used: 311 Druze from the current study.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because of its isolated position, Deir-ez-Zor had become something of a place of exile for Army officers, including a disproportionate number of Druzes....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Beliefs_of_the_Druze">Beliefs of the Druze</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__128" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="128">The Druze are considered to be a social group as well as a religion, but not a distinct ethnic group.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze sheikhs prefer to consider their Dogma a sect or a Sufi conduct rather than a religion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze believe in the co-existence of all religions, national and ethnic groups living under one flag.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Druze - History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes, Names, Housing</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html">www.everyculture.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This group of supporters decided there should be a gathering of all the Druzes in the United States for this cause, as well as for brotherhood among the community."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__265" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="265">Also complicating their identity is the custom of <a href="/Taqiya" title="Taqiya" class="mw-redirect">Taqiya</a>—concealing or disguising their beliefs when necessary—that they adopted from Shia Islam and the esoteric nature of the faith, in which many teachings are kept secretive.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="265"><a href="#citable__265"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As converts are no longer admitted, the faithful must keep their doctrine secret from the profane; and in order that their allegiance may not bring them into danger, they are allowed (like Persian mystics) to make outward profession to hide their inner belief (taqiya, "to conceal") of whatever religion is dominant around them.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="265"><a href="#citable__265"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He was angered by their violation of the true teachings of the faith, which brought upon the Call many problems.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="265"><a href="#citable__265"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After Hakim's disappearance, the Druze were forced to take to taqiya, the practice of concealing their true beliefs, common among Isma'ilis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__18" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="18">Druze in different states can have radically different lifestyles.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="18"><a href="#citable__18"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze legislation in Tawhid regarding a number of issues differs radically from the common Islamic view, for example in regard to reincarnation, monogamy, and the free will to transmit inheritance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="18"><a href="#citable__18"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This organization extended itself in different states where Druze habitats were established.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Some claim to be Muslim, some do not. <a name="citable__211" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="211">The Druze faith is said to abide by Islamic principles, but they tend to be separatist in their treatment of Druze-hood, and their religion differs from mainstream Islam on a number of fundamental points.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="211"><a href="#citable__211"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze religion is a secret faith.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="211"><a href="#citable__211"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>You might want to read up on these other groups, who struggle to carry on within Islamic states where they are liable to be beaten or killed/evicted for their refusal to submit to Islam: Druze Mandeans - said to be followers of John the Baptist as the Messiah Ismaili - muslims with secret ceremonies, who refuse to speak about their faith.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Druze of Lebanon, page 1</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread141349/pg1">www.abovetopsecret.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="211"><a href="#citable__211"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When Druze live among people of other religions, they try to blend in, to protect their religion and for safety.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Joshua Project - Druze of Syria Ethnic People Profile</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rog3=SY&rop3=102733">www.joshuaproject.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_book_0_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-book-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__230" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="230">Druze does not allow conversion to the religion.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="230"><a href="#citable__230"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze permit no conversion, either away from or to their religion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="230"><a href="#citable__230"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>BUT one question pops out permamently into my mind: WHICH GOD DOES NOT ALLOW OTHER PEOPLE TO BELIEVE IN HIS RELIGION?????</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__199" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="199">Marriage between Druze and non-Druze is strongly discouraged for religious, political and historical reasons.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="199"><a href="#citable__199"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Their privileges and responsibilities are the same as those of Israeli Jews; thus, all Druze are drafted, but exemptions are given for religious students and for various other reasons.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="199"><a href="#citable__199"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Israeli-run schools taught children courses in Druze Heritage, which presented Druze as a separate and always persecuted non-Arab, ethno-religious minority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="199"><a href="#citable__199"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze customs strongly favor marriage within the same village or the same geographical area [5] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_God_in_the_Druze_faith">God in the Druze faith</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__98" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="98">The Druze conception of the deity is declared by them to be one of strict and uncompromising unity.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>One critical point about the relation between the Druze and Islam is the very strict relation of Sufism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__63" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="63">The main Druze doctrine states that God is both <a href="/Transcendence" title="Transcendence">transcendent</a> and <a href="/Immanence" title="Immanence">immanent</a>, in which He is above all attributes but at the same time He is present.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="63"><a href="#citable__63"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Their privileges and responsibilities are the same as those of Israeli Jews; thus, all Druze are drafted, but exemptions are given for religious students and for various other reasons.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="63"><a href="#citable__63"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The 25th Convention attracted hundreds of Druze from all areas of the United States, as well as international visitors making this convention extremely successful.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="63"><a href="#citable__63"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the interim, the Al-Bayan carried the message of the forthcoming convention to the Druzes in all the United States.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__243" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="243">In their desire to maintain a rigid confession of unity, they stripped from God all attributes <em>(<a href="/Tanzih" title="Tanzih">tanzīh</a>)</em> which may lead to <a href="/Polytheism" title="Polytheism">polytheism</a> <em>(<a href="/Shirk_(Islam)" title="Shirk (Islam)">shirk</a>)</em>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="243"><a href="#citable__243"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Excision of fallacies is the deflection from the path that deviates from the unity with God and the path that leads to darkness and the absence of reality.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="243"><a href="#citable__243"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Through them they can realize the Oneness of God, who is distinguished from all that exists.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="243"><a href="#citable__243"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They believe in one God for all and that all religions are connected via many ifead and belief systems.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__89" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="89">In <a href="/God" title="God">God</a>, there are no attributes distinct from his essence.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There appears to be no formal distinction of rank among the various members.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To lie is Polytheism the believe in many gods , Atheism the believe that there is no God, and a deviation from the Truth.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> He is wise, mighty, and just, not by wisdom, might, and justice, but by his own essence. <a name="citable__216" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="216">God is "the Whole of Existence", rather than "above existence" or on His throne, which would make Him "limited."</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="216"><a href="#citable__216"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The purpose of this demand is to ensure a lasting peace with Israel as it exists rather than some formal declaration which would thereafter be subverted in every possible way.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Global Politician - Arab-Israeli Relations</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.globalpolitician.com/172-arab-israeli-relations">www.globalpolitician.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="216"><a href="#citable__216"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If Hezbollah had won that election, two countries in the Middle East rather than one would be pursuing Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's foreign policy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="216"><a href="#citable__216"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because you would rather it envelop us in this life than the next see you all on the other side ;) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__56" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="56">There is neither "how", "when", nor "where" about him; he is incomprehensible.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="56"><a href="#citable__56"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Learned a lot about the region and especially the complexities of Lebanon and how difficult it is to achieve stability there.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_swayd_41_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-swayd-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__206" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="206">In this dogma, they are similar to the semi-philosophical, semi-religious body which flourished under <a href="/Al-Ma%27mun" title="Al-Ma'mun">Al-Ma'mun</a> and was known by the name of <a href="/Mu%27tazila" title="Mu'tazila" class="mw-redirect">Mu'tazila</a> and the equally interesting fraternal order of the <a href="/Brethren_of_Purity" title="Brethren of Purity">Brethren of Purity</a> <em>(Ikhwan al-Ṣafa)</em>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="206"><a href="#citable__206"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These are so common, so similar one week to the next, they are like wallpaper - interesting patterns but not enough to hold my attention long enough to remember.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/sec1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/secnoframes1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="206"><a href="#citable__206"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These groups are disadvantaged under the law in that their members do not qualify for certain government positions, but they are permitted to perform their religious rites freely.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127352.htm">www.state.gov</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="206"><a href="#citable__206"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The young Caliph became known as Al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah The ruler in the name of God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__136" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="136">But unlike the <em>Mu’tazilla</em>, and similar to some branches of <a href="/Sufism" title="Sufism">Sufism</a>, the Druze believe in the concept of <em>Tajalli</em> (meaning "<a href="/Theophany" title="Theophany">theophany</a>").</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze Emigration and its Aftermath By Julie Makarem The true name of the Druzes is 'al-Muwahhidun' which means those who believe in the Unity of God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze theology has a Neo-Platonic view about how God interacts with the world through emanations and is similar to some gnostic and other esoteric sects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze believe in 5 cosmic principles, represented by the 5 colored Druze star, which carries the meaning of: .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_swayd_41_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-swayd-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup> <em>Tajalli</em>, which is more often misunderstood by scholars and writers and is usually confused with the concept of <a href="/Incarnation" title="Incarnation">incarnation</a>,</div> <blockquote> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">...is the core spiritual beliefs [sic] in the <a name="citable__142" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="142">Druze and some other intellectual and spiritual traditions....</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="142"><a href="#citable__142"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze theology has a Neo-Platonic view about how God interacts with the world through emanations and is similar to some gnostic and other esoteric sects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="142"><a href="#citable__142"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The respect they showed towards other people's religions was fully in keeping with their Vedic spiritual tradition.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="142"><a href="#citable__142"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze have other fasting traditions, such as fasting during the ten days before Eid ul-Adha, the last night of which is spent in prayer.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__258" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="258">In a mystical sense, it refers to the light of God experienced by certain mystics who have reached a high level of purity in their spiritual journey.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="258"><a href="#citable__258"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>So, think of them as people who see the world in a very equatic way, with tolerance and understanding, think of them as a group of people that have reached the level of self contention that you and I should be aspiring for.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="258"><a href="#citable__258"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze, who refer to themselves as al-Muwahhideen, or "believers in one God," are concentrated in the rural, mountainous areas east and south of Beirut.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lebanon</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127352.htm">www.state.gov</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__139" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="139">Thus, God is perceived as the <a href="/Lahut" title="Lahut" class="mw-redirect">Lahut</a> [the divine] who manifests His Light in the Station (<a href="/Maqaam" title="Maqaam">Maqaam</a>) of the <a href="/Nasut" title="Nasut" class="mw-redirect">Nasut</a> [material realm] without the Nasut becoming Lahut.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thus, by giving them the freedom and choice of deed, God established His Divine Justice among His Creation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> This is like one's image in the mirror: one is in the mirror but does not become the mirror. <a name="citable__120" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="120">The Druze manuscripts are emphatic and warn against the belief that the Nasut is God....</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But this doesn't mean that the druze aspire to have their own country, as this is against their religion, since religion has nothing to do with politics "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's".</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__87" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="87">Neglecting this warning, individual seekers, scholars, and other spectators have considered al-Hakim and other figures divine.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="87"><a href="#citable__87"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Al-Hakim had skillfulness in the knowledge of poetry which no other man had in Egypt .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="87"><a href="#citable__87"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This collection of 111 letters includes some written by al-Hakim himself, and others by Hamzah and Ismail al-Tamimi (second in the cosmic hierarchy to Hamzah).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <br /> <a name="citable__22" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="22"><br /> ...In the Druze scriptural view, Tajalli 'takes a central stage.'</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Strangers are readily enough admitted to the khalwas; but as long as they are present the ordinary ceremonies are neglected, and the Qur'an takes the place of the Druze Scriptures.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even Druze are not permitted to read their scriptures until they take vows of initiation (Dana, 1980).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> One author comments that Tajalli occurs when the seeker's humanity is annihilated so that divine attributes and light are experienced by the person."<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_swayd_41_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-swayd-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup></div> </blockquote> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__35" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="35">The concept of God incarnating either as or in a human seems "to contradict with what the Druze scriptural view has to teach about the Oneness of God, while tajalli [sic] is at the center of the Druze and some other, often mystical, traditions."</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="35"><a href="#citable__35"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This system seems to now be changing in response to higher security, allowing Druze to be more open about their religious beliefs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Joshua Project - Druze of Syria Ethnic People Profile</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rog3=SY&rop3=102733">www.joshuaproject.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="35"><a href="#citable__35"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I began to notice that violence against women was often justified by citing the Koran or other teachings,” she said, trying to explain why her faith first began to waver.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="35"><a href="#citable__35"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>About 10 percent of population observes some form of Christianity, and about 3 percent are Druzes (see Glossary).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_swayd_41_3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-swayd-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Scriptures">Scriptures</span></h3> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Esotericism">Esotericism</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__167" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="167">The Druze believe that many teachings given by Prophets, religious leaders, and Holy Books, had esoteric meanings preserved for those of intellect, in which some teachings are mere symbols and <a href="/Allegory" title="Allegory">allegoristic</a> in nature and for that they divide the understanding of holy books and teachings into three layers.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="167"><a href="#citable__167"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is divided into three parts.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="167"><a href="#citable__167"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Because Druze religious leaders are not allowed to leave their homeland in the Middle East, Druze Arab Americans have never built a place of worship in the US. Many attend Christian churches instead, as Druze and Christians worship the same God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="167"><a href="#citable__167"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These responsibilities make us firmly believe in the indensibility of our American Druze Society for they can only be achieved by sincere cooperation through such a society .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> These layers according to the Druze are:</div> <a name="citable__38" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="38"><ul> <li>The obvious or <a href="/Exoteric" title="Exoteric">exoteric</a> <em>(<a href="/Zahir_(Islam)" title="Zahir (Islam)">Zahir</a>)</em>, accessible to anyone who can read or hear;</li> <li>The hidden or <a href="/Esoteric" title="Esoteric" class="mw-redirect">esoteric</a> <em>(<a href="/Batin_(Islam)" title="Batin (Islam)">Batin</a>)</em>, accessible to those who are willing to search and learn through the concept of <em>(<a href="/Exegesis" title="Exegesis">exegesis</a>)</em>; and</li> <li>The hidden of the hidden, a concept known as <a href="/Anagoge" title="Anagoge">Anagoge</a>, inaccessible to all but a few really enlightened individuals who truly understand the nature of the universe.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="38"><a href="#citable__38"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This is for all of you who are truly frightened by Alaskan Governor Sarah Palin: give it a rest.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/sec1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>The American Reporter Vol. 16, No. 3,852 - January 12, 2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.american-reporter.com/3,852/secnoframes1.html">www.american-reporter.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="38"><a href="#citable__38"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>His understanding of the collective mindsets (those who are continually at war with each other) brings a new dimension of reality to the Palestinian question, which has now become the ever-persistent Israeli obstacle.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Global Politician - Arab-Israeli Relations</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.globalpolitician.com/172-arab-israeli-relations">www.globalpolitician.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="38"><a href="#citable__38"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She was married to a professor of Islamic law who taught at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, the oldest and most renowned Sunni institution of learning in the world.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup></li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__50" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="50">Unlike some Islamic esoteric movements known as the <em><a href="/Batiniyya" title="Batiniyya">batinids</a></em> at that time, the Druzes don’t believe that the esoteric meaning abrogates or necessarily abolishes the exoteric one.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="50"><a href="#citable__50"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze Emigration and its Aftermath By Julie Makarem The true name of the Druzes is 'al-Muwahhidun' which means those who believe in the Unity of God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="50"><a href="#citable__50"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They are commonly referred to as "Druze" or "Druze", a name derived from el-Drzi, the name of one of the known propagandists of the Druze religion at its beginning.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Joshua Project - Druze of Syria Ethnic People Profile</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rog3=SY&rop3=102733">www.joshuaproject.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="50"><a href="#citable__50"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze hold the Quran to be sacred but looked on as an outer shell, holding "inner" esoteric meaning.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__221" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="221">For example, Hamza bin Ali, refutes such claims by stating that, if the esoteric interpretation of <a href="/Taharah" title="Taharah">Taharah</a> (purity), is the purity of the heart and soul, it doesn’t mean that a person can discard his physical purity, as <a href="/Salah" title="Salah">Salah</a> (prayer) is useless if a person is untruthful in his speech and for that the esoteric and exoteric meanings complement each other.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="221"><a href="#citable__221"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the beginning, Nashtakin al-Darazy confessed the Call and the leadership of Hamza Bin Ali, and signed the Covenant.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="221"><a href="#citable__221"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah gave this title to Hamza Bin Ali when he endorsed Hamza as the true leader of the Tawheed Call.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="221"><a href="#citable__221"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the same year that Al-Hakim came to be, that is, 985 A.D (375 Hijra), Hamza Bin Ali Bin Ahmad was born in the city of Zawzan, in Khorasan in Persia.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Precepts_of_the_Druze_faith">Precepts of the Druze faith</span></h3> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/Seven_pillars_of_Ismailism" title="Seven pillars of Ismailism">Seven pillars of Ismailism</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__192" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="192">The Druze follow seven precepts that are considered the core of the faith, and are perceived by them as the essence of the <a href="/Pillars_of_Islam" title="Pillars of Islam" class="mw-redirect">pillars of Islam</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="192"><a href="#citable__192"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Abdallah Najjar and the Religious Committee continued the follow up on the printing of the first English copy of "The Druze Faith" by Dr. Sami Makarem and "The Druzes" by Ambassador Najjar.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="192"><a href="#citable__192"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thus the Druze faith is considered by its believers as the apex of preaching by these Prophets.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The Seven Druze precepts are:</div> <a name="citable__173" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="173"><ol> <li>Veracity in speech and the truthfulness of the tongue.</li> <li>Protection and mutual aid to the brethren in faith.</li> <li>Renunciation of all forms of former worship <em>(specifically, invalid creeds)</em> and false belief.</li> <li>Repudiation of the devil <em>(<a href="/Iblis" title="Iblis" class="mw-redirect">Iblis</a>)</em>, and all forces of evil (translated from Arabic <em>Toghyan</em> meaning <em>"<a href="/Despotism" title="Despotism">despotism</a>"</em>).</li> <li>Confession of God's unity.</li> <li>Acquiescence in God's acts no matter what they be.</li> <li>Absolute submission and resignation to God's divine will in both secret and public.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="173"><a href="#citable__173"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Tawheed faith came to confirm the Absolute Oneness of God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="173"><a href="#citable__173"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze Emigration and its Aftermath By Julie Makarem The true name of the Druzes is 'al-Muwahhidun' which means those who believe in the Unity of God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="173"><a href="#citable__173"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A file is being prepared for the Home Secretary and all that remains now is for him to act.” The action will be applauded by forces families and moderate Muslims demanding that extremists are denied the oxygen of publicity.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup></li> </ol> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia__CB_A4Uqq_C4_81l_and_Juhh_C4_81l">ˤUqqāl and Juhhāl</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/3/8/4/62830582649269556.jpg" width="220" height="325" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Druze <a href="/Sheikh" title="Sheikh">Sheikh</a> (ˤUqqāl) wearing religious dress.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__64" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="64">The Druze are divided into two groups.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The military sorted the refugees into two groups: Druze and non-Druze, and expelled the latter across the cease-fire line.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Aqils themselves are also divided into 2 groups; about 10% are al-Ajawid, a term that means "The Good Ones (diminutive)".</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Haplogroup X is further divided into two subclades.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__119" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="119">The largely secular majority, called <em>al-Juhhāl</em> (جهال) ("the Ignorant") are not granted access to the Druze holy literature or allowed to attend the initiated <em>Uqqal'</em>s religious meetings.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This was attended by ADS members, their relatives, government officials, representatives of Druze social and religious institutions, and newspaper, radio, and T.V. reporters.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze have a considerable religious literature, much of which is known in Europe .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>From the first days of occupation, Israel initiated contacts with the local religious and traditional leadership through proxies in the Druze community in Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__51" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="51">They are around 80% of the Druze population and are not obliged to follow the ascetic traditions of the <em>Uqqal</em> .</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The following populations were used: 311 Druze from the current study.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many orthodox Druze hold that they should not follow these traditions, but should follow a different fasting tradition still practiced by religious figures instead.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Indeed, Druze tradition considers the population to have been constituted from many diverse source populations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__79" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="79">The initiated religious group, which includes both men and women (about 20% of the population), is called <em>al-ˤUqqāl</em> (عقال), ("the Knowledgeable Initiates").</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="79"><a href="#citable__79"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze are a close-knit religious group with an estimated population of 300,000 to 450,000.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="79"><a href="#citable__79"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is not fair to rank women beneath men; only knowledge and deeds distinguish the ranks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Canadian Druze Society of Ontario</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html">www.druze.ca</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> They have a special mode of dress designed to comply with Quranic traditions. <a name="citable__134" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="134">Women can opt to wear <em>al-mandīl</em>, a loose white <a href="/Veil" title="Veil">veil</a>, especially in the presence of other people.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze women who are 'uqqal can opt to wear al-mandil, a transparent loose white veil, especially in the presence of religious figures.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__250" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="250">They wear <em>al-mandīl</em> on their heads to cover their hair and wrap it around their mouths and sometimes over their noses as well.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="250"><a href="#citable__250"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They wear al-mandil on their head to cover their hair and wrap it around their mouth and sometimes over their nose as well.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="250"><a href="#citable__250"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Why then should it be covered from top to bottom, like muslim women who have to wear the vell from head to foot, at the orders of their men-folk.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="250"><a href="#citable__250"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They wear black shirts and long skirts covering their legs to their ankles.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__245" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="245">They wear black shirts and long skirts covering their legs to their ankles.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="245"><a href="#citable__245"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They wear black shirts and long skirts covering their legs to their ankles.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="245"><a href="#citable__245"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But as I can not guarantee when one may be posted, I can tell that uqqal (relegious)women wear long black or navy blue skirts and tops, or dresses and large snow white head covers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="245"><a href="#citable__245"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They wear al-mandil on their head to cover their hair and wrap it around their mouth and sometimes over their nose as well.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__29" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="29">Male <em>ˤuqqāl</em> grow mustaches, and wear dark Levantine/Turkish traditional dresses, called the <em>shirwal</em>, with white turbans that vary according to the <em>Uqqal'</em>s hierarchy.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="29"><a href="#citable__29"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Male Aqils grow moustaches, shave their heads, and wear dark clothing with white turbans.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="29"><a href="#citable__29"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Akils are distinguished by the wearing of a white turban.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="29"><a href="#citable__29"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But as I can not guarantee when one may be posted, I can tell that uqqal (relegious)women wear long black or navy blue skirts and tops, or dresses and large snow white head covers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__184" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="184"><em>Al-ˤuqqāl</em> have equal rights to <em>al-Juhhāl</em>, but establish a hierarchy of respect based on religious service.The most influential 5% of <em>Al-ˤuqqāl</em> become <em>Ajawīd</em>, recognized religious leaders, and from this group the spiritual leaders of the Druze are assigned.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="184"><a href="#citable__184"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They are the leaders of the spiritual life of the Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="184"><a href="#citable__184"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On several occasions we met with the late Sheik Tarif Amin, former world spiritual leader of the Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="184"><a href="#citable__184"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A peace treaty was then signed between the Druze and Maronite leaders which has enabled them to live peacefully together and later become allies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__48" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="48">While the <em><a href="/Shaykh" title="Shaykh" class="mw-redirect">Shaykh</a> al-ˤAql</em>, which is an official position in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, is elected by the local community and serves as the head of the Druze religious council, judges from the Druze religious courts are usually elected for this position.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"The Druzes live mainly in Lebanon, Syria, and Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Syria's Druze community.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even more painful for the Druze community was his publication of "falsified Druze religious texts" and false testimonials ascribed to leading Druze shaykhs designed to stir up sectarian hatred.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__110" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="110">Unlike the spiritual leaders, the <em><a href="/Shaykh" title="Shaykh" class="mw-redirect">Shaykh</a> al-ˤAql's</em> authority is local to the country he is elected in, though in some instances spiritual leaders are elected to this position.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Once Shishakli was deposed, all of the old leaders regained their commanding positions in local politics.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It lacked a recognized National Authority, but though local and narrow in its organization, it kept a lively exchange of dialogue, correspondence, and visitation among its several branches.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Of course, no application was approved on its merits or through a standard legal process, but rather through interventions from local leaders with the authorities.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__127" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="127">The Druze believe in the unity of God, and are often known as the "People of Monotheism" or simply "Monotheists". Their <a href="/Theology" title="Theology">theology</a> has a <a href="/Neo-Platonism" title="Neo-Platonism" class="mw-redirect">Neo-Platonic</a> view about how God interacts with the world through emanations and is similar to some <a href="/Gnosticism" title="Gnosticism">gnostic</a> and other <a href="/Esotericism" title="Esotericism">esoteric</a> sects.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="127"><a href="#citable__127"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>And the Druze have been through similar things.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="127"><a href="#citable__127"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze theology has a Neo-Platonic view about how God interacts with the world through emanations and is similar to some gnostic and other esoteric sects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="127"><a href="#citable__127"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze believe that the material world is an emanation from, and a "mirror" of, the Divine Intelligence.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__215" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="215">Druze philosophy also shows <a href="/Sufi" title="Sufi" class="mw-redirect">Sufi</a> influences.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="215"><a href="#citable__215"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some people would say that the Druze are not influenced by the Sufi philosophy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="215"><a href="#citable__215"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze as a Sufi community is closely attached to Islam, whereas the intellectual dogma is very close to Neoplatonic philosophy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__131" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="131">Druze principles focus on honesty, loyalty, <a href="/Filial_piety" title="Filial piety">filial piety</a>, <a href="/Altruism" title="Altruism">altruism</a>, patriotic sacrifice, and <a href="/Monotheism" title="Monotheism">monotheism</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="131"><a href="#citable__131"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The tenets of the Druze are only known to the initiates, but the practice emphasizes moral and social principles and loyalty the state ruling power.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__41" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="41">They reject <a href="/Tobacco_smoking" title="Tobacco smoking">tobacco smoking</a>, <a href="/Alcoholic_beverage" title="Alcoholic beverage">alcohol</a>, consumption of <a href="/Pork" title="Pork">pork</a> and marriage to non-Druze.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="41"><a href="#citable__41"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze reject tobacco smoking, alcohol, or consumption of pork, although pork and alcohol is consumed in many Jahil households.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="41"><a href="#citable__41"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This manipulation of family relations and reunification is compounded by the fact that the vast majority of the population belongs to the Druze sect of Islam, which forbids marriage with non-Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__195" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="195">Also, in contrast to most Islamic sects, the Druze reject <a href="/Polygamy" title="Polygamy">polygamy</a>, believe in <a href="/Reincarnation" title="Reincarnation">reincarnation</a>, and are not obliged to observe most of the religious rituals.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="195"><a href="#citable__195"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze believe in reincarnation and are pantheistic.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="195"><a href="#citable__195"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze in Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan are considered as an Islamic sect, and the Druze feel validated by that.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="195"><a href="#citable__195"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, the majority of Druze communities claim that the Druze is an Islamic sect.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__200" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="200">The Druze believe that rituals are symbolic and have an individualistic effect on the person, for which reason Druze are free to perform them or not.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="200"><a href="#citable__200"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As for the crucifixion of Jesus, the Druze believe that he was not crucified but another person who resembles him was crucified in his place.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__1" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="1">The community does celebrate <a href="/Eid_al-Adha" title="Eid al-Adha">Eid al-Adha</a>, however, considered their most significant holiday.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="1"><a href="#citable__1"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But the most significant, recent step to break down communal solidarity was the institutional separation of Majdal Shams from the rest of the villages.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="1"><a href="#citable__1"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although Druze are considered by the academic community to be an Arabic sect of Islam (Firro, 1992), albeit an unorthodox one, most Druze consider their roots to be Indian.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Origins_of_the_Druze_people">Origins of the Druze people</span></h2> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Ethnic_origins">Ethnic origins</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__187" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="187">The Druze faith extended to many areas in the Middle East and even reached Persia and India<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45"><span>[</span>46<span>]</span></a></sup>, but most of the surviving modern Druze can trace their origin to the <em>Wadi al-Taym</em> in <a href="/South_Lebanon" title="South Lebanon" class="mw-redirect">South Lebanon</a>, which is named after an Arab tribe <em>Taym-Allah (formerly Taym-Allat)</em> which, according to the greatest Persian historian, <a href="/Muhammad_ibn_Jarir_al-Tabari" title="Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari">al-Tabari</a>, first came from Arabia into the valley of the <a href="/Euphrates" title="Euphrates">Euphrates</a> where they were Christianized prior to their migration into the Lebanon.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="187"><a href="#citable__187"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Hermon / South Lebanon, many of whom had migrated to this area from Iraq and Persia in the 9th century (e.g.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="187"><a href="#citable__187"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After clashes with the Christian Maronites, supported by the French, and the Druze, encouraged by the British, in 1860-1, a French expeditionary force established the semi-autonomous district of Mount Lebanon under a Christian governor and many Druze emigrated to the Houran mountains in southern Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="187"><a href="#citable__187"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Yemenite Tanukh tribes from Hira on the Persian border who had been Nestorian Christians, but where then Islamicised after the Muslim conquests; according to native tradition there was an influx of Hira Arabs into South Lebanon, under Khalid ibn Walid in the 9th century, and this was the was the beginning of Druze distinctiveness and power; about the same time, or a little later, in the reign of Saladin, it is said that Hermon was colonized by a population of 15,000 Hira and Yemenite Arabs, who had sojourned awhile in Hauran) and who were familiar with the Gnostic ideas forming the background of Druze teaching.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__118" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="118">Many of the Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been preserved by the two modern Syrian chroniclers Haydar al-Shihabi and <a href="/Ahmad_Faris_Shidyaq" title="Ahmad Faris Shidyaq">al-Shidyaq</a> seem also to point in the direction of this origin.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The leading families of the Jabal saw themselves as guardians of the Druze way of life and communal traditions which was anchored in the quasi-feudal and tribal institutions, or mashyakha system, of the Jabal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many Druze living in the Golan Heights consider themselves Syrian and refuse Israeli citizenship, while the remainder consider themselves Israeli.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This hypothesis helps to answer many questions, such as those concerning the relationship between Moses and Jethro, and the origins of the Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__165" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="165">Arabian tribes emigrated via the <a href="/Persian_Gulf" title="Persian Gulf">Persian Gulf</a> and stopped in Iraq on the route that was later to lead them to Syria.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="165"><a href="#citable__165"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When Lebanon later turned against Syria, he helped lead the charge.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__102" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="102">The first feudal Druze family, the <a href="/Tanukh" title="Tanukh" class="mw-redirect">Tanukh</a> family, which made for itself a name in fighting the Crusaders, was, according to Haydar al-Shihabi, an Arab tribe from <a href="/Mesopotamia" title="Mesopotamia">Mesopotamia</a> where it occupied the position of a ruling family and was apparently Christianized.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The first period from the early Druze immigrants to 1946 where the community established and sustained itself.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The First Mihrajan of the Al-Bayan convention provided joy, happiness, and the feeling of family togetherness.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The name Druze is met with first in the narrative of the travels of the Jew Benjamin of Tudela (c.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__227" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="227">The Tanukhs must have left <a href="/Arabia" title="Arabia" class="mw-redirect">Arabia</a> as early as the second or third century A.D. The <a href="/Ma%E2%80%98an" title="Ma‘an" class="mw-redirect">Ma‘an</a> tribe, which superseded the Tanukhs and produced the greatest Druze hero in history, <a href="/Fakhreddin_II" title="Fakhreddin II" class="mw-redirect">Fakhr-al-Din</a>, had the same traditional origin.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="227"><a href="#citable__227"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>One of the Druze holy books is called the Kitab ul-Hikma or "Book of Wisdom", largely compiled by Baha ud-Din al-Muqtana.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="227"><a href="#citable__227"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Baha ud-Din al-Muqtana edited pastoral letters laying down the laws of Druze orthodoxy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="227"><a href="#citable__227"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Another important event which started in 1981 was the beginning of research to document the early history of the American Druze Society by Henry Flehan and Ajaj Andary 1982.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__234" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="234">The <em>Talhuq</em> family and <em>‘Abd-al-Malik</em>, who supplied the later Druze leadership, have the same record as the Tanukhs.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="234"><a href="#citable__234"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze Emigration and its Aftermath By Julie Makarem The true name of the Druzes is 'al-Muwahhidun' which means those who believe in the Unity of God.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="234"><a href="#citable__234"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It forms the Scriptures of the Druze, who call them Rasail al-Hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="234"><a href="#citable__234"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze women who are 'uqqal can opt to wear al-mandil, a transparent loose white veil, especially in the presence of religious figures.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__76" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="76">The <em>Imad family</em> is named for <em>al-Imadiyyah</em>, near <a href="/Mosul" title="Mosul">Mosul</a> in northern <a href="/Iraq" title="Iraq">Iraq</a>, and, like the <a href="/Jumblatt" title="Jumblatt" class="mw-redirect">Jumblatts</a>, is thought to be of <a href="/Kurds" title="Kurds" class="mw-redirect">Kurdish</a> origin.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="76"><a href="#citable__76"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is from such ancient times that Indian Kshtriya royal families, like the Pahalvis and Barmaks, have held sway over Iran and Iraq.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__164" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="164">The <a href="/Arsalan" title="Arsalan" class="mw-redirect">Arsalan</a> family claims descent from the <a href="/Hirah" title="Hirah" class="mw-redirect">Hirah</a> Arab kings, but the name <em>Arsalan</em> (Persian and Turkish for lion) suggests Persian influence if not origin.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="164"><a href="#citable__164"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He himself claimed descent from the House of the Prophet Muhammad; and it was believed by the different Shi'i parties that the members of this family are qualified to continue the message of their ancestor, the Prophet Muhammad.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="164"><a href="#citable__164"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sure, I have heard stories about people who claimed to be reincarnated and even knew their previous family members by name...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="164"><a href="#citable__164"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Iran may observe the most militant from of Islam, but when the question of their enthnic origin arises, the Iranians proudly claim their Aryan descent.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Hitti_28_9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hitti-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__83" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="83">The most accepted theory is that the Druzes are a mixture of stocks in which the Arab largely predominates while being grafted onto an original mountain population of Aramaic blood.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Alternative hypotheses could be non-random sampling effects during the original establishment of the Druze population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The absence of a recent demographic bottleneck or population founder effect for the Druze population is consistent with their oral tradition of heterogeneous ancestral origins, and also is consistent with the pattern of Mendelian genetic disease in the population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>First consider the hypothesis that the current population genetic structure is the result of a random or non-random migration process contributing to original members of the Druze religion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__53" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="53">Nevertheless, many scholars formed their own hypotheses: for example, <a href="/Lamartine" title="Lamartine" class="mw-redirect">Lamartine</a> (1835) discovered in the modern Druzes the remnants of the <a href="/Samaritans" title="Samaritans" class="mw-redirect">Samaritans</a><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47"><span>[</span>48<span>]</span></a></sup>; <a href="/Henry_Herbert,_3rd_Earl_of_Carnarvon" title="Henry Herbert, 3rd Earl of Carnarvon">Earl of Carnarvon</a> (1860), those of the <a href="/Cuthites" title="Cuthites">Cuthites</a> whom <a href="/Esarhaddon" title="Esarhaddon">Esarhaddon</a> transplanted into <a href="/Palestine" title="Palestine">Palestine</a><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup>; Professor <a href="/Felix_von_Luschan" title="Felix von Luschan">Felix von Luschan</a> (1911), according to his conclusions from <a href="/Anthropometric" title="Anthropometric" class="mw-redirect">anthropometric</a> measurements, makes the Druze, <a href="/Maronites" title="Maronites" class="mw-redirect">Maronites</a>, and <a href="/Alawites" title="Alawites" class="mw-redirect">Alawites</a> of Syria, together with the <a href="/Armenians" title="Armenians">Armenians</a>, <a href="/Bektashis" title="Bektashis" class="mw-redirect">Bektashis</a>, ‘<a href="/Ahl-e_Haqq" title="Ahl-e Haqq">Ali-Ilahis</a>, and <a href="/Yezidis" title="Yezidis" class="mw-redirect">Yezidis</a> of <a href="/Asia_Minor" title="Asia Minor" class="mw-redirect">Asia Minor</a> and Persia, the modern representatives of the ancient <a href="/Hittites" title="Hittites">Hittites</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After clashes with the Christian Maronites, supported by the French, and the Druze, encouraged by the British, in 1860-1, a French expeditionary force established the semi-autonomous district of Mount Lebanon under a Christian governor and many Druze emigrated to the Houran mountains in southern Syria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Adherents.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_259.html">www.adherents.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A peace treaty was then signed between the Druze and Maronite leaders which has enabled them to live peacefully together and later become allies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In contrast to the Druzes, the Alawites of Syria's western mountains had little political clout during the early independence era.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__213" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="213">During the 18th century, there were two branches of Druze living in Lebanon: the Yemeni Druze, headed by the <a href="/Hamdan" title="Hamdan">Hamdan</a> and <a href="/Al-Atrash" title="Al-Atrash">Al-Atrash</a> families; and the Kaysi Druze, headed by the <a href="/Jumblat" title="Jumblat" class="mw-redirect">Jumblat</a> and <a href="/Arsalan" title="Arsalan" class="mw-redirect">Arsalan</a> families.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="213"><a href="#citable__213"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze have lived in parts of northern Israel since the 16th century, and with the establishment of the State in 1948, joined their destiny with the people of Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Joshua Project - Druze of Syria Ethnic People Profile</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rog3=SY&rop3=102733">www.joshuaproject.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="213"><a href="#citable__213"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In Daliyat Al-Karmel ( Israel), there is a memorial to 355 Druze killed while fighting for Israel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="213"><a href="#citable__213"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>So, the druze in Israel have been there since centuries and would never leave their land, the same applies to the druze in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel">www.pbase.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__52" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="52">The <a href="/Al-Hamdan" title="Al-Hamdan">Hamdan</a> family was banished from <a href="/Mount_Lebanon" title="Mount Lebanon">Mount Lebanon</a> following the <a href="/Battle_of_Ain_Dara" title="Battle of Ain Dara" class="mw-redirect">battle of Ain Dara</a> in 1711. This battle was fought between two Druze factions: the Yemeni and the Kaysi.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Haidar Shihab, third of the line, inflicted a notable defeat on the pasha of Saida and the Yemenite Druze at Ain Dara, near Zahleh, in 1711, and proceeded to consolidate Shihab power, breaking up the old feudal society.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I have no idea how much of the Jumblatt family land was redistributed to poor Druze in Lebanon, if any, in fact, had been redistributed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A tiny fraction of Lebanon's Druze follow Hezbollah supporter Talal Arslan instead of Jumblatt.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__126" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="126">Following their dramatic defeat, the Yemeni faction migrated to Syria in the <a href="/Jebel-Druze" title="Jebel-Druze" class="mw-redirect">Jebel-Druze</a> region and its capital, <a href="/Soueida" title="Soueida" class="mw-redirect">Soueida</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze community suffered a dramatic decline in its economic and political position in Syria as a result of its opposition to Shishakli.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For example, when Adeeb al-Shishakli took over the government and began persecuting Syrias Druze, the region joined with the Druze in the Hawran area to mount a resistance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>AMEU Printer Friendly version of 'The Syrian Community on the Golan Heights'</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ameu.org/printer.asp?iid=61&aid=94">ameu.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Of interest, even within the Druze, analysis of maternal migration rates revealed, low migration values for Galilee Druze with other Druze regions, with the exception of Lebanon ( Figure S2 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__75" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="75">However, it has been argued that these two factions were of political nature rather than ethnic, and had both Christian and Druze supporters.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Hinnawi called for the return to power of Syria's traditional politicians, and for the quick unification of Syria and Iraq, both policies the Druzes supported.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Druze sheikhs prefer to consider their Dogma a sect or a Sufi conduct rather than a religion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If Hezbollah had won that election, two countries in the Middle East rather than one would be pursuing Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's foreign policy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Genetics">Genetics</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__77" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="77">In a 2005 study of <a href="/ASPM_(Gene)" title="ASPM (Gene)">ASPM gene variants</a>, Mekel-Bobrov et al.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Haplogroup X Frequency and Genetic Diversity in Druze samples of the Current Study, Compared with Macaulay et al [7] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> found that the <a name="citable__152" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="152"><a href="/Israelis" title="Israelis">Israeli</a> Druze people of the <a href="/Mount_Carmel" title="Mount Carmel">Carmel region</a> have among the highest rate of the newly-evolved ASPM <a href="/Haplogroup_D" title="Haplogroup D">haplogroup D</a>, at 52.2% occurrence of the approximately 6,000-year-old allele.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="152"><a href="#citable__152"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As a formulated creed, the Druze system is almost 1,000 years old.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="152"><a href="#citable__152"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The finding of the enrichment of the NRY haplogroup K among the Galilee Druze with no detection in samples from other subregions, further supports the relative isolation of this region, even among the Druze.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="152"><a href="#citable__152"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Using a hypergeometric test [22] significant enrichment of haplogroup X was localized in the Galilee region of the Israeli Druze population ( Figure 1b ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__69" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="69">While it is not yet known exactly what selective advantage is provided by this gene variant, the haplogroup D allele is thought to be positively selected in populations and to confer some substantial advantage that has caused its frequency to rapidly increase.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="69"><a href="#citable__69"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In so doing, we uncovered an unexpectedly high diversity of Druze X-haplogroup lineages, which together with its high frequency suggest that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East, at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="69"><a href="#citable__69"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our findings of high diversity and high frequency of X haplogroup concentrated among the Galilee Druze provides new insights regarding both sampling methodologies in population genetics, and the understanding of the effects of sociological patterns on the population genetic landscape of the Near East.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="69"><a href="#citable__69"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>No population or geographic region has been identified to date, in which haplogroup X and its major subhaplogroups are found at both high frequency and high diversity, which could provide a potential clue as to their geographic origin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__140" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="140">According to <a href="/DNA" title="DNA">DNA</a> testing, Druze are remarkable for the high frequency (35%) of males who carry the <a href="/Y-chromosome" title="Y-chromosome" class="mw-redirect">Y-chromosomal</a> <a href="/Haplogroup_L_(Y-DNA)" title="Haplogroup L (Y-DNA)">haplogroup L</a>, which is otherwise uncommon in the Mideast (Shen et al.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Macaulay et al [7] also found a high frequency of the X haplogroup (26%, 12/45 samples) in the Druze, but with a significantly lower diversity (p <0.00005) for both X1 and X2, (p value was calculated using t-test combined with bootstrap standard error analysis according to Nei 16 ) , and proposed a bottleneck or founder effect.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In so doing, we uncovered an unexpectedly high diversity of Druze X-haplogroup lineages, which together with its high frequency suggest that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East, at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Previous studies described a high frequency with a low diversity of both the X1 and X2 subhaplogroups in the Druze population [4] , [7] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> 2004).<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51"><span>[</span>52<span>]</span></a></sup> This haplogroup originates from prehistoric <a href="/South_Asia" title="South Asia">South Asia</a>.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__70" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="70">Cruciani in 2007 found E1b1b1a2 (E-V13) [one from Sub Clades of E1b1b1a1 (E-V12)] in high levels (>10% of the male population) in Turkish Cypriot and Druze Arab lineages.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="70"><a href="#citable__70"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In so doing, we uncovered an unexpectedly high diversity of Druze X-haplogroup lineages, which together with its high frequency suggest that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East, at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="70"><a href="#citable__70"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Previous studies described a high frequency with a low diversity of both the X1 and X2 subhaplogroups in the Druze population [4] , [7] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="70"><a href="#citable__70"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The refugium hypothesis based on mtDNA haplogroup X analysis was corroborated by the finding of high diversity for the Druze mtDNA haplogroups H and K, with the added finding of novel lineages not shared with nearby populations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__96" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="96">Also, a new study concluded that the Druze harbor a remarkable diversity of <a href="/Human_mitochondrial_DNA_(mtDNA)_haplogroup" title="Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup" class="mw-redirect">mitochondrial DNA</a> lineages that appear to have separated from each other thousands of years ago.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They went their separate ways five years ago.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Previous studies described a high frequency with a low diversity of both the X1 and X2 subhaplogroups in the Druze population [4] , [7] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The refugium hypothesis based on mtDNA haplogroup X analysis was corroborated by the finding of high diversity for the Druze mtDNA haplogroups H and K, with the added finding of novel lineages not shared with nearby populations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__103" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="103">But instead of dispersing throughout the world after their separation, the full range of lineages can still be found within the Druze population.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many orthodox Druze hold that they should not follow these traditions, but should follow a different fasting tradition still practiced by religious figures instead.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The refugium hypothesis based on mtDNA haplogroup X analysis was corroborated by the finding of high diversity for the Druze mtDNA haplogroups H and K, with the added finding of novel lineages not shared with nearby populations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He stationed large numbers of troops in the Jabal, removed Druze officers from the upper echelons of the army, and brought the full force of Syrian law to bear on the Jabal population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_dna_52_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-dna-52"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__209" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="209">The researchers noted that the Druze villages contained a striking range of high frequency and high diversity of the <a href="/Haplogroup_X_(mtDNA)" title="Haplogroup X (mtDNA)">X haplogroup</a>, suggesting that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the <a href="/Near_East" title="Near East">Near East</a> at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="209"><a href="#citable__209"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A very high global genetic diversity has been reported for haplogroup X [4] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="209"><a href="#citable__209"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A clear expectation for a population refugium as suggested by the Druze mtDNA haplogroup X analysis is the finding of high diversity also among other haplogroups that were more prevalent in the past and which have survived in the population refugium.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="209"><a href="#citable__209"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In so doing, we uncovered an unexpectedly high diversity of Druze X-haplogroup lineages, which together with its high frequency suggest that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East, at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_dna_52_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-dna-52"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__232" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="232">These findings are consistent with the Druze <a href="/Oral_tradition" title="Oral tradition">oral tradition</a>, that claims that the adherents of the faith came from diverse ancestral lineages stretching back tens of thousands of years.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="232"><a href="#citable__232"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze claim to be these lost tribes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="232"><a href="#citable__232"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Egyptian shared ancestry is also consistent with Druze oral tradition.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="232"><a href="#citable__232"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These explanations contradict Druze oral traditions, which claim that while the religion was revealed at the time of the “Dawa” (1017 A.C.E.), its adherents came from heterogeneous ancestral origins dating back further in antiquity.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_dna_52_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-dna-52"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_See_also">See also</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="/List_of_Druze" title="List of Druze">List of Druze</a></li> <li><a href="/Neoplatonism_and_Gnosticism" title="Neoplatonism and Gnosticism">Neoplatonism and Gnosticism</a></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Notes">Notes</span></h2> <div class="references-small references-column-count references-column-count-2" style="-moz-column-count:2; column-count:2;"> <ol class="references"> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_book_0">^ <a href="#cite_ref-book_0-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-book_0-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <span class="citation book">Danna, Nissim (December 2003). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=2nCWIsyZJxUC&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99&dq=druze+population+lebanon&source=web&ots=XpkTcA-TUj&sig=0K6Vh-8YA-A6_CUCH619FPd5EJw#v=onepage&q=druze%20population%20lebanon&f=false" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status</em></a>. <a href="/Brighton" title="Brighton">Brighton</a>: Sussex Academic Press. pp. 227. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 978-1903900369<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=2nCWIsyZJxUC&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99&dq=druze+population+lebanon&source=web&ots=XpkTcA-TUj&sig=0K6Vh-8YA-A6_CUCH619FPd5EJw#v=onepage&q=druze%20population%20lebanon&f=false" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=2nCWIsyZJxUC&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99&dq=druze+population+lebanon&source=web&ots=XpkTcA-TUj&sig=0K6Vh-8YA-A6_CUCH619FPd5EJw#v=onepage&q=druze%20population%20lebanon&f=false</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Druze+in+the+Middle+East%3A+Their+Faith%2C+Leadership%2C+Identity+and+Status&rft.aulast=Danna&rft.aufirst=Nissim&rft.au=Danna%2C%26%2332%3BNissim&rft.date=December+2003&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B227&rft.place=%5B%5BBrighton%5D%5D&rft.pub=Sussex+Academic+Press&rft.isbn=978-1903900369&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D2nCWIsyZJxUC%26pg%3DPA99%26lpg%3DPA99%26dq%3Ddruze%2Bpopulation%2Blebanon%26source%3Dweb%26ots%3DXpkTcA-TUj%26sig%3D0K6Vh-8YA-A6_CUCH619FPd5EJw%23v%3Donepage%26q%3Ddruze%2520population%2520lebanon%26f%3Dfalse&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_freedom_1"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-freedom_1-0">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2008/108487.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Lebanon - International Religious Freedom Report 2008</a> U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2009-09-04.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_cbs_gov_il_2">^ <a href="#cite_ref-cbs.gov.il_2-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-cbs.gov.il_2-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.cbs.gov.il/www/hodaot2009n/11_09_077b.doc" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Press Release: The Druze Population of Israel"</a> (DOC). <a href="/Israel_Central_Bureau_of_Statistics" title="Israel Central Bureau of Statistics">Israel Central Bureau of Statistics</a>. 2009-04-23<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.cbs.gov.il/www/hodaot2009n/11_09_077b.doc" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.cbs.gov.il/www/hodaot2009n/11_09_077b.doc</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Press+Release%3A+The+Druze+Population+of+Israel&rft.atitle=&rft.date=2009-04-23&rft.pub=%5B%5BIsrael+Central+Bureau+of+Statistics%5D%5D&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cbs.gov.il%2Fwww%2Fhodaot2009n%2F11_09_077b.doc&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span> <span class="languageicon" style="font-size:0.95em; font-weight:bold; color:#555;">(Hebrew)</span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_3"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></strong> <a href="/US_State_Department" title="US State Department" class="mw-redirect">US State Department</a> <a href="http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51602.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">International Religious Freedom Report 2005</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_4"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></strong> Institute of Druze Studies - <a href="http://www.druzestudies.org/druzes.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze Traditions</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_5"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.ismaili.net/heritage/node/10766" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.ismaili.net/heritage/node/10766</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_samy_6">^ <a href="#cite_ref-samy_6-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-samy_6-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-samy_6-2"><sup><em><strong>c</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-samy_6-3"><sup><em><strong>d</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-samy_6-4"><sup><em><strong>e</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-samy_6-5"><sup><em><strong>f</strong></em></sup></a> <span class="citation book">Swayd, Samy (1998). <em>The Druzes: An Annotated Bibliography</em>. Kirkland, WA, USA: ISES Publications. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0966293207.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Druzes%3A+An+Annotated+Bibliography&rft.aulast=Swayd&rft.aufirst=Samy&rft.au=Swayd%2C%26%2332%3BSamy&rft.date=1998&rft.place=Kirkland%2C+WA%2C+USA&rft.pub=ISES+Publications&rft.isbn=0966293207&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_7"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">israwi, Najib (in Arabic). <em>Al-Maðhab at-Tawḥīdī ad-Durzī</em>. Brazil. pp. 66.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Al-Ma%C3%B0hab+at-Taw%E1%B8%A5%C4%ABd%C4%AB+ad-Durz%C4%AB&rft.aulast=israwi&rft.aufirst=Najib&rft.au=israwi%2C%26%2332%3BNajib&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B66&rft.place=Brazil&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_8"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></strong> <a href="http://lexicorient.com/e.o/druze.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_9"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www1.cbs.gov.il/shnaton57/st02_07x.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Localities and Population, by District, Sub-District, Religion and Population Group"</a> (PDF). <em>Statistical Abstract of Palestine 2006</em>. Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www1.cbs.gov.il/shnaton57/st02_07x.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www1.cbs.gov.il/shnaton57/st02_07x.pdf</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Localities+and+Population%2C+by+District%2C+Sub-District%2C+Religion+and+Population+Group&rft.atitle=Statistical+Abstract+of+Palestine+2006&rft.pub=Palestine+Central+Bureau+of+Statistics&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.cbs.gov.il%2Fshnaton57%2Fst02_07x.pdf&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_10"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.druzestudies.org/druzes.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Institute of Druze Studies: Druzes</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_11"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Dana, Nissim (2003). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=2nCWIsyZJxUC&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99&dq=druze+population+lebanon&source=web&ots=XpkTcA-TUj&sig=0K6Vh-8YA-A6_CUCH619FPd5EJw" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status</em></a>. Sussex University Press. pp. 99. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 1903900360<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=2nCWIsyZJxUC&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99&dq=druze+population+lebanon&source=web&ots=XpkTcA-TUj&sig=0K6Vh-8YA-A6_CUCH619FPd5EJw" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=2nCWIsyZJxUC&pg=PA99&lpg=PA99&dq=druze+population+lebanon&source=web&ots=XpkTcA-TUj&sig=0K6Vh-8YA-A6_CUCH619FPd5EJw</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Druze+in+the+Middle+East%3A+Their+Faith%2C+Leadership%2C+Identity+and+Status&rft.aulast=Dana&rft.aufirst=Nissim&rft.au=Dana%2C%26%2332%3BNissim&rft.date=2003&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B99&rft.pub=Sussex+University+Press&rft.isbn=1903900360&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D2nCWIsyZJxUC%26pg%3DPA99%26lpg%3DPA99%26dq%3Ddruze%2Bpopulation%2Blebanon%26source%3Dweb%26ots%3DXpkTcA-TUj%26sig%3D0K6Vh-8YA-A6_CUCH619FPd5EJw&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_12"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></strong> Rabah Halabi, <em>Citizens of equal duties—Druze identity and the Jewish State</em>, p. 55 <span class="languageicon" style="font-size:0.95em; font-weight:bold; color:#555;">(Hebrew)</span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_13"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3612002.stm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Druze set to visit Syria"</a>. BBC News Online. 2004-8-30<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3612002.stm" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3612002.stm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2006-09-08</span>. "Around 80,000 Druze live in Israel, including 18,000 in the Golan Heights which were captured from Syria in 1967."</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Druze+set+to+visit+Syria&rft.atitle=&rft.date=2004-8-30&rft.pub=BBC+News+Online&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.bbc.co.uk%2F1%2Fhi%2Fworld%2Fmiddle_east%2F3612002.stm&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_about_14">^ <a href="#cite_ref-about_14-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-about_14-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-about_14-2"><sup><em><strong>c</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-about_14-3"><sup><em><strong>d</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-about_14-4"><sup><em><strong>e</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-about_14-5"><sup><em><strong>f</strong></em></sup></a> "<a href="http://www.druze.ca/AboutDruze.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">About the Faith of The Mo’wa’he’doon Druze</a>" by Moustafa F. Moukarim</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_15"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></strong> <a href="http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/DRO_ECG/DRUSES_or_DRUZES_Arab_Druz_.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">1911 <em>Encyclopedia Britannica</em>, page 606</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_najjar_16">^ <a href="#cite_ref-najjar_16-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-najjar_16-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <span class="citation book">Al-Najjar, ‘Abdullāh (1965) (in Arabic). <em>Madhhab ad-Durūz wa t-Tawḥīd (The Druze Sect and Unism)</em>. Egypt: Dār al-Ma‘ārif.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Madhhab+ad-Dur%C5%ABz+wa+t-Taw%E1%B8%A5%C4%ABd+%28The+Druze+Sect+and+Unism%29&rft.aulast=Al-Najjar&rft.aufirst=%E2%80%98Abdull%C4%81h&rft.au=Al-Najjar%2C%26%2332%3B%E2%80%98Abdull%C4%81h&rft.date=1965&rft.place=Egypt&rft.pub=D%C4%81r+al-Ma%E2%80%98%C4%81rif&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_17"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Hitti, Philip K (2007) [1924]. <em>Origins of the Druze People and Religion, with Extracts from their Sacred Writings (New Edition)</em>. Columbia University Oriental Studies. <strong>28</strong>. London: <a href="/Saqi_Books" title="Saqi Books">Saqi</a>. pp. 13–14. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0863566901.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Origins+of+the+Druze+People+and+Religion%2C+with+Extracts+from+their+Sacred+Writings+%28New+Edition%29&rft.aulast=Hitti&rft.aufirst=Philip+K&rft.au=Hitti%2C%26%2332%3BPhilip+K&rft.date=2007&rft.series=Columbia+University+Oriental+Studies&rft.volume=28&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B13%E2%80%9314&rft.place=London&rft.pub=%5B%5BSaqi+Books%7CSaqi%5D%5D&rft.isbn=0863566901&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_18"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.druze.com/education/DruzeLuminariesAlHakim-English-level3.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.druze.com/education/DruzeLuminariesAlHakim-English-level3.pdf</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_19"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></strong> <a href="http://ismaili.net/drupal5/node/10766" class="external text" rel="nofollow">01. Islam | Ismaili.NET - Heritage F.I.E.L.D</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_20"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></strong> <em><a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=lZXTFCN93kkC&pg=PA156&dq=druze+hakim+John+Esposito&ei=bBaDSL-ZAozaigHaxdG8DQ&sig=ACfU3U1jUwRJDGMsL3BIUbiX5DzfmMcawg#PPA156,M1" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Melville's Clarel and the Intersympathy of Creeds</a></em> by William Potter page 156</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_21"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></strong> <em><a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=keD9z1XWuNwC&pg=PA98&dq=Mordechai+Nisan++druze&ei=IJ5uSLuLMZOkiwHp99SCBg&sig=ACfU3U2QHNki1phQdaWTIOKngGyVPLnTbw#PPA100,M1" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-expression</a></em> by Mordechai Nisan page 95</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_22"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></strong> <em><a href="http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=2nCWIsyZJxUC&dq=druze+Nissim+Dana&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=XqdY8x2TYr&sig=yMfzBjScKqQX7oxYfAkLMx9qyc0&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA3,M1" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status</a></em>, Nissim Dana</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_23"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></strong> <em><a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=H-k9oc9xsuAC&pg=PA217&dq=The+Druzes:+A+New+Study+of+Their+History,+Faith+and+Society+Al-Hakim&ei=bNeFSOnMGZzwigGj_ejbBQ&sig=ACfU3U3BPEoV7YZP4FEgBiqD7Xflt_gLZg#PPA217,M1" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia</a></em> by Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach.published by Routledge (2006), ISBN 0415966906</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_24"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></strong> <em><a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=kY0oedX32BwC&pg=PA128&dq=Hamza+bin+Ali+druze&ei=hxV-SLTaB4KijgHJvKXtDw&sig=ACfU3U3Joonyh4sX6X3A6xx9ngHmddJ59w#PPA127,M1" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The Olive and the Tree: The Secret Strength of the Druze</a></em> by Dr Ruth Westheimer and Gil Sedan</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Dix_25"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-Dix_25-0">^</a></strong> <span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFSwayd2006">Swayd, Sami (2006), <em>Historical dictionary of the Druzes</em>, Historical dictionaries of peoples and cultures, <strong>3</strong>, Maryland USA: Scarecrow Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0810853329</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Historical+dictionary+of+the+Druzes&rft.aulast=Swayd&rft.aufirst=Sami&rft.au=Swayd%2C%26%2332%3BSami&rft.date=2006&rft.series=Historical+dictionaries+of+peoples+and+cultures&rft.volume=3&rft.place=Maryland+USA&rft.pub=Scarecrow+Press&rft.isbn=0810853329&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_26"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></strong> <em><a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=rezD7rvuf9YC&pg=PA921&vq=druze&dq=druze+god+hakim&lr=&source=gbs_search_r&cad=1_1&sig=ACfU3U2oOT-YmEy4ZP0xOseugnG-PP-HQg#PPA921,M1" class="external text" rel="nofollow">M. Th. Houtsma, E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936</a></em></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_27"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.druzeheritage.org/dhf/Druze_History.asp" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.druzeheritage.org/dhf/Druze_History.asp</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Hitti_28">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-2"><sup><em><strong>c</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-3"><sup><em><strong>d</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-4"><sup><em><strong>e</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-5"><sup><em><strong>f</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-6"><sup><em><strong>g</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-7"><sup><em><strong>h</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-8"><sup><em><strong>i</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hitti_28-9"><sup><em><strong>j</strong></em></sup></a> <em>Origins of the Druze People and Religion, by Philip K. Hitti</em>, 1924</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_29"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.druzeheritage.org/dhf/Druze_History.asp" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze History</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_30"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></strong> Antoine Abraham, "Lebanese Communal Relations", <em>Muslim World</em> 1977 67(2): 91-105</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_31"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></strong> <em>The Druzes and the Maronites under the Turkish Rule from 1840 to 1860</em>, Charles Churchill published in 1862</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_32"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></strong> "<a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Shishakli and the Druzes: Integration and Intransigence</a>"</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_33"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.meib.org/articles/0305_ld.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Dossier: Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir (May 2003)</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_34"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></strong> <em>Identity Repertoires among Arabs in Israel</em>, Muhammad Amara and Izhak Schnell; <em>Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies</em>, Vol. 30, 2004</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_35"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web">Scott Wilson (2006-10-30). <a href="http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/29/AR2006102900926.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Golan Heights Land, Lifestyle Lure Settlers"</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/29/AR2006102900926.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/29/AR2006102900926.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-06-05</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Golan+Heights+Land%2C+Lifestyle+Lure+Settlers&rft.atitle=&rft.aulast=Scott+Wilson&rft.au=Scott+Wilson&rft.date=2006-10-30&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.washingtonpost.com%2Fwp-dyn%2Fcontent%2Farticle%2F2006%2F10%2F29%2FAR2006102900926.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_36"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></strong> <span class="citation news">Firro, Kais (2006-08-15). <a href="http://www.israelnn.com/news.php3?id=110102" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Druze Herev Battalion Fights 32 Days With No Casualties"</a>. Israel National News<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.israelnn.com/news.php3?id=110102" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.israelnn.com/news.php3?id=110102</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Druze+Herev+Battalion+Fights+32+Days+With+No+Casualties&rft.atitle=&rft.aulast=Firro&rft.aufirst=Kais&rft.au=Firro%2C%26%2332%3BKais&rft.date=2006-08-15&rft.pub=Israel+National+News&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.israelnn.com%2Fnews.php3%3Fid%3D110102&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_37"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/05/obituaries/sheik-amin-tarif-arab-druse-leader-in-israel-dies-at-95.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/05/obituaries/sheik-amin-tarif-arab-druse-leader-in-israel-dies-at-95.html</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Institute_of_Noahide_Code_38">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Institute_of_Noahide_Code_38-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Institute_of_Noahide_Code_38-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Institute_of_Noahide_Code_38-2"><sup><em><strong>c</strong></em></sup></a> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.noahide.org/article.asp?Level=128&Parent=342" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Islam Religious Leader Commits to Noahide "Seven Laws of Noah""</a>. Institute of Noahide Code<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.noahide.org/article.asp?Level=128&Parent=342" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.noahide.org/article.asp?Level=128&Parent=342</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-07-15</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Islam+Religious+Leader+Commits+to+Noahide+%22Seven+Laws+of+Noah%22&rft.atitle=&rft.pub=Institute+of+Noahide+Code&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.noahide.org%2Farticle.asp%3FLevel%3D128%26Parent%3D342&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_39"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1060848.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Elections 2009 / Druze likely to comprise 5% of next Knesset, despite small population</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_40"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-40">^</a></strong> <em>The Druze Faith</em> by Sami Nasib Makarem</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_swayd_41">^ <a href="#cite_ref-swayd_41-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-swayd_41-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-swayd_41-2"><sup><em><strong>c</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-swayd_41-3"><sup><em><strong>d</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="http://www.eial.org/mesp/Swayd.rtf.rtf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze Spirituality and Asceticism By Dr. Samy Swayd, SDSU (An abridged rough draft)</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_42"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3694809" class="external text" rel="nofollow">BBC - h2g2 - The Druze</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_43"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-43">^</a></strong> "The Epistle Answering the People of Esotericism" <em>(batinids)</em>, <em>Epistles of Wisdom</em>, Second Volume (a rough translation from the Arabic version)</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_44"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></strong> Origins of the Druze People and Religion, by Philip K. Hitti, published in 1924, page 51.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_45"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></strong> "The Epistle of India", addressed to the son of the Unitarian leader in India Sumar Rajbal, <em>Epistles of Wisdom</em>, Fourth Volume</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_46"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-46">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/DRO_ECG/DRUSES_or_DRUZES_Arab_Druz_.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"1911 <em>Encyclopedia Britannica</em>, DRUSES, or DRUZES (Arab. Druz)"</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/DRO_ECG/DRUSES_or_DRUZES_Arab_Druz_.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/DRO_ECG/DRUSES_or_DRUZES_Arab_Druz_.html</a></span>. "There is good reason to regard the Druses as, racially, a mixture of refugee stocks, in which the Arab largely predominates, grafted on to an original mountain population of Aramaic blood."</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=1911+%27%27Encyclopedia+Britannica%27%27%2C+DRUSES%2C+or+DRUZES+%28Arab.+Druz%29&rft.atitle=&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fencyclopedia.jrank.org%2FDRO_ECG%2FDRUSES_or_DRUZES_Arab_Druz_.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Druze"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_47"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></strong> <em>Voyage</em>, by Lamartine, II, page 109.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_48"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-48">^</a></strong> <em>Recollections of the Druses of Lebanon</em> (London, 1860), pp. 42-43.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_49"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></strong> <em>Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute</em> (London, 1911), page 241.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_50"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-50">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/309/5741/1720" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Ongoing Adaptive Evolution of ASPM, a Brain Size Determinant in Homo sapiens"</a>, <em><a href="/Science_(journal)" title="Science (journal)">Science</a></em>, 9 September 2005: Vol. 309. no. 5741, pp. 1720-1722.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_51"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-51">^</a></strong> <a href="http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Shen2004.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Shen2004.pdf</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_dna_52">^ <a href="#cite_ref-dna_52-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-dna_52-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-dna_52-2"><sup><em><strong>c</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080508182219.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">American Technion Society (2008, May 12). Genetics Confirm Oral Traditions Of Druze In Israel, <em>ScienceDaily</em>.</a></li> </ol> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2> <a name="citable__163" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="163"><ul> <li>Sakr Abu Fakhr: "Voices from the Golan"; <em>Journal of Palestine Studies,</em> Vol.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="163"><a href="#citable__163"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>L. Schatkowski Schilcher, "The Hauran Conflicts of the 1860s: A Chapter in the Rural History of Modern Syria," International Journal of Middle East Studies , Vol.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> 29, No. 4 (Autumn, 2000), pp. 5–36.</li> <li>Rabih Alameddine: <em>I, the Divine: A Novel in First Chapters</em>, Norton (2002). <a name="citable__114" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="114">ISBN 0-393-32356-0.</li> <li>B. Destani, ed.: <em>Minorities in the Middle East: Druze Communities 1840–1974</em>, 4 volumes, Slough: Archive Editions (2006).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Christians make up some 10% of Egypt’s population and the vast majority of them are Orthodox Copts, the Middle East’s largest and oldest Christian community.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He is the major preceptor of the Druze, whose present philosophy and lifestyle are remarkably Vedic, considering they are situated in the Middle East.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze minority communities in Lebanon, Israel, and Syria have worked out a survival formula that works better than most.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__205" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="205">ISBN 1840971657.</li> <li>R. Scott Kennedy: "The Druze of the Golan: A Case of Non-Violent Resistance"; <em>Journal of Palestine Studies,</em> Vol.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="205"><a href="#citable__205"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jethro, The Druze And Vedic Origins A serendipitous, though intensive, case study of Israeli Druze reveals striking similarities between Vedic and Druze philosophy and culture.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VWH Middle East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salagram.net/VWHMid-East.html">www.salagram.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="205"><a href="#citable__205"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>L. Schatkowski Schilcher, "The Hauran Conflicts of the 1860s: A Chapter in the Rural History of Modern Syria," International Journal of Middle East Studies , Vol.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm">faculty-staff.ou.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> 13, No. 2 (Winter, 1984), pp. 48–6.</li> <li>Dr. Anis Obeid: <em>The Druze & Their Faith in Tawhid</em>, Syracuse University Press (July 2006). ISBN 0815630972.</li> <li>Shmuel Shamai: "Critical Sociology of Education Theory in Practice: The Druze Education in the Golan"; <em>British Journal of Sociology of Education,</em> Vol. 11, No. 4 (1990), pp. 449–463.</li> <li>Samy Swayd: <em>The Druzes: An Annotated Bibliography</em>, Kirkland, Washington: ISES Publications (1998). <a name="citable__160" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="160">ISBN 0966293207.</li> <li>Bashar Tarabieh: "Education, Control and Resistance in the Golan Heights"; <em>Middle East Report,</em> No.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="160"><a href="#citable__160"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I'm a reader-funded foreign correspondent and foreign policy analyst who has reported from the Middle East, the Balkans, and the Caucasus.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Michael J. Totten: The Warlord in His Castle </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2009/09/the-warlord-in.php">www.michaeltotten.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="160"><a href="#citable__160"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Peace Process and Land Claims Manuela Paraipan - 5/10/2005 Truth be told, there is no peace process in the Middle East today.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Global Politician - Arab-Israeli Relations</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.globalpolitician.com/172-arab-israeli-relations">www.globalpolitician.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> 194/195, Odds against Peace (May–Aug., 1995), pp. 43–47.</li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_External_links">External links</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>Sources</strong></div> <a name="citable__220" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="220"><ul> <li><a href="http://www.druzehistoryandculture.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">History and sites of the Druze</a></li> <li><a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Rise and fall of the Syrian Druze</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.druzestudies.org/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Institute of Druze Studies</a>, San Diego, California</li> <li><a href="http://www.druzenet.org/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druzenet</a>, English publications</li> <li><a href="http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druse, Druze, Mowahhidoon</a> described at the OCRT site</li> <li><a href="http://www.ismaili.net/Source/1325.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze Catechism</a></li> <li><a href="http://59.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSES.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article</a></li> <li><a href="http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9363131/Druze" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Article about Druze</a> <em>Encyclopedia Britannica Concise</em></li> <li><a href="http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9031268/Druze" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Longer article about Druze</a> <em>Encyclopedia Britannica Concise</em></li> <li><a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze</a> by Pam Rohland</li> <li><a href="http://www.semp.us/biots/biot_176.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">SEMP - Who are the Druze?</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.mmouka.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze articles</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/contestant-no-2/slideshow-who-are-the-druze/5255/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Who are the Druze?</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="220"><a href="#citable__220"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Map source: Institute of Druze Studies .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Joshua Project - Druze of Syria Ethnic People Profile</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rog3=SY&rop3=102733">www.joshuaproject.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="220"><a href="#citable__220"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Previous studies described a high frequency with a low diversity of both the X1 and X2 subhaplogroups in the Druze population [4] , [7] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PLoS ONE: The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002105">www.plosone.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324201/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="220"><a href="#citable__220"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A public phone hung on an exterior wall, and Druze, his index finger in one ear to block the street noise, dialed another public phone, in San Francisco.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Eyes of Prey - Chapter One</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.johnsandford.org/prey03t.html">www.johnsandford.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Photo essay</a> on PBS Wide Angle website</li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>Communities</strong></div> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.druzechat.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze Chat</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.druzefaces.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze Faces</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.druzenews.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze News</a> Druze News from Lebanon, Israel and the Druze world.</li> <li><a href="http://www.lebdruze.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Lebanese Druze Online Community</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.druze.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">American Druze Society - National</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.druze.org/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">American Druze Society - Michigan</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.edmontondruze.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The Druze Association of Edmonton</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.druze.net/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Canadian Druze Society</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.druze.org.au/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Australian Druze Community</a></li> <li><a href="http://sa.druze.org.au/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">South Australian Druze Community</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.druze.org.il/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Israeli Druze Online - in Hebrew</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.europeandruzesociety.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">European Druze Society</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.druzecafe.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Meeting Druze from all over the world</a></li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong>Other links</strong></div> <a name="citable__60" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="60"><ul> <li><a href="http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/contestant-no-2/staying-druze-in-america/5322/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Staying Druze in America video</a> on PBS Wide Angle website</li> <li><a href="http://www.hackwriters.com/Druze.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze: A small peace of Israel</a> from hackwriters.com</li> <li><a href="http://dlxs2.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=cdl;idno=cdl324" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>The Druzes and the Maronites under the Turkish Rule from 1840 to 1860</em></a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A peace treaty was then signed between the Druze and Maronite leaders which has enabled them to live peacefully together and later become allies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>۞ Antioch Gate: About the Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.antiochgate.com/about_druze.htm">www.antiochgate.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1991, $10bn of loan guarantees were withheld under former President George H W Bush to pressure Israel over the peace process.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Gates of Vienna: Gates of Vienna News Feed 1/10/2010</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gatesofvienna.blogspot.com/2010/01/gates-of-vienna-news-feed-1102010.html">gatesofvienna.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This supportive move by the Michigan Druze paved the way for the national organization to function within a wide spectrum of interest under the National Constitution.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.druze.com/adshistory.asp">www.druze.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection. ISBN 1-429-73982-7.</li> <li><a href="http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/contestant-no-2/introduction/5002/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Contestant No. 2</a> PBS Wide Angle documentary about a Druze teen who challenges her conservative community</li> </ul> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.rbenninghaus.de/druzes.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Druze in Israel and Syria</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/druze.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The Druze</a> by Dr. Naim Aridi</li> <li>Historical Changes in the Political Role of the Druze in Lebanon by Dr. Abbas Abu Saleh</li> <li><a href="http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/7854/transfer29.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The Druze</a></li> </ul> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed" 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jurisprudence">Military</a>:</strong> <em><a href="/Prisoners_of_war_in_Islam" title="Prisoners of war in Islam">Prisoners of war</a></em> · <a href="/Islam_and_slavery" title="Islam and slavery">Slavery</a> · <a href="/Islamic_political_jurisprudence" title="Islamic political jurisprudence" class="mw-redirect">Political</a> · <strong><a href="/Islamic_sexual_jurisprudence" title="Islamic sexual jurisprudence">Sexuality</a>:</strong> <em><a href="/Islam_and_masturbation" title="Islam and masturbation">Masturbation</a>, <a href="/Islam_and_sexual_techniques" title="Islam and sexual techniques">Sexual techniques</a></em> · <strong><a href="/Islamic_theological_jurisprudence" title="Islamic theological jurisprudence">Theological</a>:</strong> <em><a href="/Kalam" title="Kalam">Kalam</a></em> · <a href="/Zina_(Arabic)" title="Zina (Arabic)">Zina</a> · <a href="/Sources_of_sharia" title="Sources of sharia" class="mw-redirect">Sources</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> 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class="mw-redirect">Astrology</a>, <a href="/Islamic_astronomy" title="Islamic astronomy" class="mw-redirect">Astronomy</a>, <a href="/Islamic_economics_in_the_world" title="Islamic economics in the world">Economics</a>, <a href="/Islam_and_science" title="Islam and science">Islam and science</a>, <a href="/Islamic_mathematics" title="Islamic mathematics" class="mw-redirect">Mathematics</a>, <a href="/Islamic_medicine" title="Islamic medicine" class="mw-redirect">Medicine</a>, <a href="/Islamic_physics" title="Islamic physics" class="mw-redirect">Physics</a>, <a href="/Islamic_psychological_thought" title="Islamic psychological thought" class="mw-redirect">Psychology</a></em> · <strong><a href="/Islamic_sociology" title="Islamic sociology">Sociology</a>:</strong> <em><a href="/Early_Muslim_sociology" title="Early Muslim sociology" class="mw-redirect">Early sociology</a></em> · <a href="/Shu%27ubiyya" title="Shu'ubiyya">Shu'ubiyya</a> · <a href="/Islamic_sports" title="Islamic sports">Sports</a> · <a href="/Conversion_of_non-Muslim_places_of_worship_into_mosques" title="Conversion of non-Muslim places of worship into mosques">Conversion of mosques</a> · <a href="/Historiography_of_early_Islam" title="Historiography of early Islam">Historiography</a> · <a href="/Inventions_in_the_Muslim_world" title="Inventions in the Muslim world" class="mw-redirect">Inventions</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Islam_and_other_religions" title="Islam and other religions">Other religions</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Christianity_and_Islam" title="Christianity and Islam">Christianity</a> · <a href="/Hinduism_and_Islam" title="Hinduism and Islam">Hinduism</a> · <a href="/Islam_and_Jainism" title="Islam and Jainism">Jainism</a> · <a href="/Islam_and_Judaism" title="Islam and Judaism">Judaism</a> · <a href="/Islam_and_Sikhism" title="Islam and Sikhism">Sikhism</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Related topics</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Apostasy_in_Islam" title="Apostasy in Islam">Apostasy</a> · <a href="/Controversies_related_to_Islam_and_Muslims" title="Controversies related to Islam and Muslims">Controversies</a> · <a href="/Criticism_of_Islam" title="Criticism of Islam">Criticism of Islam</a> · <a href="/Criticism_of_Muhammad" title="Criticism of Muhammad">Criticism of Muhammad</a> · <a href="/Criticism_of_the_Qur%27an" title="Criticism of the Qur'an">Criticism of the Qur'an</a> · <a href="/Islamism" title="Islamism">Islamism</a> · <a href="/Islamophobia" title="Islamophobia">Islamophobia</a> · <a href="/Islamic_terrorism" title="Islamic terrorism">Islamic terrorism</a> · <a href="/Islamic_view_of_miracles" title="Islamic view of miracles">Islamic view of miracles</a> · <a href="/Islam_and_antisemitism" title="Islam and antisemitism">Islam and antisemitism</a> · <a href="/Islam_and_domestic_violence" title="Islam and domestic violence">Domestic violence</a> · <a href="/Persecution_of_Muslims" title="Persecution of Muslims">Persecution of Muslims</a> · <a href="/Qur%27an_and_miracles" title="Qur'an and miracles">Qur'an and miracles</a> · <a href="/Qutbism" title="Qutbism">Qutbism</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;">Ethnic groups in <a href="/Israel" title="Israel">Israel</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Israeli_Jews" title="Israeli Jews">Jewish</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Ashkenazi_Jews" title="Ashkenazi Jews">Ashkenazim</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Mizrahi_Jews" title="Mizrahi Jews">Mizrahim</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sephardi_Jews" title="Sephardi Jews">Sephardim</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Beta_Israel" title="Beta Israel">Beta Israel</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Bnei_Menashe" title="Bnei Menashe">Bnei Menashe</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Samaritan" title="Samaritan">Samaritan</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Islam_in_Israel" title="Islam in Israel" class="mw-redirect">Muslim</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Arab_citizens_of_Israel" title="Arab citizens of Israel">Arab citizens of Israel</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong class="selflink">Druze</strong><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Negev_Bedouin" title="Negev Bedouin">Negev Bedouin</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Circassians_in_Israel" title="Circassians in Israel">Circassians</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Dom_people" title="Dom people">Dom people</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Shapsugs" title="Shapsugs">Shapsugs</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Turks_in_Israel" title="Turks in Israel">Turks</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Religion_in_Israel" title="Religion in Israel">Christian</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Palestinian_Christians" title="Palestinian Christians">Palestinian Christians</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Armenians_in_Israel" title="Armenians in Israel">Armenians in Israel</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Dom_people" title="Dom people">Dom people</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Other</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/African_Hebrew_Israelites_of_Jerusalem" title="African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem">African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem</a> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Chinese_people_in_Israel" title="Chinese people in Israel">Chinese people in Israel</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wikipedia_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Druze" title="Category:Druze">Druze</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Mysticism" title="Category:Mysticism">Mysticism</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Esoteric_schools_of_thought" title="Category:Esoteric schools of thought">Esoteric schools of thought</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Islamic_sects" title="Category:Islamic sects">Islamic sects</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Ethnoreligious_groups" title="Category:Ethnoreligious groups">Ethnoreligious groups</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Fertile_Crescent" title="Category:Fertile Crescent">Fertile Crescent</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Ethnic_groups_in_Israel" title="Category:Ethnic groups in Israel">Ethnic groups in Israel</a></span></div> <div id="wikipedia_mw_hidden_catlinks" class="mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_containing_Arabic_language_text" title="Category:Articles containing Arabic language text">Articles containing Arabic language text</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_containing_Persian_language_text" title="Category:Articles containing Persian language text">Articles containing Persian language text</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_articles_with_unsourced_statements" title="Category:All articles with unsourced statements">All articles with unsourced statements</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements_from_June_2009" title="Category:Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009">Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements_from_August_2008" title="Category:Articles with unsourced statements from August 2008">Articles with unsourced statements from August 2008</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_to_be_expanded_from_February_2010" title="Category:Articles to be expanded from February 2010">Articles to be expanded from February 2010</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_articles_to_be_expanded" title="Category:All articles to be expanded">All articles to be expanded</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_needing_cleanup_from_July_2009" title="Category:Articles needing cleanup from July 2009">Articles needing cleanup from July 2009</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_pages_needing_cleanup" title="Category:All pages needing cleanup">All pages needing cleanup</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="wiktionary"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="wiktionary">Wiktionary</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of January 15, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_wikis_fragments"> <div id="wiktionary_bodyContent"> <h3 id="wiktionary_siteSub">Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary</h3> <div class="sister-wikipedia sister-project noprint floatright" style="border: solid #aaa 1px; font-size: 90%; background: #f9f9f9; width: 250px; padding: 4px; text-align: left;"> <div style="float: left;"> <div class="floatnone"><img alt="Wikipedia-logo.png" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/3/3/3/17390162291655514.png" width="44" height="44" /></div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 60px;"><a href="/Wikipedia" title="Wikipedia">Wikipedia</a> has an article on: <div style="margin-left: 10px;"><strong lang="en" xml:lang="en"><a href="/Druze#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Druze">Druze</a></strong></div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span class="interProject"><a href="/Druze#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Druze">Wikipedia</a></span></div> <table id="wiktionary_toc" class="toc"> <tr> <td> <div id="wiktionary_toctitle"> <h2>Contents</h2> </div> <ul> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#English"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">English</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Proper_noun"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Proper noun</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Noun"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Noun</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-4"><a href="#Translations"><span class="tocnumber">1.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Translations</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Adjective"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Adjective</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">1.4</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> <script type="text/javascript"> //<![CDATA[ if (window.showTocToggle) { var tocShowText = "show"; var tocHideText = "hide"; showTocToggle(); } //]]> </script> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_English">English</span></h2> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Proper_noun">Proper noun</span></h3> <table border="0" width="100%" class="infl-table"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="49.75%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Singular<br /> <strong>Druze</strong></div> </td> <td width="0.5%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="49.75%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Plural<br /> -</div> </td> </tr> </table> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span class="infl-inline"><strong>Druze</strong></span></div> <ol> <li>A secretive community based mainly in the Middle East, whose religion is influenced by <a href="/Islam" title="Islam">Islam</a>.</li> </ol> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Noun">Noun</span></h3> <div class="infl-table"> <table border="0" width="100%"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="49%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Singular<br /> <strong>Druze</strong></div> </td> <td width="0.5%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="49%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Plural<br /> <span class="form-of plural-form-of lang-en"><strong><strong class="selflink">Druze</strong></strong></span></div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span class="infl-inline"><strong>Druze</strong> (<em>plural</em> <span class="form-of plural-form-of lang-en"><strong><strong class="selflink">Druze</strong></strong></span>)</span></div> <ol> <li>A member of this community.</li> </ol> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Translations">Translations</span></h4> <div class="NavFrame"> <div class="NavHead" align="left">collective Druze</div> <div class="NavContent"> <table border="0" width="100%" class="translations"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" width="48%" align="left"> <ul> <li>Arabic: <span class="Arab" dir="rtl">موحدون دروز</span> <span class="IPA">(muwaħħidūn durūz)</span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span> <span class="number p" title="plural number"><em>pl<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Dutch: <a href="/Druzen" title="Druzen"><span lang="nl" xml:lang="nl">Druzen</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://nl.wiktionary.org/wiki/Druzen" class="extiw" title="nl:Druzen"><span class="tlc">nl</span><span class="tlcp">(nl)</span></a></span> <span class="number p" title="plural number"><em>pl<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>French: <span lang="fr" xml:lang="fr">Druzes</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/Druzes" class="extiw" title="fr:Druzes"><span class="tlc">fr</span><span class="tlcp">(fr)</span></a></span> <span class="number p" title="plural number"><em>pl<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Hebrew: <span class="Hebr" dir="rtl">דרוזים</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://he.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D7%93%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D" class="extiw" title="he:דרוזים"><span class="tlc">he</span><span class="tlcp">(he)</span></a></span> (druzim) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> </ul> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" align="left" width="48%"> <ul> <li>Japanese: <span class="Jpan JA" lang="ja" xml:lang="ja">ドゥルーズ派</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E3%83%89%E3%82%A5%E3%83%AB%E3%83%BC%E3%82%BA%E6%B4%BE" class="extiw" title="ja:ドゥルーズ派"><span class="tlc">ja</span><span class="tlcp">(ja)</span></a></span> (durūzu-ha)</li> <li>Russian: <span class="Cyrl">друзы</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%B4%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B7%D1%8B" class="extiw" title="ru:друзы"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (drúzy) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span> <span class="number p" title="plural number"><em>pl<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <div class="NavFrame"> <div class="NavHead" align="left">individual Druze</div> <div class="NavContent"> <table border="0" width="100%" class="translations"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" width="48%" align="left"> <ul> <li>Arabic: <span class="Arab" dir="rtl">دروز</span> <span class="IPA">(muwaħħidūn durūz)</span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span> <span class="number p" title="plural number"><em>pl<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>French: <a href="/Druze" title="Druze"><span lang="fr" xml:lang="fr">Druze</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/Druze" class="extiw" title="fr:Druze"><span class="tlc">fr</span><span class="tlcp">(fr)</span></a></span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> </ul> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" align="left" width="48%"> <ul> <li>Hebrew: <span class="Hebr" dir="rtl">דרוזי</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://he.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D7%93%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%96%D7%99" class="extiw" title="he:דרוזי"><span class="tlc">he</span><span class="tlcp">(he)</span></a></span> (druzi) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Russian: <span class="Cyrl">друз</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%B4%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B7" class="extiw" title="ru:друз"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (druz) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <div class="checktrans"> <dl> <dd><em>The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.</em></dd> </dl> </div> <div class="NavFrame"> <div class="NavHead" align="left">Translations to be checked</div> <div class="NavContent"> <table border="0" width="100%" class="translations"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" width="48%" align="left"> <ul> <li><span class="ttbc">Hebrew</span>: דרוז <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li><span class="ttbc">Indonesian</span>: Druze</li> </ul> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" align="left" width="48%"> <ul> <li><span class="ttbc">Portuguese</span>: druso <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li><span class="ttbc">Spanish</span>: druso <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li><span class="ttbc">Urdu</span>: <span class="ur-Arab" dir="rtl">دروز</span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Adjective">Adjective</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span class="infl-inline"><strong>Druze</strong> (<em>not <a href="/Appendix:Glossary" title="Appendix:Glossary">comparable</a></em>)</span></div> <div class="infl-table"> <table border="0" width="100%"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="33%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Positive<br /> <strong>Druze</strong></div> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="33%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Appendix:Glossary" title="Appendix:Glossary">Comparative</a><br /> <em>not <a href="/Appendix:Glossary" title="Appendix:Glossary">comparable</a></em></div> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="33%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Appendix:Glossary" title="Appendix:Glossary">Superlative</a><br /> <em>none (<a href="/absolute" title="absolute">absolute</a>)</em></div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <ol> <li>Of, relating to, or to this religious community.</li> </ol> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_References">References</span></h3> <a name="citable__107" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="107"><ul> <li>"The judges were very surprised when they found out I was Druze," she told Sonia Verma in The Times.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But this time they were very well organised.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Christians flee homes after Druze youths riot | World news | The Guardian </c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/mar/14/israel">www.guardian.co.uk</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Druze sect developed out of Shia Ismaili Islam , a philosophical movement based in the Fatimids Caliphate, in the 10th century, a time of particular cultural wealth.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ShaikhSiddiqui Druze</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shaikhsiddiqui.com/druze.html">www.shaikhsiddiqui.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When the force tried to carry out the arrests, they were attacked with rocks and metal bars by masked Druze youth, and police responded by opening fire.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Israel: Druze riot against cellphone antennae | World War 4 Report</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ww4report.com/node/4618">ww4report.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> — <a name="citable__235" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="235">People, <em>The Week</em>, Issue 605, page 10.</li> <li>Druze men shouted insults when she walked down the street.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="235"><a href="#citable__235"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Walk down David Street.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ERETZ Magazine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eretz.com/NEW/stayputhaifa.shtml">www.eretz.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="235"><a href="#citable__235"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LLOYD: When a bride walks down the aisle at her wedding, you could hear some people say her family is giving her away.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Mexican game mimics�border crossing, Emotions�mixed at Druze wedding - CNN.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2007/EDUCATION/03/13/transcript.wed/index.html">www.cnn.com</a> [Source type: News]</li><li> <em><c_title>Mexican game mimics�border crossing, Emotions�mixed at Druze wedding - CNN.com</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://edition.cnn.com/2007/EDUCATION/03/13/transcript.wed/index.html">edition.cnn.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="235"><a href="#citable__235"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Turn left onto Christian Quarter Street and walk down the alley of Saint Helena to the Holy Sepulcher.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ERETZ Magazine</c_title></em> <c_date>19 January 2010 18:22 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eretz.com/NEW/stayputhaifa.shtml">www.eretz.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> — People, <em>The Week</em>, Issue 605, page 10.</li> </ul> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wiktionary_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_proper_nouns" title="Category:English proper nouns">English proper nouns</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_nouns" title="Category:English nouns">English nouns</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_adjectives" title="Category:English adjectives">English adjectives</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_uncomparable_adjectives" title="Category:English uncomparable adjectives">English uncomparable adjectives</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Christianity" title="Category:Christianity">Christianity</a></span></div> <div id="wiktionary_mw_hidden_catlinks" class="mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Check_translations" title="Category:Check translations">Check translations</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Translations_to_be_checked_(Hebrew)" title="Category:Translations to be checked (Hebrew)">Translations to be checked (Hebrew)</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Translations_to_be_checked_(Indonesian)" title="Category:Translations to be checked (Indonesian)">Translations to be checked (Indonesian)</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Translations_to_be_checked_(Portuguese)" title="Category:Translations to be checked (Portuguese)">Translations to be checked (Portuguese)</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Translations_to_be_checked_(Spanish)" title="Category:Translations to be checked (Spanish)">Translations to be checked (Spanish)</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Translations_to_be_checked_(Urdu)" title="Category:Translations to be checked (Urdu)">Translations to be checked (Urdu)</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="simple_wikipedia"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="simple_wikipedia">Simple English</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="simple_wikipedia_fragments"> <p>The <b>Druze</b> are an <a href="/Arabic" title="Arabic" class="mw-redirect">Arabic</a>-speaking people of the <a href="/Middle_East" title="Middle East">Middle East</a>. </p><p>There are more than 500,000 Druze. About half of them live in the Hauran districts of <a href="/Syria" title="Syria">Syria</a>. Most of the rest live in <a href="/Lebanon" title="Lebanon">Lebanon</a> and about 40,000 live in <a href="/Israel" title="Israel">Israel</a>. Some have emigrated to the <a href="/United_States" title="United States">United States</a> and <a href="/Canada" title="Canada">Canada</a>. </p><p>The Druze practice a <a href="/Religion" title="Religion">religion</a> related to <a href="/Islam" title="Islam">Islam</a> but is more based on philosophy. Al-Hakim, a ruler of <a href="/Egypt" title="Egypt">Egypt</a> during the 11th century sponsored the religion which was created by Hamza bin Ali.The name Druze probably comes from Darazi, a preacher who was expelled from the druze movement, because he preached that Al-Hakim was literary God. </p><p>The Druze in Lebanon had a major political influence and where the rulers of Lebanon before the 1860s after the 1860s they shared the ruling of mount Lebanon with the Maronites and were later considered the 4th major religious sect after independence. They played a key role in fighting against the Lebanese christian right during the early 1980s. The Druze ended their fighting against the Lebanese christian right in late 1990. In 1990 and 1991, they gained representation in Lebanon's government in accordance with a 1989 peace agreement. </p> <div class="printfooter"> Retrieved from "<a href="http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Druze">http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Druze</a>"</div> <div class="contents"> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'><div id="mw-normal-catlinks"><a href="/Special:Categories" title="Special:Categories">Categories</a>: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Middle_East" title="Category:Middle East">Middle East</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Religion" title="Category:Religion">Religion</a></span></div></div> <div class="bottom"></div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> </div> <div id="core_panel_main" > <div class="section" id="citable_sentences"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="citable_sentences">Citable sentences</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of December 22, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_fragments"> <div id="citableSentencesList"> <p> Here are sentences from other pages on Druze, which are similar to those in the above article. <div id="citable__sentence_list"> </div> </p> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div id="external_links_revision_history_tooltip"> </div> <script> $(document).ready(function() { $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments a[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', effect: 'toggle', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,2], lazy: true, delay: 100}); $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments img[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,0], lazy: true, effect: 'toggle'}); }); </script> <div class="section" id="related_links"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_links">Related links</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of November 16, 2009</span> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>61%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.europeandruzesociety.com" title="<A HREF=http://www.europeandruzesociety.com>http://www.europeandruzesociety.com</A>">European Druze Society</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>61%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.druzenet.org" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The material in this site is the property of the <B>Druze</B> in general and <B>Druze</B>net in specific</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>He finally stepped out willingly in protest against the governmental unconstitutional intervention in the <B>Druze</B> Religious Affairs that displayed in the Lebanese Parliament passing a Law tailored to meet the desires of a <B>Druze</B> political party - a law that was vetoed by the president (Lahoud) for its clear and evident breach of constitution.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>This unprecedented interference that targeted the <B>Druze</B> out of all other religions, under the deceptive slogan Organizing the Affairs of the <B>Druze</B> Community, ultimately aimed at reducing the sacred role of Mashiakhat El-Aql (the symbol of <B>Druze</B> Religious Independency and the only official <B>Druze</B> Spiritual Leadership) into a folkloric dummy in the hand of the political leader.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.druzenet.org>http://www.druzenet.org</A>">Druzenet: English Publications</a> - the material in this site is the</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>61%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.druzestudies.org" title=", San Diego, California<br><br><A HREF=http://www.druzestudies.org>http://www.druzestudies.org</A>">Institute of Druze Studies</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>61%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.druze.net" title="<A HREF=http://www.druze.net>http://www.druze.net</A>">Canadian Druze Society</a> - CDS Canadian Druze Society</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>61%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.druze.org" title="Please join us in a farewell party given by the ADS Michigan Chapter at the <B>Druze</B> center<br><br><A HREF=http://www.druze.org>http://www.druze.org</A>">American Druze Society - Michigan</a> - American Druze Society - Michigan Chapter</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.mmouka.com" title="<A HREF=http://www.mmouka.com>http://www.mmouka.com</A>">www.mmouka.com</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3612002.stm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Druze</B> leaders check a list of those allowed to go to Syria An Israeli court has for the first time authorised members of the country's <B>Druze</B> community to visit Syria, which is still officially at war with Israel.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The judges ruled that <B>Druze</B> religious leaders could make a 72-hour visit.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Around 80,000 <B>Druze</B> live in Israel, including 18,000 in the Golan Heights which were captured from Syria in 1967.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3612002.stm>http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3612002.stm</A>">Druze set to visit Syria</a> - BBC NEWS | Middle East | Israeli Druze set to visit Syria</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.druzehistoryandculture.com" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>This is an attempt by one <B>Druze</B>, assisted by family members and academic friends, to reach a factual historical expression, that is in harmony with the real <B>DRUZE</B> HISTORY AND CULTURE.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>As a young <B>Druze</B>, I was exposed to all our religious practices (including Hikma readings), when my older brother used to take me with him to Thursday nights worship meetings in the Mejlis.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Out of this experience, a Thirst to know our History and Spirituality became more urgent, as I observed reactions of my fellow Arabs to my being a <B>DRUZE</B>, which lead me to see clearly the great GAP between the values I was raised with, as a <B>Druze</B>, and the tainted conception of us (as <B>Druze</B>) that has prevailed in most of the Islamic World for a long time</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.druzehistoryandculture.com>http://www.druzehistoryandculture.com</A>">Articles about Druze</a> - Druze History and Culture.htm</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://59.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSES.htm" title="<A HREF=http://59.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSES.htm>http://59.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSES.htm</A>">1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article</a> - D/DR/DRUSES.htm - LoveToKnow 1911</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The relationship between the Jabal <B>Druze</B> (<B>Druze</B> Mountains) and Damascus has long been used as the test-case for questions of economic and cultural integration in Syria.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Linda Schilcher, in her studies of nineteenth century Syria, argues that the Jabal <B>Druze</B> has been a "proving ground of national integration." She maintains that the economic links which began to connect the Jabal <B>Druze</B> to Damascus during the second half of the century formed the bedrock of later nationalist bonds which were established between the <B>Druze</B>s of the Jabal and the Sunnis of Damascus in the first half of the twentieth century.[1] Philip Khoury similarly uses the relationship between</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>He concludes that by the end of the Great Syrian Revolt of 1925-1927 the leadership of the <B>Druze</B> rebels, headed by Sultan Pasha al-Atrash, had formed a "new broadly-based" alliance linking together the <B>Druze</B>s and Damascenes, and that it was "committed to a `successful assimilation of the <B>Druze</B> into a Syrian-Arab political community.'"[2] Based on his analysis of the <B>Druze</B>-Damascene alliance, Khoury proclaims the Great Syrian Revolt to be "a major watershed" in the evolution of national consci</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm>http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm</A>">Rise and fall of the Syrian Druze</a> - SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_1-2-2004_pg3_5" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Farish Noor: You are a Lebanese <B>Druze</B> and are regarded as one of the most vocal spokesmen for that particular community.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Walid Jumlat: Yes, I am a leader of the <B>Druze</B> community, and in fact I come from a long line of <B>Druze</B> leaders going back to my father and even before him.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>I maybe a leader of the <B>Druze</B> community, but I maintain that what is needed now is Arab unity and a common purpose above all else.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_1-2-2004_pg3_5>http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_1-2-2004_pg3_5</A>">Op-ed: 'The Arabs must unite above all else'</a> - Daily Times - Leading News Resource of Pakistan</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.druzecafe.com" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>We thank <B>Druze</B> Cafe and its efforts to continually encourage <B>Druze</B> youth to interact with each other and combine souls.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Druze</B> Cafe has changed our lives to the best and we cordially appreciate it.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Again we would like to thank you for this awesome website that keeps <B>Druze</B> people close to each other no matter how far of a distance it is.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.druzecafe.com>http://www.druzecafe.com</A>">Meeting Druze from all over the world</a> - The Largest Druze Network Around The World</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The <B>Druze</B> refer to themselves as Ahl al-Tawhīd or "Al-muwahhidūn" which means "The People of Monotheism." However, the rest of the world tends to refer to them as "<B>Druze</B>" or "Druse", a name which some believe was derived from an early preacher Muhammad al-Darazi.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The <B>Druze</B> are a fiercely independent religious group mainly concentrated in Lebanon around the base of Mount Hermon, and in the mountains behind Beirut and Sidon.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Other <B>Druze</B> are located just inside the Northern border of Israel, in Jordan, on the Golan Heights in Syria, in Turkey and in smaller numbers throughout North American and Europe.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm>http://www.religioustolerance.org/druse.htm</A>">Druse, Druze, Mowahhidoon</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://sa.druze.org.au" title="<A HREF=http://sa.druze.org.au>http://sa.druze.org.au</A>">South Australian Druze Community</a> - Australian Druze Community - South Australia</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.adherents.com/adh_branches.html#Islam" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>But <B>Druze</B> are classified from a secular/historical perspective as a branch of Islam because they are derived from a branch of Shi'ite Islam.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Having developed independently for hundreds of years, their cultural and religious self-concept is primarily <B>Druze</B>, without regard to how outside groups perceive or classify them.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.adherents.com/adh_branches.html#Islam>http://www.adherents.com/adh_branches.html#Islam</A>">Major Branches of Religions Ranked by Number of Adherents</a> - Major Branches of Religions</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.lebdruze.com" title="<A HREF=http://www.lebdruze.com>http://www.lebdruze.com</A>">Lebanese Druze Online Community</a> - LebWeb.com - Lebanon News, Lebanon Guide</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.israelnn.com/news.php3?id=110102" title="<A HREF=http://www.israelnn.com/news.php3?id=110102>http://www.israelnn.com/news.php3?id=110102</A>">"Druze Herev Battalion Fights 32 Days With No Casualties", ''Israel National News''</a> - - Israel National News</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sytoc.html" title="(click on ''<B>Druze</B>s''),<br><br><A HREF=http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sytoc.html>http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sytoc.html</A>">Syria : Country Studies - Federal Research Division, Library of Congress</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ismaili.net/Source/1325.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>How do you know that you are a Unitarian <B>Druze</B>?</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>What is the religion which the <B>Druze</B> and the Learned infer?</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Is there any salvation for the "ignorant" among the <B>Druze</B>, or any arrangement by al-Hakim,</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ismaili.net/Source/1325.html>http://www.ismaili.net/Source/1325.html</A>">Druze Catechism</a> - A Shorter Druze Catechism</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9031268/Druze" title="<A HREF=http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9031268/Druze>http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9031268/Druze</A>">Encyclopedia Brittanica Concise Longer Article about Druze</a> - Britannica Online Encyclopedia</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The <B>Druze</B>, also known as the "Sons of Grace," are a secretive, tightly-knit religious sect whose origins can be traced to Egypt a thousand years ago.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The <B>Druze</B> do not have their own homeland.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Little scholarly study has been done on the <B>Druze</B>, and much of what is available has not been translated into English.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html>http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Druze.html</A>">Druze</a> - Druze - Overview, History, Modern era, Immigration and settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation, Cuisine, Traditional costumes</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www2.wwnorton.com/catalog/fall02/032356.htm" title="<A HREF=http://www2.wwnorton.com/catalog/fall02/032356.htm>http://www2.wwnorton.com/catalog/fall02/032356.htm</A>">I, the Divine (Main Page)</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://lexicorient.com/e.o/druze.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Religion and group of people with somewhere between 350,000 (estimate of Western scholars) and 900,000 (figures presented by the <B>Druze</B>) members (LookLex estimates that around 600,000 live in the Middle East and nearly 700,000 all over the world), living in Lebanon, Syria, Israel, and Jordan, often in mountainous regions.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>There are also important <B>Druze</B> communities abroad, living in Europe and USA.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>While the <B>Druze</B> are not regarded as Muslims by other Muslims, they regard themselves as Muslims as well as carriers of the core of this Islam.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://lexicorient.com/e.o/druze.htm>http://lexicorient.com/e.o/druze.htm</A>">Druze</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51602.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>There also are at least 20,000 <B>Druze</B>, a small number of Shi'a Muslims, and fewer than 800 adherents of the Baha'i Faith.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The northern part of the city of Azraq has a sizeable <B>Druze</B> population, as does Umm Al-Jamal in the governorate of Mafraq.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>There also are <B>Druze</B> populations in Amman and Zarka and a smaller number in Irbid and Aqaba.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51602.htm>http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51602.htm</A>">International Religious Freedom Report 2005</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.druzechat.org" title="The <B>Druze</B> chat room on IRC.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.druzechat.org>http://www.druzechat.org</A>">Druze Chat</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www1.cbs.gov.il/shnaton57/st02_07x.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://www1.cbs.gov.il/shnaton57/st02_07x.pdf>http://www1.cbs.gov.il/shnaton57/st02_07x.pdf</A>">Localities and Population, by District, Sub-District, Relition and Population Group</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.cbs.gov.il/hodaot2007n/11_07_066b.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://www.cbs.gov.il/hodaot2007n/11_07_066b.pdf>http://www.cbs.gov.il/hodaot2007n/11_07_066b.pdf</A>">Press Release: The Druze Population of Israel</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.jcpa.org/jl/hit06.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The <B>Druze</B> are a minority within a minority in the State of Israel, an Arab-speaking community loyal to the state that has suffered hundreds of casualties in its defense, and whose men serve today in high-ranking and sensitive positions within the Israeli military and security forces.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The <B>Druze</B> in Israel comprise approximately 85,000 people, about 1.8 percent of the total Israeli population and about 10 percent of the country's minority population.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The <B>Druze</B> are centered in Israel, Syria and Lebanon, but also have sizeable expatriate communities in France and the United States, centered in Detroit.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.jcpa.org/jl/hit06.htm>http://www.jcpa.org/jl/hit06.htm</A>">The Druze Minority in Israel in the Mid-1990s by Gabriel Ben-Dor</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/IB89118.pdf" title=", Updated March 16, 2006<br><br><A HREF=http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/IB89118.pdf>http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/IB89118.pdf</A>">Lebanon Congressional Research Service Brief</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.noahide.org/article.asp?Level=128&Parent=342" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The spiritual leader of the <B>Druze</B> community in Israel , Sheikh Mowafak Tarif, this weekend signed a declaration calling on non-Jews in Israel to observe the Seven Noahide (Bnei Noach) Commandments, as laid down in the Bible and expounded upon in Jewish tradition.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Several weeks ago, the mayor of the primarily <B>Druze</B> city of Shfaram , in the Galilee , also signed the document.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.noahide.org/article.asp?Level=128&Parent=342>http://www.noahide.org/article.asp?Level=128&Parent=342</A>">Islam Religious Leader Commits to Noahide "Seven Laws of Noah"</a> - Noahide.org - New Campaign - Let the Arabs Have a Life</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp464.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The Israeli <B>Druze</B> community is the only major non-Jewish group in the state whose sons are required to serve in the IDF.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The question of compulsory military service for <B>Druze</B> in the IDF has been hotly debated at various times within the <B>Druze</B> community in Israel.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>This debate was heightened in the wake of a conference on this issue held in Amman in the summer of 2001, sponsored by Walid Jumblatt, leader of the Lebanese <B>Druze</B>, and other top Lebanese political and religious leaders, with the participation of a delegation of some one hundred Israeli <B>Druze</B> who object to compulsory IDF service.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp464.htm>http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp464.htm</A>">The Druze in Israel and the Question of Compulsory Military Service</a> - "The Druze in Israel and the Question of Compulsory Military Service," by Zeidan Atashi</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.rbenninghaus.de/druzes.htm" title="<A HREF=http://www.rbenninghaus.de/druzes.htm>http://www.rbenninghaus.de/druzes.htm</A>">Druze in Israel and Syria</a> - Homepage Rüdiger Benninghaus - Foto-Ausstellung: Drusen</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/druze.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The <B>Druze</B> community in Israel is officially recognized as a separate religious entity with its own courts (with jurisdiction in matters of personal status - marriage, divorce, maintenance and adoption) and spiritual leadership.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Worldwide there are probably about one million <B>Druze</B> living mainly in Syria and Lebanon, with 104,000 in Israel, including about 18,000 in the Golan (which came under Israeli rule in 1967) and several thousands who emigrated to Europe and North and South America.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The <B>Druze</B> community in Israel has a special standing among the country's minority groups, and members of the community have attained high-level positions in the political, public and military spheres.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/druze.html>http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/druze.html</A>">The Druze</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/7854/transfer29.html" title="<A HREF=http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/7854/transfer29.html>http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/7854/transfer29.html</A>">The Druze</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Somehow i figuered that the <B>Druze</B> could be so helpfull in this*..</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>WE are <B>Druze</B>, We are proud of being so,</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>We are very very similar to <B>Druze</B>, we dont shave our moustache.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel>http://www.pbase.com/yalop/israel</A>">Photo gallery of Druz in Israel</a> - New: cultures of Israel Photo Gallery by Eyal Dor-Ofer at pbase.com</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.meib.org/articles/0305_ld.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>In August 2001, Sfeir toured the predominantly <B>Druze</B> Shouf region of Mount Lebanon and visited Moukhtara, the ancestral stronghold of <B>Druze</B> leader Walid Jumblatt.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The tumultuous reception that Sfeir received not only signified a historic reconciliation between Maronites and <B>Druze</B>, who fought a bloody war in 1983-84, but underscored the fact that the banner of Lebanese sovereignty had broad multi-confessional appeal.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.meib.org/articles/0305_ld.htm>http://www.meib.org/articles/0305_ld.htm</A>">Dossier: Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir (May 2003)</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.archiveeditions.co.uk/Leafcopy/A165-7.html" title="<A HREF=http://www.archiveeditions.co.uk/Leafcopy/A165-7.html>http://www.archiveeditions.co.uk/Leafcopy/A165-7.html</A>">more information</a> - Cambridge Archive Editions</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=102733&rog3=SY" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Druze</B> refer to themselves as 'Mowahhidoon' (plural) or 'Mowahhid' (singular), which means "monotheistic".</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>They are commonly referred to as "<B>Druze</B>" or "<B>Druze</B>", a name derived from el-Drzi, the name of one of the known propagandists of the <B>Druze</B> religion at its beginning.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>There are sources suggesting that the <B>Druze</B> were a people of their own even before conversion to the faith of al-Hakim, a Muslim caliph.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=102733&rog3=SY>http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=102733&rog3=SY</A>">Druze of Syria</a> - Joshua Project - Druze of Syria Ethnic People Profile</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="related_topics"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_topics">Related topics</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of August 19, 2010</span> <ul> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Shia_Islam">Shia Islam</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Islamic_schools_and_branches">Islamic schools and branches</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Muslim_history">Muslim history</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Ali">Ali</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Islam">Islam</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Dhimmi">Dhimmi</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> 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