Drying: Wikis

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Classical Definition  

Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product). To be considered "drying", the final product must be a solid, either as a continuous sheet (e.g., paper), as long pieces (eg. wood), particles (cereal grains, corn flakes) or in powder form (sand, salt, washing powder, milk powder). To achieve this, there must be a source of heat, and a sink of the vapor thus produced. In bioproducts (food, grains, vaccines), and pharmaceuticals, the solvent to be removed is almost invariably water

In the most common case, a gas stream, e.g., air, applies the heat by convection and carries away the vapor as humidity. Other possibilities are vacuum drying, where heat is supplied by conduction or radiation (or microwaves) while the vapor thus produced is removed by the vacuum system. Another indirect technique is drum drying (used, for instance, for manufacturing potato flakes), where a heated surface is used to provide the energy and aspirators draw the vapor outside the room.

Freeze drying or lyophilization is a drying method where the solvent is frozen prior to drying and is then sublimed, i.e., passed to the gas phase directly from the solid phase, below the melting point of the solvent. Freeze drying is often carried out under high vacuum to allow drying to proceed at a reasonable rate. This process avoids collapse of the solid structure, leading to a low density, highly porous product, able to regain the solvent quickly. In biological materials or foods, freeze drying is regarded as one of the best if not the best method to retain the initial properties. It was first used industrially to produce dehydrated vaccines, and to bring dehydrated blood for assistance of war casualties. Now freeze drying is increasingly used to preserve some foods, especially for backpackers going to remote areas. The method may keep protein quality intact. Vitamins and bioactive compounds are more likely to be retained as well.

In turn, the mechanical extraction of the solvent, e.g., water, by centrifugation, is not considered "drying".


Extended Definition (Particularly applicable to food drying)


As the main application of drying, food drying is a process whereby water in a product (phase I) is transferred to the dehydrating medium (phase II) as a consequence of a difference in water chemical potential. The water flux goes always from the phase with the higher chemical potential to that of the lower chemical potential. If temperature differences at both sides of the interface are not considered, it can be said that the driving force for drying is a positive difference between water activities in product and dehydrating medium. The water activity of air is the percent relative humidity divided by 100. This definition encompasses methods as diverse as air drying, vacuum drying, and osmotic drying. In the latter, foods are dried in a hypertonic solution of sugar (mainly fruits) and/or salt (mostly vegetables). If the solvent to be removed is water, the terms drying and dehydration become synonymous. In fact dehydration comes from the Greek and means "water removal".

There is very extensive technical literature on this subject, including several major textbooks and a dedicated scientific journal (Drying Technology [1]).

Drying mechanism In some products having a high initial moisture content, an initial linear reduction of the average product moisture content as a function of time may be observed for a short time. If drying is continued, the slope of the curve, the drying rate, becomes less steep (falling rate period) and eventually tends to a horizontal, at very long times, to become in equilibrium with the dehydrating medium. In the falling rate period, water migration from the product interior to the surface is mostly by molecular diffusion, i,e. the water flux is proportional to the moisture content gradient. This means that water moves from zones with higher moisture content to zones with lower values, a phenomenon explained by the second law of thermodynamics. If water removal is considerable, products undergo shrinkage and deformation, except in a well designed freeze drying process.

Contents

Methods of drying

In a typical phase diagram, the boundary between gas and liquid runs from the triple point to the critical point. Regular drying is the green arrow, while supercritical drying is the red arrow and freeze drying is the blue.
  • Application of heated air (convective or direct drying). Air heating reduces air relative humidity, enlarging the driving force for drying. Besides, higher temperatures speed up diffusion of water inside the solids, so drying becomes even faster. However, product quality considerations limit the applicable rise to air temperature. An excessively hot air almost completely dehydrates the solid surface, its pores shrink and almost close, leading to crust formation or "case hardening", which is usually undesirable. For instance in wood (timber) drying, air is heated (which speeds up drying) though some steam is also added to it (with hinders drying rate to a certain extent) in order to avoid excessive surface dehydration and product deformation owing to high moisture gradients across timber thickness.
  • Indirect or contact drying (heating through a hot wall), as drum drying, vacuum drying.
  • Dielectric drying (radiofrequency or microwaves being absorbed inside the material) It is the focus of intense research nowadays. It may be used to assist air drying or vacuum drying. Researchers have found that microwave finish drying speeds up the otherwise very low drying rate at the end of the classical drying methods.
  • Freeze drying Is increasingly applied to dry foods, beyond its already classical pharmaceutical or medical applications. It keeps biological properties of proteins, and retains vitamins and bioactive compounds. Pressure can be reduced by a high vacuum pump (though freeze drying at atmospheric pressure is possible in dry air). If using a vacuum pump, the vapor produced by sublimation is removed from the system by converting it into ice in a condenser, operating at very low temperatures, outside the freeze drying chamber.
  • Supercritical drying (superheated steam drying) involves steam drying of products containing water. This process is feasible because water in the product is boiled off, and joined with the drying medium, increasing its flow. It is usually employed in closed circuit and allows a proportion of latent heat to be recovered by recompression, a feature which is not possible with conventional air drying, for instance. May have potential for foods if carried out at reduced pressure, to lower the boiling point.
  • Natural air drying takes place when materials are dried with unheated forced air, taking advantage of its natural drying potential. The process is slow and weather-dependent, so a wise strategy "fan off-fan on" must be devised considering the following conditions: Air temperature, relative humidity and moisture content and temperature of the material being dried. Grains are increasingly dried with this technique, and the total time (including fan off and on periods) may last from one week to various months, if a winter rest can be tolerated in cold areas.

Applications of drying

Grain Drying

Hundreds of millions of tonnes of wheat,corn, soybean, rice other grains as sorghum, sunflower seeds, rapeseed/canola, barley, oats, etc., are dried in grain dryers. In the main agricultural countries, drying comprises the reduction of moisture from about 17-30%w/w to values between 8 and 15%w/w, depending on the grain. The final moisture content for drying must be adequate for storage. The more oil the grain has, the lower its storage moisture content will be (though its initial moisture for drying will also be lower). Cereals are often dried to 14% w/w, while oilseeds, to 12.5% (soybeans), 8% (sunflower) and 9% (peanuts). Drying is carried out as a requisite for safe storage, in order to inhibit microbial growth. However, low temperatures in storage are also highly recommended to avoid degradative reactions and, especially, the growth of insects and mites. A good maximum storage temperature is about 18°C. The largest dryers are normally used "Off-farm", in elevators, and are of the continuous type: Mixed-flow dryers are preferred in Europe, while Cross-flow dryers in the USA. In Argentina, both types are usually found. Continuous flow dryers may produce up to 100 metric tonnes of dried grain per hour. The depth of grain the air must traverse in continuous dryers range from some 0.15 m in Mixed flow dryers to some 0.30 m in Cross-Flow. Batch dryers are mainly used "On-Farm", particularly in the USA and Europe. They normally consist of a bin, with heated air flowing horizontally from an internal cylinder through an inner perforated metal sheet, then through a annular grain bed, some 0.50 m thick (coaxial with the internal cylinder) in radial direction, and finally across the outer perforated metal sheet, before being discharged to the atmosphere. The usual drying times range from 1 h to 4 h depending on how much water must be removed, type of grain, air temperature and the grain depth. In the USA, continuous counterflow dryers may be found on-farm, adapting a bin to slowly drying grain fed at the top and removed at the bottom of the bin by a sweeping auger. Grain drying is an active area of manufacturing and research. Now it is possible to simulate the performance of a dryer with computer programs based on equations (mathematical models) that represent the phenomena involved in drying: physics, physical chemistry, thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer. Most recently the evolution of quality indices is beginning to be predicted with some confidence, in order to add an essential performance parameter with which to establish a compromise of reasonably fast drying rate, limited energy consumption, and satisfactory grain quality. A typical quality parameter in wheat drying is the breadmaking quality and germination percentage whose reductions in drying are somewhat related.

Drum drying

The drum dryer technology has kept its position of importance. Today, in foods, potato puree is dehydrated as well as banana and tomato purees to produce dehydrated flakes

Spray drying

Spray drying is an important technique to produce dried powders. The principle is that a pumpable feed is first atomized, i.e., converted in a fog of droplets of about 100 micrometers in diameter, which dry very fast while falling by gravity, accompanied by heated air. The dried particles eventually exit through the bottom of the dryer and are separated from the drying air by a cyclone, or a system based on cyclones plus bag filters or electrostatic precipitators. Milk powder is possibly the most popular product, followed by instant coffee. Tomato powder is becoming very important. On the other hand, washing powder is an example product of the chemical process industry. The production of dehydrated natural flavors and essences is very important and is growing together with encapsulation, a technique devised to trap a volatile, but large molecule (the flavor compound) inside a dry particle, the walls of which develop on drying and are more permeable to the water flux than to the flux of the larger volatiles. This principle of selective diffusion was first developed by the Dutch researcher Thijssen, in Eindhoven, during the 1970s, and is improved by adding maltodextrins (a product from controlled starch hydrolysis) to the dryer feed. Spray dryers differ in the type of atomizer, the relative directions of air and product flows, the chamber design, type of drying agent (air, nitrogen) and system characteristics ( closed or open circuit), among other features. Equipment can be very large of up to 20 m tall.

  • Drying is often used to preserve food
  • The production of anhydrous alcohol requires azeotropic distillation, or a membrane process. The 96° mixture of ethanol-water cannot be separated by distillation, as it constitutes an azeotrope ("boiling without variation", from the Greek)
  • Wood drying is an integral part of timber processing

See also

External links

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