Duduk: Wikis

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Duduk
Duduk (landscape).jpg
A traditional Duduk
Other names Ծիրանափող (Tsiranapogh), düdük, duduki, дудка
Classification Wind instrument with Double reed
Playing range
Duduk range.jpg
Musicians
Gevorg Dabaghyan, Djivan Gasparyan, Alihan Samedov, Vache Sharafyan
A duduk

The duduk is a traditional woodwind instrument of Armenian origin. The Duduk popular with the people of Caucasus, Middle East and Eastern Europe.[1][2][3][4] This English word is often used generically for a family of ethnic instruments including the doudouk or duduk (դուդուկ) (also tsiranapogh (ծիրանափող, literally "apricot horn") in Armenian, the düdük or mey in Turkey, the duduki in Georgia, the balaban (or düdük) in Azerbaijan[5], the narmeh-ney in Iran, the duduka or dudka in Russia and Ukraine, duduk in Macedonia and Serbia, and the douduk in Bulgaria. The word itself is ultimately derived from Turkish "düdük",[6][7] likely of onomatopoeic origin. The word dudka in Slavic languages is a diminutive of duda and is of native Slavic origin; the similarity with Turkish düdük is a coincidence.[8]

Contents

Overview

The duduk is a double reed instrument which has ancient origins, said to be from 1500 to 3000 years old. The earliest instruments similar to the duduk's present form are made of bone or entirely of cane. Today the duduk is exclusively made of wood with a large double reed. Armenian duduks are mainly made from aged apricot wood (Prunus armeniaca, "Armenian plum" in Latin), although other regional varieties use other materials (mulberry, etc.). The particular tuning depends heavily on the region which it is played. In the twentieth century the Armenian duduk began to be standardized diatonic in scale and single-octave in range. Accidentals, or chromatics are achieved using fingering techniques. The instrument's body also has different lengths depending upon the range of the instrument and region. The reed (Armenian: եղեգն, eġegn), is made from one or two pieces of cane in a duck-bill type assembly. Unlike other double-reed instruments, the reed is quite wide, helping to give the duduk both its unique, mournful sound, as well as its remarkable breath requirements. The duduk player is called dudukahar (դուդուկահար) in Armenian.

History

A duduk mouthpiece

The duduk is one of the oldest double reed instruments in the world and dates back over 3,000 years. Variants of the duduk can be found in Armenia and the Caucasus. The roots of Armenian duduk music date to the reign of the Armenian king Tigran the Great (r. 95–55 B.C.).[9] The instrument is depicted in numerous Armenian manuscripts of the Middle Ages.[10] According to ethnomusicologist Dr. Jonathan McCollum:

It is actually the only truly Armenian instrument that’s survived through history, and as such is a symbol of Armenian national identity. The most important quality of the duduk is its ability to express the language dialectic and mood of the Armenian language, which is often the most challenging quality to a duduk player.

[11]

Balkan duduk

While the term duduk mostly refers to a double reed instrument, it sometimes also refers to a kind of blocked-end flute, which in Bulgaria and a part of Macedonia is also called kaval or kavalče. Made of maple or other wood, it comes in two sizes: 700–780 mm and 240–400 mm (duduce). The blocked end is flat. Playing the duduk is fairly straightforward and easy, thus it is widely used throughout Macedonia. Its sound is clean and pleasant.

A duduk player

Film Music

The sound of the Duduk, if not the instrument itself, has become known to a large audience through its use in popular film soundtracks. Starting with Peter Gabriel's score for Martin Scorsese's The Last Temptation of Christ, the Duduk's archaic and mournful sound has been employed in a variety of genres to depict such moods. Djivan Gasparian played the duduk in Gladiator, Syriana, and Blood Diamond, among others[12]. The Duduk has also been used in The Crow, The Passion of Christ and even in science fiction, like Battlestar Galactica and Children of Dune TV series.[13]

In popular culture

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Movie soundtracks

  • Ararat by Michael Danna[14]
  • Bedtimes Stories by Rupert Gregson-Williams[15]
  • Chronicles of Narnia by Harry Gregson-Williams, in the track A Narnia Lullaby.[16]
  • Constantine by Brian Tyler, Klaus Badelt, in the track Circle of Hell
  • The Crow by Graeme Revell featuring the duduk player Djivan Gasparyan
  • Don't mess with the Zohan by Rupert Gregson-Williams[15]
  • Elektra by Christophe Beck[15]
  • Gladiator by Hans Zimmer in the track Duduk of the North[17]
  • Hulk (2003) by Danny Elfman[18]
  • Munich by John Williams
  • Mayrig by Omar Al Shariff
  • Next by Mark Isham[15]
  • Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End by Hans Zimmer[15]
  • The Island by Steve Jablonsky[15]
  • The Kite Runner by Alberto Iglesias[15]
  • The Last Temptation of Christ by Peter Gabriel
  • The Pact of Wolves by Joseph Loduca
  • Vantage Point by Atli Orvarsson[15]
  • Wanted by Danny Elfman[15]

Television soundtracks

  • Angel by Rob Kral[15]
  • Battlestar Galactica (2004 TV series) by Bear McCreary. Its tracks Two Funerals, Starbuck on the Red Moon, Escape from the Farm, Colonial Anthem, Black Market, Something Dark is Coming, Martial Law, Prelude to War feature the Armenian Duduk.[19][20][21] Roslin's theme was set to lyrics a second time for the third season premiere "Occupation", this time in Armenian.
  • Buffy the Vampire Slayer by Christophe Beck, Tomas Wanker, Rob Dunkin, Douglas Stevens[15]
  • Castle by Robert Duncan[15]
  • Children of Dune by Brian Tyler in the tracks Dune Messiah, The Throne of Alia, The Preacher At Arrakeen, Farewell[22]
  • CIS: New-York by Bill Brown[15]
  • Firefly by Greg Edmonson[15]
  • Jag by Steve Bramson[15]
  • Over There by Ed Rogers[15]
  • Path to 9/11 by John Cameron[15]
  • Spartacus by Randy Miller. Track Second Thought
  • Star Trek Enterprise by Paul Baillargeon[15]
  • The Mummy Who Would Be King by Gil Talmi, Andrew Gross[15]
  • The Pacific by Blake Neely and Geoff Zanelli[15]
  • The Shield features the armenian song Hayots Aghoonak by Seda Garibyan
  • Xena: Warrior Princess by Joseph Loduca

Video Game scores

  • Dark Void by Bear McCreary[15]
  • Myst IV: Revelation by Jack Wall[15]
  • Prince of Persia: The Two Thrones by Inon Zur[15]
  • Uncharted 2 by Greg Edmonson[15]

Anime soundtracks

  • Tales from Earthsea by Gedo Senki, in the tracks The Trip, The Spider and Violent Robbery/The Seduction of the Undead.[23]

Notes

  1. ^ The Armenian duduk as a "Masterpiece of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity" from the UNESCO's 2005 proclamation.
  2. ^ "Nothing Sounds Armenian Like a Duduk: ALMA Lecture". Armenianweekly.com. 2010-02-12. http://www.armenianweekly.com/2010/02/12/nothing-sounds-armenian-like-a-duduk/. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  3. ^ Farmer, H.G. "Mizmār." Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Ed., v. 7. P. Bearman et al. (eds.) Leiden: Brill, 1993, p. 209.
  4. ^ "The Duduk: From Village Feasts to Hollywood Movies." Hetq.
  5. ^ Albright, Ch. "BĀLĀBĀN." Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  6. ^ (Russian) "Дудук." Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
  7. ^ Russian language dictionary in 4 volumes. Volume 1. 1999
  8. ^ “дуда” in М. Фасмер (1986), Этимологический Словарь Русского Языка (Москва: Прогресс), 2-е изд. — Перевод с немецкого и дополнения О.Н. Трубачёва
  9. ^ The Duduk and its Music. UNESCO. Accessed February 8, 2010.
  10. ^ Duduk Music
  11. ^ "Nothing Sounds Armenian Like a Duduk: ALMA Lecture". Armenianweekly.com. 2010-02-12. http://www.armenianweekly.com/2010/02/12/nothing-sounds-armenian-like-a-duduk/. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  12. ^ Gasparian article at imdb.com
  13. ^ Duduk article from composer Bear McCreary's Battlestar Galactica site
  14. ^ "Ararat". Filmtracks.com. 2002-11-05. http://www.filmtracks.com/titles/ararat.html. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Chris Bleth Movie Credits". Chrisbleth.com. http://www.chrisbleth.com/credits.html. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  16. ^ Other reviews by Mike Brennan (2005-12-02). "soundtrack.net". soundtrack.net. http://www.soundtrack.net/albums/database/?id=3943. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  17. ^ Gladiator by Hans Zimmer and Lisa Gerrard
  18. ^ "Hulk (Danny Elfman)". Filmtracks.com. 2003-06-17. http://www.filmtracks.com/titles/hulk.html. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  19. ^ "Instruments of Battlestar Galactica: Duduk". Bearmccreary.com. 2006-09-28. http://www.bearmccreary.com/blog/?p=42. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  20. ^ Runner, Blade (2004-02-26). "Duduk: The Instrument That Makes Hollywood Cry". Galactica-station.blogspot.com. http://galactica-station.blogspot.com/2006/10/duduk-instrument-that-makes-hollywood.html. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  21. ^ "Battlestar Galactica: Season Two". Musicweb-international.com. http://www.musicweb-international.com/film/2006/dec06/bsg_s2.html. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  22. ^ "Children of Dune". Cinemusic.net. http://www.cinemusic.net/2008/12/27/children-of-dune/. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  23. ^ Benoit Basirico (2005-11-14). "Gedo Senki (Les Contes de Terremer)". Cinezik.org. http://www.cinezik.org/critiques/affcritique.php?titre=contes_terremer. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 

See also

External links


Simple English

The Duduk is a traditional woodwind instrument of Armenian origins.[1]

History

The duduk is one of the oldest double reed instruments in the world which dates back over 3,000 years. Many different duduks can be found in Armenia and the Caucasus. The roots of Armenian duduk music go back to the times of the Armenian king Tigran the Great (95-55 BC). The instrument is seen in many Armenian manuscripts of the Middle Ages.[1]

References

Other websites



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