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Coordinates: 56°27′51″N 2°58′13″W / 56.464167°N 2.970278°W / 56.464167; -02.970278

Dundee
Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh
Scots: Dundee
City of Discovery
442 dundee header.png
Top: Tay Rail Bridge, Middle: RRS Discovery and City Centre, Bottom left: Magdalen Yard Bandstand, Bottom right: University of Dundee.
Dundee is located in Scotland
Dundee

 Dundee shown within Scotland
Area  26 sq mi (67 km2[1]
Population est. 141,937[2] (2006)
Metropolitan area -
est. 159,522[3] (2006)
OS grid reference NO402306
Council area Dundee City
Lieutenancy area Dundee
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town DUNDEE
Postcode district DD1-DD6
Dialling code 01382
Police Tayside
Fire Tayside
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Dundee East
Dundee West
Scottish Parliament Dundee East
Dundee West
Angus
North East Scotland
List of places: UK • Scotland •

Dundee (pronounced /dʌnˈdiː/) (from the Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh) is the fourth-largest city in Scotland and, fully named as Dundee City, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. It lies on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea.

Evidence suggests Dundee has been continuously occupied since the Mesolithic. The town developed into a burgh in Medieval times, and expanded rapidly in the 19th century largely due to the jute industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jam, jute and journalism".

In mid-2006, the population of Dundee City was estimated to be 141,930, with a metropolitan population of 159,522. Dundee's recorded population reached a peak of 182,204 at the time of the 1971 census, but has since declined due to outward migration.

Today, Dundee is promoted as the City of Discovery, in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the RRS Discovery, Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic exploration vessel, which was built in Dundee and is now berthed in the city harbour. Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, and the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital-entertainment industry. Dundee has two universities—the University of Dundee and the University of Abertay Dundee.

Contents

History

The name "Dundee" is made up of two parts: the celtic place-name element dùn, meaning fort; and a second, enigmatic element, which may derive from the gaelic "dèagh", meaning 'fire' or from "Tay".[4]

The area surrounding the modern city has been continuously occupied since the Mesolithic.[5] From the Iron Age, through to the early Medieval period, the area formed a demesne controlled from the Law Hill fort.[6]

The earldom of Dundee was granted by charter by King William to his younger brother, David (later Earl of Huntingdon) in the late 12th century.[7] The situation of the town and David's promotion of it as a trading centre, lead to a period of prosperity and growth.[6][8] The earldom was passed down to David's descendents amongst whom was John Balliol, the town becoming a Royal Burgh on the coronation of John as king in 1292.[6] Burghal status was revoked during the First War of Independence and subsequently renewed by charter from Robert the Bruce in 1327.[8]

The town suffered large scale destruction during the rough wooing of 1544 to 1551. In 1645, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist Marquess of Montrose.[9] The town was finally destroyed by Parliamentarian forces, led by George Monk in 1651.[8] The town became an early site of support for the Jacobite cause when John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee raised the Stuart standard on Dundee Law in 1689, earning him the nickname Bonnie Dundee.[10]

Dundee greatly expanded in size during the Industrial Revolution mainly because of the burgeoning British Empire trade, flax and then latterly the jute industry.[11] By the end of the 19th century, a majority of the city's workers were employed in its many jute mills and in related industries. Dundee's location on a major estuary allowed for the easy importation of jute from the Indian subcontinent as well as whale oil—needed for the processing of the jute—from the city's large whaling industry. The industry began to decline in the 20th century as it became cheaper to process the cloth on the Indian subcontinent. The city's last jute mill closed in the 1970s.

The original Tay Bridge (from the south) the day after the disaster. The collapsed section can be seen near the northern end

The city is also became known for smaller industries, notably the production of Keiller's marmalade,[12] and the publishing firm DC Thomson & Co., which was founded in the city in 1905 and remains the largest employer after the health and leisure industries.[13][14] Dundee was said to be built on the 'three Js': Jute, Jam and Journalism.

Dundee's maritime and shipbuilding industry was once a major economic force. At its height, 200 ships per year were built in there, including Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic research vessel, the RRS Discovery. This ship is now on display at Discovery Point in the city.[15] A significant whaling industry was also based in Dundee, largely existing to supply the jute mills with whale oil. Whaling ceased in 1912 and shipbuilding ceased in 1981.[16]

The town was also the location of one of the worst rail disasters in British history, the Tay Bridge disaster. The first Tay rail bridge, was opened in 1879. It collapsed less than a year later during a storm, as a passenger train passed over it, resulting in the loss of 75 lives[17]

Governance

City of Dundee Arms since 1996

Dundee became a unitary council area in 1996 under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994,[18] which gave it a single tier of local government control under the Dundee City Council. The city has two mottos—Latin: Dei Donum (English: Gift of God) and Prudentia et Candore (With Thought And Purity),[19] although usually only the latter is used for civic purposes. Dundee is represented in both the British House of Commons and in the Scottish Parliament. For elections to the European Parliament, Dundee is within the Scotland constituency.

Local government

Dundee City Square. The building at the back of the square is Caird Hall. The building on the right is Dundee City Chambers, where the city council meets

Dundee is one of 32 council areas of Scotland,[18] represented by the Dundee City Council, a local authority composed of 29 elected councillors. Previously the city was a county of a city and later a district of the Tayside region. Council meetings take place in the City Chambers, which opened in 1933 and are located in City Square. The civic head and chair of the council is known as the Lord Provost, a position similar to that of mayor in other cities. The council executive is based in Tayside House, but the council, lead by Bruce Ewart, recently announced plans to demolish it in favour of new premises (Dundee House) on North Lindsay Street.[20]

Prior to 1996, Dundee was governed by the City of Dundee District Council. This was formed in 1975, implementing boundaries imposed in the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973. Under these boundaries, the Angus burgh and district of Monifieth, and the Perth electoral division of Longforgan (which included Invergowrie) were annexed to the county of the city of Dundee. In 1996, the Dundee City unitary authority was created following impementation of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994. This placed Monifieth and Invergowrie in the unitary authorities of Angus and Perth and Kinross, largely reinstating the pre-1975 county boundaries. Some controversy has ensued as a result of these boundary changes, with Dundee city councillors arguing for the return of Monifieth and Invergowrie in order to subsidise Dundee City Council Tax revenues.[21]

The council was controlled by a minority coalition of Labour and Liberal Democrats of 12 councillors, with the support of the Conservatives who had five. Although the Scottish National Party (SNP) was the largest party on the council, with 11 councillors.[22][23] Elections to the council are on a four year cycle, the most recent as of 2007 being on 3 May 2007. Previously, Councillors were elected from single-member wards by the first past the post system of election, although this changed in the 2007 election, due to the Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004.[24] Eight new multi-member wards were introduced, each electing three or four councillors by single transferable vote, to produce a form of proportional representation. The 2007 election resulting in no single party having overall control, with 13 Scottish National Party, 10 Labour, 3 Conservatives, 2 Liberal Democrats, and 1 Independent Councillors. A March 2009 by election in the Maryfield ward changed the balance to 14 Scottish National Party, 9 Labour, 3 Conservatives, 2 Liberal Democrats, and 1 Independent Councillors.[25]

Westminster and Holyrood

For elections to the British House of Commons at Westminster, the city area and portions of the Angus council area are divided in two constituencies.[26] The constituencies of Dundee East and Dundee West are as of 2007 represented by Stewart Hosie (Scottish National Party (SNP)) and James McGovern (Labour), respectively. For elections to the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood, the city area is divided between three constituencies. The Dundee East (Holyrood) constituency and the Dundee West (Holyrood) constituency are entirely within the city area. The Angus (Holyrood) constituency includes north-eastern and north-western portions of the city area.[26] All three constituencies are within the North East Scotland electoral region. as of 2007 Shona Robison (SNP) is the Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for the Dundee East constituency; Joe Fitzpatrick (SNP) is the current MSP for the Dundee West constituency and Andrew Welsh (SNP) is the current MSP for the Angus constituency.

Geography

Dundee is located on the north bank of the Firth of Tay and near the North Sea. The city surrounds the basalt plug of an extinct volcano, called Dundee Law or simply The Law (174 metres (571 ft)).[27] Dundee is Scotland's only south-facing city, giving it a claim to being Scotland's sunniest and warmest city.[28] Temperatures tend to be a couple of degrees higher than Aberdeen to the north or the coastal areas of Angus.[citation needed] Dundee suffers less severe winters than other parts of Scotland due to the close proximity to the North sea and the salt air and a range of protective hills at the back of the city, which are often snow covered while the city itself remains clear.[citation needed]

Dundee
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
63
 
7
2
 
 
31
 
8
2
 
 
47
 
10
3
 
 
38
 
13
5
 
 
46
 
15
7
 
 
55
 
18
10
 
 
42
 
20
12
 
 
88
 
20
11
 
 
37
 
18
10
 
 
70
 
13
7
 
 
51
 
10
4
 
 
39
 
7
2
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: Dundee West End Weather Station

The city, being on a relatively small landspace, is the most densely populated area in Scotland after Glasgow and around fifth in the UK overall.[citation needed] It is characterised by tall tenements, mainly four storeys high, Victorian, and built from a honey or brown sandstone. The inner districts of the city, as well as some of the outer estates, are home to a number of multi storey tower blocks from the 1960s, although these have been gradually being demolished in recent years. The outer estates are among some of the poorest urban districts in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] To the east of the city area is the distinct but incorporated suburb of Broughty Ferry.

Dundee lies close to Perth (20 miles) and the southern Highlands to the west. St Andrews (14 miles) and north-east Fife are situated to the south, while the Sidlaw Hills, Angus Glens and the Glamis Castle are located to the north. Two of Scotland's most prestigious links golf courses, St Andrews and Carnoustie are located nearby.

Demography

Natives of Dundee are called Dundonians and are often recognisable by their distinctive dialect of Scots as well as their accent,[29] which most noticeably substitutes the monophthong /e/ in place of the diphthong /ai/. Dundee's population increased substantially with the urbanisation of the Industrial Revolution as did other British cities. The most significant influx occurred in the mid-1800s with the arrival of Irish workers fleeing from the Potato Famine and attracted by industrialisation.[30]

The city has also attracted immigrants from Italy, fleeing poverty and famine, and Poland, seeking refuge from the anti-Jewish pogroms in the 19th century, and later, World War II in the 20th. Today, Dundee has a sizeable ethnic minority population, and has the third highest Asian population (~3,500) in Scotland after Glasgow and Edinburgh.[31]

The city's universities draw a large number of students from abroad (mostly Irish and EU but with an increasing number from countries in the Far East), and students account for 14.2% of the population, the highest proportion of the four largest Scottish cities.[1]

Economy

Cox's Stack, a chimney from the former Camperdown works jute mill. The chimney takes its name from jute baron James Cox who later became Lord Provost of the city

Dundee is a regional employment and education centre, with over 300,000 persons within 30 minutes drive of the city centre and 700,000 people within one hour. Many people from North East Fife, Angus and Perth and Kinross commute to the city.[32] In 2006 the city itself had an economically active population of 76.7% of the working age population, about 20% of the working age population are full time students. The city sustains just under 95,000 jobs in around 4,000 companies. The number of jobs in the city has grown by around 10% since 1996. Recent and current investment levels in the city are at a record level. Since 1997 Dundee has been the focus of investment approaching an estimated £1 billion.[33]

Despite this economic growth the proportion of Dundee's population whose lives are affected by poverty and who are classed as socially excluded is second only to Glasgow. Median weekly earnings were £409 in February 2006, an increase of 33% since 1998, on a par with the Scottish median.[32] Unemployment in 2006 was around 3.8%, higher than the Scottish average of 2.6%, although the city has narrowed this disparity since 1996, when unemployment was 8.6% compared to a Scottish average of 6.1%. In 2000 the number of unemployed in the city fell to below 5,000 for the first time in over 25 years. Average house prices in Dundee more than doubled from 1990 to 2006, from an average of £42,475 to £102,025.[34] Total house sales in the city more than tripled from 1990 to 2004, from £115,915,391 to £376,999,716. House prices rose by over 15% between 2001–2002 and 2002–2003 and between 2005 and 2006 by 16.6%.[34]

Modern economic history

The period following World War II was notable for the transformation of the city's economy. While jute still employed one-fifth of the working population, new industries were attracted and encouraged. NCR Corporation selected Dundee as the base of operations for the UK in late 1945,[35] primarily because of the lack of damage the city had sustained in the war, good transport links and high productivity from long hours of sunshine. Production started in the year before the official opening of the plant on 11 June 1947. A fortnight after the 10th anniversary of the plant (known locally amongst Dundonians as "The Cash"), the 250,000th cash machine was produced. By the 1960s, NCR had become the principal employer of the city producing cash registers, and later ATMs, at several of its Dundee plants. The firm, developed magnetic-strip readers for cash registers and produced early computers.[36] Astral, a Dundee-based firm that manufactured and sold refrigerators and spin dryers was merged into Morphy Richards and rapidly expanded to employ over 1,000 people.[37] The development in Dundee of a Michelin tyre-production facility helped to absorb the unemployment caused by the decline of the jute industry, particularly with the abolition of the jute control by the Board of Trade on 30 April 1969.[38]

Employment in Dundee changed dramatically during the 1980s with the loss of nearly 10,000 manufacturing jobs due to closure of the shipyards, cessation of carpet manufacturing and the disappearance of the jute trade. To combat growing unemployment and declining economic conditions, Dundee was declared an Enterprise Zone in January 1984. In 1983, the first Sinclair Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computers were produced in Dundee by Timex. In the same year the company broke production records, despite a sit-in by workers protesting job cuts and plans to demolish one of the factory buildings to make way for a supermarket. Timex closed its Dundee plant in 1993 following an acrimonious six month industrial dispute.[39] In January 2007, NCR announced its intention to cut 650 jobs at its Gourdie facility, and to turn the facility over for low volume production. However, following the global economic downturn of 2007-2009, the company closed the manufacturing facility completely in June 2009, with the loss of the remaining 120 jobs. The company has however pledged to retain R&D, sales and support functions in Dundee.

Modern day

Magdalen Green and Bandstand, Located in the West End

As in the rest of Scotland manufacturing industries are being gradually replaced by a mixed economy, although 13.5% of the workforce still work in the manufacturing sector, higher than the Scottish and UK average, and more than double that of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen. The main new growth sectors have been software development and biotechnology along with retail. The city has a small financial, banking and insurance sector, employing 11% of the workforce.

In 2006, 29 companies employed 300 or more staff these include limited and private companies NCR Corporation, Michelin, Tesco, D. C. Thomson & Co, BT, SiTEL, Alliance Trust, Norwich Union, Royal Bank of Scotland, Asda, Strathtay Scottish, Tayside Contracts, Tokheim, Scottish Citylink, W H Brown Construction, C J Lang & Son, Joinery and Timber Creations, HBOS, Debenhams, Travel Dundee, WL Gore and Associates, In Practice Systems, The Wood Group, Simclar, Millipore Life Sciences, Alchemy (antibody technology), Cypex(manufacturers of recombinant drug metabolising enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, and in vitro drug metabolism specialists). Major employers in the public sector and non profit sector are NHS Tayside, the University of Dundee, Tayside Police, Dundee College, Tayside Fire Brigade, HM Revenue and Customs, University of Abertay Dundee and Wellcome Trust.

The largest employers in Dundee are the city council and the Health Service, which make up over 10% of the city's workforce. The biomedical and biotechnology sectors, including start-up biomedical companies arising from university research, employ just under 1,000 people directly and nearly 2,000 indirectly.[40] Information technology and software for computer games have been important industries in the city for more than twenty years. Rockstar North, developer of Lemmings and the Grand Theft Auto series was founded in Dundee as DMA Design by David Jones; an undergraduate of the University of Abertay Dundee.[41] David Jones is now the CEO of Realtime Worlds, which has recently (2007) released Crackdown for the Xbox 360, and is responsible for employing over 200 people of multi national origin, primarily in Dundee. Other game developing companies in Dundee include Denki, Ruffian Games, Dynamo Games, 4J Studios, Cohort Studios amongst others.

Dundee is responsible for 10% of Britain's digital entertainment industry, with an annual turnover of £100 million.[42] Outside of specialised fields of medicine, science and technology, the proportion of Dundonians employed in the manufacturing sector is higher than that found in the larger Scottish cities; nearly 12% of workers. Manufacturing income per head in Dundee was £19,700 in 1999, compared to £16,700 in Glasgow.[43] The insolvency rate for businesses in Dundee is lower than other Scottish cities, accounting for only 2.3% of all liquidations in Scotland, compared to 22% and 61.4% for Edinburgh and Glasgow respectively.[43]

The surrounding area is home to three major UK military bases, Condor (Royal Marines), Leuchars (RAF) which can cause sudden noise from aircraft exercises, and Barry (army and training).

The city is served by Ninewells Hospital—one of the largest and most up to date in Europe, as well as three other public hospitals: Kings Cross, Victoria, and Ashludie, and one private: Fernbrae. A recent addition to Ninewells Hospital is the Maggie's Centre building, which was designed by Frank Gehry officially opened by Sir Bob Geldof in 2007.

Dundee is Scotland's first Fibrecity.

Landmarks

Gardyne's Land, located at 71 High Street, is a collection of five unique and interesting historical buildings. The Merchant's House (part of the complex) is the oldest, built by John Gardyne around 1560. The house is recognised as Dundee's oldest house. All of the houses have been restored and converted into Dundee's first backpackers hostel.[44]

Transport

Dundee is served by the A90 road which connects the city to the M90 and Perth in the west, and Forfar and Aberdeen in the north. The part of the road that is in the city is a dual carriageway and forms the city's main bypass on its north side, known as the Kingsway, which can become very busy at rush hour. To the east, the A92 connects the city to Monifieth and Arbroath. The A92 also connects the city to the county of Fife on the south side of the Tay estuary via the Tay Road Bridge. The main southern route around the city is Riverside Drive and Riverside Avenue (the A991), that runs alongside the Tay from a junction with the A90 in the west, to the city centre where it joins the A92 at the bridge.

External view of Dundee (Tay Bridge) Station

Dundee has an extensive public bus transport system, with the Seagate bus station serving as the city's main terminus for journeys out of town. Travel Dundee operates most of the intra-city services, with other more rural services operated by Stagecoach Strathtay. The city's two railway stations are the main Dundee (Tay Bridge) Station, which is situated near the waterfront and the much smaller Broughty Ferry Station, which is located to the eastern end of the city. These are complemented by the stations at Invergowrie, Balmossie and Monifieth. Passenger services at Dundee are provided by First ScotRail, CrossCountry and East Coast. There are no freight services that serve the city since the Freightliner terminal in Dundee was closed in the 1980s.

There are also many intercity bus services offered by Megabus, Citylink and National Express.

Dundee Airport offers commercial flights to London City Airport, Birmingham International Airport and Belfast City.[45] The airport is capable of serving small aircraft and is located 3 kilometres west of the city centre, adjacent to the River Tay. The nearest major international airport is Edinburgh Airport, 59.2 miles (95.3 km) to the south.

The nearest passenger seaport is Rosyth, about 35 miles (56 km) to the south on the Firth of Forth.

Education

Schools

Schools in Dundee have a pupil enrollment of over 20,300.[46] There are thirty-seven primary state schools and nine secondary state schools in the city. Of these, eleven primary and two secondary schools serve the city's Catholic population; the remainder are non-denominational.[47][48] There is also one specialist school that caters for pupils with learning difficulties aged between five and eighteen from Dundee and the surrounding area.[49]

Dundee is home to one independent school, the High School of Dundee, which was founded in the 13th century by the Abbot and monks of Lindores Abbey.[50] The current building was designed by George Angus in a Greek Revival style and built in 1832-34.[51] Early students included Thomas Thomson and Hector Boece,[52] as well as the brothers James, John and Robert Wedderburn who were the authors of The Gude and Godlie Ballatis, one of the most important literary works of the Scottish Reformation.[citation needed] It was the earliest reformed school in Scotland, having adopted the new religion in 1554.[citation needed] According to Blind Harry's largely apocryphal work, William Wallace, was also educated in Dundee.

Colleges and universities

The University of Dundee

Dundee is home to two universities and a student population of approximately 17,000.[1]

The University of Dundee became an independent entity in 1967, after 70 years of being incorporated into the University of St Andrews during which time it was known initially as University College and latterly as Queen's College. Significant research in biomedical fields and oncology is carried out in the "College of Life Sciences".[53] The university also incorporates the Duncan of Jordanstone School of Art and Design and the teacher training college.

The University of Abertay Dundee was founded as Dundee Institute of Technology in 1888. It was granted university status in 1994 under the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992. The university is noted for its computing and creative technology courses, particularly in computer games technology.[54]

Dundee College is the city's umbrella further education college, which was established in 1985 as an institution of higher education and vocational training.

The Al-Maktoum Institute was established in Dundee in Blackness Road in 2001. It is a research-led institution of higher education which offers postgraduate programmes of study (taught Masters and MPhil/PhD research) in the study of Islam and Muslims and multiculturalism. It is an independent institution, with its degree programmes validated by the University of Aberdeen.

Religious sites

Christian groups

Dundee Parish Church, St Mary's is one of three of the Dundee's City Churches which are joined together; only two function as places of worship: St. Mary's and St. Clement's (the Old Steeple) which can be seen in the background.

The Church of Scotland Presbytery of Dundee is responsible for overseeing the worship of 37 congregations in and around the Dundee area, 21 of which are in the city itself, with a further 5 in Broughty Ferry and Barnhill, although dwindling attendances have led to some of the churches becoming linked charges.[55] Due to their city centre location, the City Churches, Dundee Parish Church (St Mary's) and the Steeple Church, are the most prominent Church of Scotland buildings in Dundee. They are on the site of the medieval parish kirk of St Mary, of which only the 15th century west tower survives. The attached church was once the largest parish church in medieval Scotland.[citation needed] Dundee was unusual among Scottish medieval burghs in having two parish kirks; the second, dedicated to St Clement, has disappeared, but its site was approximately that of the present City Square.[citation needed]

In the Middle Ages Dundee was also the site of houses of the Dominicans (Blackfriars), and Franciscans (Greyfriars), and had a number of hospitals and chapels. These establishments were sacked during the Scottish Reformation, in the mid-16th century, and were reduced to burial grounds, now Barrack Street and Howff burial ground respectively.[8][56]

St. Paul's Cathedral is the seat of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Brechin. It is charged with overseeing the worship of 8 congregations in the city (9, including Broughty Ferry), as well as a further 17 in Angus, the Carse of Gowrie and parts of Aberdeenshire. The diocese is led by Bishop John Mantle.[57] St. Andrew's Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld, led by Bishop Vincent Paul Logan. The diocese is responsible for overseeing 15 congregations in Dundee and 37 in the surrounding area.[58]

There are Methodist,[59] Baptist,[60] Congregationalist,[61] and Pentacostalist[62] churches in the city, and non-mainstream Christian groups are also well represented, including the Salvation Army,[63] the Unitarians,[64] the Society of Friends,[65] the Jehovah's Witnesses,[66] Christadelphians,[67] and Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[68]

Non-Christian groups

Muslims are served by the Dundee Islamic Society Central Mosque in Brown Street built in 2000 to replace their former premises in Hilltown.[69] There are also smaller mosques at Victoria Road and Dura Street.[70]

A recorded Jewish community has existed in the city since the 19th century. There is a small Orthodox synagogue at Dudhope Park[71] was built in the 1960s,[72] with the Hebrew Burial Grounds located three miles (5 km) to the east.[73] Samye Dzong Dundee is a Buddhist Temple based in Reform Street.[74] There is also a Hindu mandir and Sikh gurdwara[75][76] that share a premises in Taylor's Lane situated in the West End of the city, and there is a second gurdwara in Victoria Road.[75]

Culture

The McManus Galleries in the city's Albert Square

Dundee is home to Scotland's only full-time repertory ensemble, established in the 1930s. One of its alumni, Hollywood actor Brian Cox is a native of the city.[77] The Dundee Repertory Theatre, built in 1982 is the base for Scottish Dance Theatre. Dundee's principal concert auditorium, the Caird Hall (named after its benefactor, the jute baron James Key Caird) regularly hosts the Royal Scottish National Orchestra. Various smaller venues host local and international musicians during Dundee's annual Jazz, Guitar and Blues Festivals. An art gallery and an art house cinema are located in Dundee Contemporary Arts, which opened in 1999 in the city's cultural quarter. McManus Galleries is a Gothic Revival-style building, located in Albert Square. It houses a museum and art gallery; exhibits include a collection of fine and decorative art, items from Dundee's history and natural history artefacts. Britain's only full-time public observatory, Mills Observatory is located at the summit of the city's Balgay Hill. Sensation Science Centre,[78] is a science center with over 80 exhibits based on the five senses. Verdant Works is a museum dedicated to the once dominant jute industry in Dundee and is based in a former jute mill. A new £27 million pound centre for art and design known as the "V&A at Dundee" is to be built south of Craig Harbour onto the River Tay for completion in 2014. The new museum may bring another 50,000 extra visitors to the city and create up to 900 jobs for the area.[79] The Dundee Mountain Film Festival, held in the last weekend of November, presents the best presenters and films of the year in mountaineering, mountain culture and adventure sport, along with an art and trade exhibition.[80]

Dundee Headquarters of DC Thomson & Co.

Dundee is home to DC Thomson. Dundee has a strong literary heritage, with several authors having been born, lived or studied in the city. These include A. L. Kennedy, Rosamunde Pilcher, Kate Atkinson, Thomas Dick, Mary Shelley, Mick McCluskey and John Burnside. The Dundee International Book Prize is a biennial competition open to new authors, offering a prize of £10,000 and publication by Polygon Books. Past winners have included Andrew Murray Scott, Claire-Marie Watson and Malcolm Archibald. William McGonagall, regularly cited as the "worlds worst poet",[81] worked and wrote in the city, often giving performances of his work in pubs and bars. Many of his poems are about the city and events therein, such as his work The Tay Bridge Disaster. City of Recovery Press was founded in Dundee, and has become a controversial figure in documenting the darker side of the city.[82]

Music

Popular music groups such as the 1970s soul-funk outfit Average White Band, the Associates,[83] the band Spare Snare,[84] Danny Wilson and the Indie rock bands The View and The Law hail from Dundee. The View's debut album went to number one in the UK charts in January 2007.[84] Ricky Ross of Deacon Blue and singer-songwriter KT Tunstall are former pupils of the High School of Dundee, although Tunstall is not a native of the city.[85] The Northern Irish indie rock band Snow Patrol was formed by students at the University of Dundee,[86] Brian Molko, lead singer of Placebo, grew up in the city.[87] At the end of June, Dundee hosts an annual blues festival known as the Dundee Blues Bonanza.[88]

Television and radio

Dundee is home to one of eleven BBC Scotland broadcasting centres, located within the Nethergate Centre.[89] STV North's Tayside news and advertising operations are based in the Seabraes area of the city, from where an STV News Tayside opt-out bulletin is broadcast within the nightly regional news programme, STV News at Six.

The city has three local radio stations. Radio Tay was launched on 17 October 1980.[90] The station split frequencies in January 1995 launching Tay FM for a younger audience and Tay AM playing classic hits. In 1999, Discovery 102 was launched, later to be renamed Wave 102.

Sports

Dundee has two professional football teams; Dundee and Dundee United who play at Dens Park and Tannadice Park, respectively.[91][92] Their stadiums are closer together than any senior football club pair in the UK.[93] Dundee is one of only three British cities to have produced two European Cup semi-finalists.[citation needed] Dundee lost to A.C. Milan in 1963[94] and Dundee United lost to A.S. Roma in 1984.[95] Dundee also reached the semi-finals of the forerunner to the UEFA Cup in 1968 and Dundee United were runners-up in the UEFA Cup in 1987.[96] There are also seven junior football teams in the area: Dundee North End, East Craigie, Lochee Harp, Lochee United, Dundee Violet, Broughty Athletic JFC and Downfield.[97]

Dundee is home to the Dundee CCS Stars ice hockey team which plays at Dundee Ice Arena.[98] The team participates in the Scottish National League (SNL) with the Dundee Tigers and the Northern League (NL) and in cup competitions. The city is also home to two rugby union team – Dundee High School Former Pupils rugby club who play in the First Division of the Scottish Hydro Electric Premiership and Morgan Academy Former Pupils which plays in the Third Division of the Scottish Hydro Electric Premiership. Furthermore, Harris Academy F.P.R.F.C, Panmure R.F.C. and Stobswell R.F.C. also operate in the city and participate in the Scottish Hydro Electric Caledonia League Division 2 (Midlands). Other clubs operating in the city include Menzieshill Hockey Club; Dundee Northern Lights floorball club and Dundee Hawkhill Harriers.

Public services

Dundee and the surrounding area is supplied with water by Scottish Water. Dundee, along with parts of Perthshire and Angus is supplied from Lintrathen and Backwater reservoirs in Glen Isla. Electricity distribution is by Scottish Hydro Electric plc, part of the Scottish and Southern Energy group.

Waste management is handled by Dundee City Council. There is a kerbside recycling scheme that currently serves 15,500 households in Dundee. Cans, glass and plastic bottles are collected on a weekly basis.[99] Compostable material and non-recyclable material are collected on alternate weeks.[100] Paper is collected for recycling on a four-weekly basis.[101]

Recycling centres and points are located at a number of locations in Dundee. Items accepted include, steel and aluminium cans, cardboard, paper, electrical equipment, engine oil, fridges and freezers, garden waste, gas bottles, glass, liquid food and drinks cartons, plastic bottles, plastic carrier bags, rubble, scrap metal, shoes and handbags, spectacles, textiles, tin foil, wood and yellow pages.[102] The Dundee City Council area currently has a recycling rate of 31%.[102]

Healthcare is supplied in the area by NHS Tayside. Ninewells Hospital, is the only hospital with an accident and emergency department in the area.[103] Primary Health Care in Dundee is supplied by a number of General Practices.[citation needed] Dundee, along with the rest of Scotland is served by the Scottish Ambulance Service.[104]

Law enforcement is provided by Tayside Police[105] and Dundee is served by Tayside Fire and Rescue Service.[106]

Twin cities

The arms of the twinned cities and their national flags alongside those of Dundee in the City Chambers.

Dundee maintains cultural, economic and educational ties with six twin cities:[107]

In addition, the Scottish Episcopalian Diocese of Brechin (centred on St Paul's Cathedral in Dundee) is twinned with the diocese of Iowa, United States and the diocese of Swaziland.[108]

See also

References

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External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Dundee (disambiguation).

Dundee[1] is in North East Scotland and is Scotland's 4th city. The city is just over 800 years old. It is located on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which flows out into the North Sea, on the East Coast.

Understand

Dundee Tourist Information & Orientation Centre is located at Discovery Quay on Riverside by the RRS Discovery.

Relative to other Scottish cities, Dundee's location is:

Historically, it is famous for the three J's. Jute, Jam and Journalism.

  • Jute - The boats, laden with jute from the Indian Sub-Continent used to arrive at Dundee, where the jute would be unladen and processed in the many jute mills around the City. Due to these jute factories, there was a lot of immigrant labour during this time. The last textile factory closed down a few of years ago, circa 2001. A lot of the old jute factory buildings have now been converted into apartments and offices.
  • Jam - Dundee is famous for its jam and is the original home of 'Marmalade'. The farms around Dundee grew (some still do) berries. These were used to make the jam. Also the Keillor Sweet Factory was famous for its sweets, although this is now shut down.
  • Journalism - Dundee is home to the famous Dandy and the Beano comics. D C Thomson are the publishers of these and other print titles.

The people of Dundee, a.k.a. Dundonians, are generally friendly to outsiders. The student population is very high, about 1 in 7.

Talk

Dundonians have their own slang, a quick crash course strongly influenced by both Doric (from the North East) and Lowland Scots. Note that some of these are not necessarily restricted in use by Dundonians, rather Scots folks 'affen hae a wye o' spikin thit cin affa confuse ony English spikin fowk' [rather people from Scotland often speak in a manner which tends to confuse people who speak English]. Here's some examples:

  • Ane/Ain = One
  • Bairn = child (probably from Scandinavian)
  • Broo = Jobcentre / unemployed (On the broo/My broo just came through) (from bureau)
  • Bridie = A Meat filled Pastry, in the shape of a semi-circle, a delicacy from near-by Forfar
  • to chib = to stab (Origin unknown, may be from Romansch for 'blade')
  • 'The Cash' = nickname for NCR (ATM manufacturer), one of the city's largest employers.
  • Circle = roundabout / rotary junction
  • Cundie = Drain (apparently from 'conduit')
  • Dub = A puddle
  • Eh (sounds like the 'e' at the beginning of 'elephant') = Aye/Yes
  • Eh = I (pronoun). The fact that 'yes' and 'I' are the same in Dundonian is a source of common bafflement for visitors.
  • Fleg = Fright/Scare
  • Gie's = Give me (from 'give us')
  • Green = Can be used for any open grassy space, but also specifically means the shared back garden of a block of tenements.
  • Jessie = An effeminate or weak man (Literally it is a Scots form of the name 'Janet')
  • Ken = Know
  • Kent = Knew/Known
  • Midden = a bin (common Scots)
  • Minging = smelly/disgusting
  • to pan (in) = to break (as in 'Eh panned in a wundie') or to beat up
  • Peh = a meat pie (pronunciation shift ie->eh, similarly my->meh, high->heh, etc)
  • Pochle = To steal
  • Puss (short 'u', rhymes with 'bus') = Face (If someone is going to 'bang your puss', find a way to make a sharp exit...)
  • Schemie = A resident of one of the outlying suburbs (or 'schemes'). Often used in a disparaging fashin.
  • Tatties = potatoes
  • Teuchter (pron. 'choochter') = A resident of the countryside, chiefly to the north. Often used in a disparaging fashion. (Also - someone may be referred to as being from Auchterteuchter)
  • Tube/Choob = Stupid person, usually heard in the phrase 'you tube' (This usage predates the now-famous video sharing website ...)

Get in

By plane

Dundee has its own airport, with flights direct to London City Airport. CityJet operates the service, which are roughly £60 to £150 for one-way and £100 to £250 for a return. Bookings can be made through Air France and now offer worldwide connections usually routing from Dundee-London City-Paris then on to the final destination. Flybe operates Direct flights to Birmingham and Belfast City airports- Monday to Friday and Sunday. The flights are operated on behalf of Loganair and you can expect to pay around £35-£70 for single fares or around £80-£150 for a return. Also operated by Flybe starting in summer 2009 are direct flights to Jersey. Flybe also offers a connection service allowing passengers to book connecting flights from Dundee to many other UK and European destinations. Flights normally involve one change in Birmingham.

The nearest major international airports to Dundee are at Edinburgh - 60 mi (96km), or Aberdeen - 71 mi (114km). For Edinburgh airport, a combined train and bus service linking at Inverkeithing Railway costs £15 for a single and £22.60 for a period return. If you are flying into Glasgow-Prestwick half price railway travel into Dundee is available if you show your flight paperwork to the train guard - note you will have to change trains in the centre of Glasgow - walk from Central to Queen Street station - all Aberdeen trains call at Dundee.

By train

Dundee’s main railway station is located to the south of the city centre, close to Discovery Point and the ramps onto the Tay Road Bridge. Connections and timetables can be checked on-line. There are three train operators that operate into Dundee:

  • Scotrail [2] There are hourly services to Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh. Costs can vary considerably, an off peak return to Edinburgh is around £20, to Glasgow about £28. Booking an advance purchase ticket online can bring the cost down to £6 one way. Scotrail also operate the overnight Caledonian Sleeper from London Euston. The Aberdeen sleeper calls at Dundee, and leaves London at around 8pm, arriving into Dundee around 5:30am. For this reason it is often better to leave London at midnight on the Edinburgh sleeper instead and change to a local service so you can arrive in Dundee at a more sociable time.
  • East Coast [3] There are three direct services per day to Dundee from London King’s Cross via York, Newcastle and Edinburgh. These trains continue on to Aberdeen. Average journey time 6 hours. London-Dundee fares vary enormously from about £17.50 for a one way ticket bought in advance to about £120 for an off peak return.
  • CrossCountry [4] Britain’s longest single rail journey – to Penzance on the south west tip of England starts/terminates from Dundee. It provides a useful link to Central England via Bristol, Birmingham and York.

By bus

Dundee Seagate Bus Station, also located in the city centre serves National Express coaches, Scottish Citylink and Megabus. There are frequent services, almost every hour to Edinburgh and Glasgow. Be wary, if you take a non-direct Coach / Bus, your journey time may double to up to 2hrs !! Average cost for a single ticket is approx £8. Check before you travel.There is no luggage storage but for a small fee you can leave your bag or suitcase across the road at Parkys furniture and fancy goods stores.

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To get around Dundee, there are ample provisions for car transport. Taxis are available at taxi ranks near principal sites, such as Cathedral, Train Station, etc. The local bus service, Travel Dundee, has extensive intra-city connections - with the routes as of 2006 as follows:

  Line Routes Destinations
RedLine   1, 1A, 1B, 1C, 1X City Centre - St. Mary's / Craigowl
City Circle   9, 10, 11, 12 Circular
Ferry Link   9X, 10X Barnhill - Broughty Ferry - City Centre - Ninewells Hospital - Technology Park
Whitfield Hopper   15, 17 Ninewells Hospital - City Centre - Whitfield
PrimeLine   22, 22C, 22X Ninewells Hospital - City Centre - Downfield
Discovery Line   28, 29 Douglas - City Centre - Lochee - Charleston
Fintry Shuttle   32, 33, 33A, 33B City Centre - Fintry
    2, 2A City Centre - Dryburgh
    3, 4 Dryburgh Circular
    7, 8 City Centre - Broughty Ferry (Inner Circle)
    18, 18A, 19, 21 City Centre - Kirkton - Woodside
    36, 37 Northern Circular
    51 City Centre - Liff Hospital - Fowlis
    55 City Centre - St Mary's
    88 Sainsbury's Free Shuttle Bus

All the local buses converge into the city centre and are relatively cheap. You can buy a 10 journey pass or an all day travel pass. Rural services are operated by Strathtay.

  • McManus Galleries [5] - re-opens Spring 2008
  • Broughty Castle [6]
  • Mills Observatory [7]. A "public" astronomical observatory, with free entry; its dome is made of papier-mâché, oddly enough.
  • Sensation Science Centre [8]
  • Tay Road Bridge [9]
  • Tay Rail Bridge part of which collapsed in the 1800's. Parts still visable in the river. Longest rail bridge in Britain.
  • Discovery Point (RRS Discovery) [10]
  • Verdant Works [11]
  • Frigate Unicorn [12]
  • Dundee Law [13]
  • Camperdown Wildlife Park [14]
  • Dundee Rep Theatre, [15].
  • Dundee Contemporary Arts, [16].
  • Ice Arena, [17].
  • Sensation, [18].
  • Flower and Food Show, [19].
  • Golf, [20].
  • Swimming, [21].
  • Go hill walking in the Highlands, e.g. Glen Clova [22].
  • Guided historical walks bringing the colourful and often bloody history of this old Scottish burgh to life, [23]

86.131.228.13 12:29, 31 January 2009 (EST)== Learn ==

  • Dundee University
  • University Of Abertay
  • The High School of Dundee
  • Dundee College
  • Tayside Language Centre

[24]

  • Job Centers Wellgate Center & Gellatly Street
  • Adecco Meadowside / Albert Sq.

Buy

The Overgate and the Wellgate are Dundee's two main shopping malls which sit at either end of the city centre. Each has various national and international brands such as H&M, Debenhams, Gap and Next in the Overgate and Head Entertainment (foremaly Zavvi), BHS and New Look.

In addition to this, there are substantial branches of High street stores along the Murraygate and city centre area.

Dundee also has the usual large-scale out of town retail parks that are common in Scotland's bigger towns and cities.

Eat

In recent years a cafe culture has flourished in Dundee City Center. There are plenty of places to eat from fast food take away to cafes and restaurants. You can't miss them.

  • Twin City Cafe, City Square
  • The Parlour Cafe, West Port. Incredibly busy thanks to them having the best lunch-time menus in town. Menu changes daily, featuring lots of vegetarian options.
  • Malabar, Perth Road. A local favourite, serving the best Indian curries in Dundee.
  • Bon Appetit, off Commercial Street
  • Cafe Buongiorno, off the Reform Street.
  • Balaka on the Perth road
  • Jahangir on the Hawkhill
  • Antonio's Roseangle
  • Phoenix Bar on the Nethergate serves up good pub grub at reasonable prices.
  • Dil'se, Perth Road, [25].
  • Domino's Pizza, [26] at City Quay
  • City Harbour Chinese Buffet
  • Jimmy Chung's Chinese Buffet (part of a Scottish chain)
  • Tickety Boo's on the Seagate/Commercial Street junction. Chef Avril's chilli and curries are to die for. Excellent food. Filthiest toilets in town.
  • The Old Horse Shoe Bar top of Commercial Street. Excellent food.
  • The Old Bank Bar Union Street
  • Rancho Pancho Commercial Street. Mexican food.
  • The Counting House Reform Street. J.D. Wetherspoon's
  • The Globe West Port / Hawkhill.
  • Fast Eddie's American Diner Where were you in '62. Cowgate next to Deja Vu.

If you are self-catering, then you can get your supplies from Tesco. There is a branch in the city centre, one next to the Railway Station by the river-side, one at the Stack Park, Lochee, one in South Road near Sterling Mills and another on the Kingsway (the main road running through Dundee). The latter of these is a large Tesco Extra superstore. There is a large ASDA at East Kingsway as well as a slightly smaller store at Gilburn Road. Both Riverside Tesco and Kingsway ASDA operate on a 24-hr basis. Morrisons supermarket is on the Forfar Road, north of the A90 Kingsway.

Drink

There is no shortage of pubs. If you want to do a pub crawl then head to the Hawkhill/Perth Road/West End of the city, where plenty of pubs line the streets, including a mixture of independent, themed and traditional bars.

The Nethergate is also a good place to go for plenty of bars that are popular with students. The city centre has fewer places that are worth going, although the Seagate has some nice bars, including outlets run by Wetherspoons. The student unions of Dundee and Abertay Universities have many good nights and are great for a cheap night out.

A gay scene, of sorts, is situated on the Seagate, including a nightclub called Out and its sister pub, Brooklyns, both of which are opposite the bus station. Also The Gauger is generally reknowned to be a gay bar.

City Centre

  • Tickety Boo's - Seagate / Commercial Street.
  • The Old Horse Shoe Bar - Commercial Street.
  • Lennon's - Castle Street. For all you Beatles fans.
  • Coagie's - Very traditional working class pub.
  • Trades House Bar - Union Street.
  • The Old Bank Bar - Union Street.
  • The West Port Bar - North Lindsay Street. Handy for nightclubs.

Hawkhill/Perth Road/West End

  • The Globe - Westport / Hawkhill. Handy for nightclubs.
  • Tallys - West Port / Hunter Street.
  • Kokomo - West Port / Hunter Street. Student bar.
  • The Nether Inn - Nethergate. Cheap Student 'Scream' pub.
  • Phoenix - Nethergate / Perth Road. Traditional pub
  • Bar Rio - Perth Road / South Tay Street. Modern bar-restaurant
  • Social - South Tay Street. Cocktail bar
  • Number Twenty Five - South Tay Street. Boutique hotel, restaurant, bar.
  • DCA Jute Bar - Perth Road. Trendy bar attached to Dundee Contemporary Arts Centre
  • Braes - Perth Road. Modern bar, frequented by more middle-aged clientele during weekends.
  • Laings - Roseangle/Perth Road. Bar-restaurant with large locally-famous beer garden
  • Drouthys - Perth Road. Cocktail bar/music venue
  • Speedwell Bar - Perth Road. Locally reknowned traditional pub

Night clubs

All the night clubs cluster around the city centre:

  • London[27] - Ward Road
  • Out - Seagate. Gay club.
  • Fat Sams[28] - South Ward Road
  • The Reading Rooms - Blackscroft
  • Mondo's - Session Street
  • Deja Vu - Cowgate
  • Liquid - South Ward Road. formerly Mardi Gras.
  • The Cage - St. Andrew's Lane
  • Underground - South Tay Street. Bar/club.

Sleep

Dundee has a variety of hotels in the city centre, catering to all markets and tastes, including:

  • Apex City Quay [29] - City Quay
  • Hilton Dundee[30] - Riverside Drive
  • The Queens Hotel - Nethergate, close to the University of Dundee
  • Number Twenty Five - South Tay Street
  • Premier Inn Dundee City Centre[31] - Riverside Drive, beside Discovery Point
  • Travelodge Dundee Central - West Port
  • Invercarse Hotel - Perth Road, close to the Botanical Gardens
  • Dundee Backpackers Hostel [32] - High Street
  • Holiday Inn Express Dundee - Dock Street, 01382 31 43 30 www.holidayinnexpressdundee.com info@hiexpressdundee.com. Central Dundee.
  • During the summer, the majority of student accommodations are empty, it may be worthwhile contacting the local Universities to see if they have anything to offer. There are also various flats and apartments to rent over the summer.

There are also various hotels around the outskirts of the city, including:

  • The Landmark Hotel - South Kingsway, foremaly the Swallow Hotel Dundee
  • Premier Inn Dundee West - South Kingsway
  • Travelodge Dundee West - Camperdown

Contact

Cellular network coverage is provided by the normal UK carriers.

Stay safe

The local police is Tayside Police and the Headquarters is in the town centre at the end of West Bell St beside Dundee's Sheriff Court. Although in the UK, '999' is the number to call the emergency services, you may also want to take note of the direct phone number to the Tayside Police HQ : +448456005705. Dundee has an extensive CCTV system, covering most of the city and the entire city centre. This is owned by Dundee City Council and run by Tayside Police and has helped reduce crime significantly.

Dundee, like any other major city, has it's anti-social problems. Mainly drugs. The area round the rear of the Wellgate centre (Hilltown) has a bad reputation and care should be exercised on The Law at night. Overall the city has a good reputation.

Dundee has a Dual Carriageway going through it, the Kingsway, which almost splits the city in half. Be aware of speeding cars, as accidents are not uncommon, as in any other busy city.

Cope

Churches

The following is a list of established Christian churches in Dundee. Alongside the established churches in Dundee, Dundeeforchrist [33] works with many of the city's churches organizing many different events such as "Resurrection Day", with specially invited guests/bands.

  • Central Baptist Church [34].
  • Dens Road Church [35].
  • Dundee Parish Church (St Mary's) [36].
  • Gilfillan Memorial Church [37].
  • Hillbank Evangelical Church [38].
  • Lochee Churches of Scotland [39].
  • Mains of Fintry Church of Scotland [40].
  • Midcraigie Parish Church [41].
  • St Andrew's RC Cathedral
  • St Andrew's Parish Church [42].
  • St Mary Magdalene [43].
  • St Joseph's RC Church [44].
  • St Paul's Episcopal Cathedral [45].
  • St Peter's Free Church [46].
  • St Salvador's Episcopal Church [47].
  • The Gate Christian Fellowship [48].
  • The Steeple Church [49].
  • Williamson Memorial Unitarian Church [50].
  • Dundee Islamic Society Central Mosque [51]
  • Jamia Masjid Bilal
  • Tayside Islamic & Cultural Education Society
  • If you want to visit the Glens and the Highlands then the best way to do it is by car. Enterprise Car hire is located next the Bus / Coach station. (131 Seagate, Dundee, DD1 2HW)
  • St Andrews is an ancient university town by the sea, the home of the oldest university in Scotland, the home of the Royal and Ancient (the ruling body of Golf), and the former ecclesiastical capital of Scotland. It is a short journey from Dundee by bus or car.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

DUNDEE, a royal, municipal and police burgh, county of a. city, and seaport of Forfarshire, Scotland. Pop. (1891) 153,587; (1901) 161,173. It lies on the north shore of the Firth of Tay, 591 m. N. by E. of Edinburgh by the North British railway via the Forth and Tay bridges. The Caledonian railway finds access to the city by way of Perth, which is distant about 22 m. W. by S. The general disposition of the town is from east to west,. with a frontage on the water of 4 m. The area northwards that. has already been built over varies in depth from half a mile to nearly 22 m. (from Esplanade Station to King's Cross). The city rises gradually from the river to Dundee Law and Balgay Hill. Since the estuary to the E. of Tay bridge is 12 m. wide, and the commodious docks - in immediate contact with the river at all stages of the tide - are within 12 m. of the sea, the position of the city eminently adapts it to be the emporium of a vast. trade by land and sea. But its prosperity is due in a far greater measure to its manufactures of jute and linen - of which it is the chief seat in the United Kingdom - than to its shipping.

Table of contents

Public Buildings

The town-hall, built in 1734 from the. designs of Robert Adam, stands in High Street. It is surmounted by a steeple ,40 ft. high, carrying a good peal of bells, and beneath it is a piazza. The old Town Cross, a shaft 15 ft. high, bearing a unicorn with the date of 1586, once stood in High Street also, but was re-erected within the enclosure on the S.W. of Town Churches (see below). Albert Square, with statues of Robert Burns, George Kinloch, the first member for Dundee in the Reform Parliament (both by Sir John Steell), and James Carmichael (1776-1853), inventor of the fan-blast (by John Hutchison, R.S.A.), contains several good buildings, among them the Royal Exchange in Flemish Pointed (erected in 1853-1856), the Eastern Club-house, and the Albert Institute, founded in. memory of the prince consort. The last, built mainly from designs by Sir Gilbert Scott, is one of the most important edifices. in the city, since it embraces the art gallery, free library, reference library, museum and several halls. On the north side of the building is the seated figure, in bronze, of Queen Victoria, on a polished red granite pedestal containing bas-reliefs of episodes in Her Majesty's life, the work of Harry Bates, A.R.A. The custom house, near the docks, is in Classical style and dates from 1843. The Sheriff Court buildings and Police Chambers, a structure of Grecian design, with a bold portico, was erected in 1864-1865.. The halls used for great public meetings are the Volunteer Drill Hall in Parker Square, and Kinnaird Hall in Bank Street. Of the newer streets, Commercial, Reform, Whitehall, Bank and Lindsay contain many buildings of good design and the principal shops. In Bank Street are the offices of the Dundee Advertiser, the leading newspaper in the north-east of Scotland; and in Lindsay. Street the headquarters of the Dundee Courier. In Dock Street stands the Royal Arch, an effective structure, erected to commemorate the visit of Queen Victoria in 1844. Among places of amusement are the Theatre Royal, the People's Palace theatre, the Music Hall, the Circus and the Gymnasium. The cattle market and slaughter-houses, both on an extensive scale, are in the east end of the city, not far from Camperdown Dock. Dudhope Castle, once the seat of the Scrymgeours,. hereditary constables of the burgh - one of whom (Sir Alexander) was a companion-in-arms of Wallace, - was granted by James II. to John Graham of Claverhouse. On his death it reverted to the: crown, and at a later date was converted into barracks. When the new barracks at Dudhope Park were occupied, the Castle. was transformed into an industrial museum. Though Dundee was once a walled town, the only relic of its walls is the East Port, the preservation of which was due to the tradition that George Wishart preached from the top of it during the plague of 1544.

Churches

Of the many churches and chapels the most interesting is Town Churches - St Mary's, St Paul's and St Clement's, the three under one roof - surmounted by the noble square tower, 156 ft. high, called the Old Steeple, once the belfry of the church which was erected on this spot by David, earl of Huntingdon, as a thank-offering for his escape from shipwreck on the shoals at the mouth of the Tay (1193). The church perished, but the bell-tower remained and was restored in 1871-1873 by Sir Gilbert Scott. The fine Roman Catholic procathedral of St Andrew's is in Early English style, and St Paul's Episcopal church, in Decorated Gothic style, with a spire 211 ft. high, from designs by Sir Gilbert Scott, was due to the zeal of Bishop Forbes (1817-1875), who transferred the headquarters of the see of Brechin to Dundee. It occupies the site of the old castle. Memorial churches commemorate the work of Robert Murray McCheyne (1813-1843) and of George Gilfillan (1813-1878), long ministers in Dundee. John Glas (1695-1773), founder of the Glasites, ministered here from 1730 to 1733.

Cemeteries

The ancient burying-ground in the centre of the city is called the Howff. It has long been closed, but contains several interesting monuments and epitaphs. Not far from it the New Cemetery was laid out in West Bell Street; to the east of Baxter Park lies the Eastern Cemetery; and the Western Cemetery was constructed in Perth Road. The most beautifully situated of all the burying-grounds, however, is the Western Necropolis, which occupies the western portion of the hill of Balgay. A bridge over the ravine connects it with Balgay Park.

Public Parks and Open Spaces

On the N. of the city rises Dundee Law (571 ft.), the property of the Corporation, a prominent landmark, on the summit of which are traces of an old vitrified fort. The surrounding park covers 18 acres. Near the eastern boundary of the city lies Baxter Park, of 37 acres, presented to the town by Sir David Baxter (1793-1872), a leading manufacturer, and his sisters. It was laid out by Sir Joseph Paxton, and contains a statue of Sir David by Sir John Steell, erected by public subscription. In the west the finely wooded hill of Balgay was acquired in 1869 and 36 acres of the area were converted into a park. Immediately adjoining it on the north is Lochee Park, of 25 acres, given to the city in 1891 by Messrs Cox Brothers of Camperdown Works. In the extreme north lies the park of Fair Muir, of 12 acres, which was secured in 1890, and nearer to the heart of the town is Dudhope or Barrack Park, purchased in 1893. Near the north end of the Tay bridge is Magdalen Green, an old common of 17 acres, and along the shore, of the estuary there runs for a distance of 22 m. from Magdalen Point to beyond Craig Pier a promenade called the Esplanade.

Education

University College in Nethergate, founded in 1880 by Miss Baxter of Balgavies (d. 1884) and Dr John Boyd Baxter, was opened in 1883, and united to the university of St Andrews in 1890. The affiliation was cancelled in 1895 owing to divergence of view in the governing body, but this was overcome and the college finally incorporated in 1897. The staff consists of a principal, professors and lecturers, and the curriculum, which may be taken by students of both sexes, is especially concerned with medicine and natural and applied science. The endowments exceed £ 250,000. Adjoining the buildings is the Technical Institute, built and endowed by Sir David Baxter and opened in 1888. In connexion with the high school, a building in the Doric style, dating from 1833, there is a museum which was endowed in 1880 by Mr William Harris. Morgan hospital, a structure in the Scots Baronial style, situated immediately to the north of Baxter Park, was founded in 1868 by John Morgan, a native of Dundee, for the board and education of a hundred boys, sons of indigent tradesmen, but was acquired by the school board and transformed into a secondary school. Besides a high school for girls and Roman Catholic and Episcopalian schools, there are numerous efficient and thoroughly equipped board schools.

Charitable Institutions

One of the most conspicuous buildings in the city, occupying a prominent position in the centre, is the Royal Infirmary, a fine structure in the Tudor style. On the southern face of Balgay Hill stands the Royal Victoria hospital for incurables, opened in 1889. In addition to the maternity hospital and nurses' home, there are several institutions devoted to special afflictions and diseases - among them the Blind and the Deaf and Dumb institutions, the Royal asylum, the fever hospital at King's Cross, and, in the parish of Mains - beyond the municipal boundary - the Baldovan asylum for imbeciles, founded in 1854 by Sir John Ogilvy and said to be the earliest of its kind in Scotland, besides the smallpox and cholera hospital. The large Dundee hospital adjoins the poorhouse, and an epidemic hospital has been built in the Fair Muir district. One of the convalescent homes is situated at Broughty Ferry. Among other institutions are the Royal Orphan and the Wellburn Charitable institutions, the rescue home for females, the sailors' home and Lady Jane Ogilvy's orphanage in Mains.

Trade

Hector Boece, in his History and Croniklis of Scotland, thus quaintly writes of the manufactures of Dundee in the opening of the 16th century - "Dunde, the toun quhair we wer born; quhair mony virtewus and lauborius pepill ar in, making of claith." Jute is, par excellence, the industry of the city. Enormous quantities of the raw material - estimated at 300,000 tons a year - are imported directly from India in a fleet solely devoted to this trade, and many of the factories in Bengal are owned by Dundee merchants. Fabrics in jute range from the roughest sacking to carpets of almost Oriental beauty. Another staple industry is the linen manufacture, which is also one of the oldest, although it was not till the introduction of steam power that headway was made. Bell Mill, erected in 1806, was the first work of any importance, and the first power-loom factory dates from 1836. Now factories and mills are to be counted by the score, and the jute, hemp and flax manufactures alone employ about 50,000 hands, while the value of the combined annual output exceeds £6,000,000. Some of the works are planned on a colossal scale, and many of the buildings in respect of design and equipment are among the finest and most complete in the world. In the thriving quarter of Lochee are situated the Camperdown Linen Works, covering an immense area and employing more than 5000 hands. The chimney-stalk (282 ft. high), in the style of an Italian campanile, built of parti-coloured bricks with stone cornices, is a conspicuous feature. The chief textile products are drills, ducks, canvas (for which the British navy is the largest customer), ropes, sheetings, sackings and carpets. Dundee is also celebrated for its confectionery and preserves, especially marmalade. Among other prominent industries are bleaching and dyeing, engineering, shipbuilding, tanning, the making of boots and shoes and other goods in leather, foundries, breweries, corn and flour mills, and the construction of motor-cars.

Shipping

By reason of its excellent docking facilities Dundee can cope with a shipping trade of the largest proportions. On the front wharves and harbour works extend for 2 m., and the docks cover an area of 351 acres, made up thus - Earl Grey Dock, 54 acres; King William IV. Dock, 64 acres; Tidal Harbour, 44 acres; Victoria Dock, 104 acres; Camperdown Dock, 8 acres. There are, besides, graving docks, the Ferry harbour and timber ponds. The warehouses are capacious and the ample quays equipped with steam cranes and other modern appliances. In 1898 there entered and cleared 2914 vessels of 1,390,331 tons; in 1904 the numbers were 2428 vessels of 1,227,429 tons. At the close of 1904 the registered shipping of the port was 131 vessels of 109,885 tons. Dundee is the seat of the Arctic fishery, once an important and lucrative business, but now shrunk to the most meagre dimensions in consequence of the increasing scarcity of whales and seals. There is regular communication by steamer with London, Hull, Newcastle, Liverpool and Leith, besides Rotterdam, Hamburg and other continental ports. Of the local excursions the two hours' run to Perth is the favourite summer trip.

Local Government

Dundee returns two members to parliament. The city council consists of the lord provost, bailies and councillors. The corporation owns the gas and water supplies (the latter drawn from the loch of Lintrathen, 18 m. to the N.W.) and the electric tramcars.

History

There appears to be some doubt as to the origin of the name of Dundee. It is extravagant to trace it to the Latin Donum Dei, " the gift of God," as some have done, or the Celtic Dun Dhia, " the hill of God." More probably it is the Gaelic Dun Taw, " the fort of the Tay," of which the Latin Taodunum is a transliteration - the derivation pointing to the fact of a Pictish settlement on the site. The earliest authentic mention of the city is in a deed of gift by David, earl of Huntingdon, younger brother of William the Lion, dated about 1200, in which it is designated as "Dunde." Shortly afterwards it was erected into a royal burgh by William the Lion. When Edward I. visited it, however, as he did twice (in 1296 and 1303) with hostile intent, he is said to have removed its charter. Consequently Robert Bruce and successive kings confirmed its privileges and rights, and Charles I. finally granted it its great charter. Dundee played a prominent part in the War of Scottish Independence. Here Wallace finished his education, and here he slew young Selby, son of the English constable, in 1291, for which deed he was outlawed. In that year the town fell into the hands of the English, and it was whilst engaged in besieging the castle in 1297 that Wallace withdrew to fight the battle of Stirling Bridge. In their incursion into Scotland under John of Gaunt the English captured and partially destroyed the town in 1385, but retreated to meet a counter-invasion of their own country. The English seized it again for a brief space during one of the ist earl of Hertford's devastating raids in the reign of Edward VI. Dundee bore such a prominent part in propagating the Reformed doctrines that it was styled "the Scottish Geneva." It saw more trouble at the time of the Civil War, for the marquess of Montrose sacked it in 1645, and then gave a considerable portion of it to the flames. Charles II. spent a few days in the castle after his crowning at Scone (January ist, 1651). In the same year General Monk demanded the submission of the town to Cromwell, and on its refusal captured it after an obstinate resistance and visited it with condign punishment. More than one-sixth of the inhabitants and garrison, including its governor Lumsden, were put to the sword, and no fewer than 60 vessels were seized and filled with plunder; but the ships, says Gumble in his Life of Monk, " were cast away within sight of the town and that great wealth perished." In 1684 John Graham of Claverhouse - whose family derived its name from the lands of Claverhouse in the parish of Mains immediately to the north of the town - became constable, and in 1688 provost. In the same year James II. created him Viscount Dundee. Thenceforward the annals of the town cease to touch national history, save at very rare intervals. The greatest local disaster of modern times was the destruction of the first Tay bridge (see TAY).

Many interesting old documents have been preserved in the Town House, such as certain characteristic despatches from Edward I. and Edward II., the original charter of Robert Bruce, dated 1327, a papal order from Leo X., and a letter from Queen Mary, dated 1564, providing for extra-mural interments. It may be mentioned that to describe Claverhouse himself as "bonnie Dundee" is a modern invention, the old song from which Sir Walter Scott borrowed a hint for his refrain referring solely to the town.

Since the middle and particularly during the last quarter of the 19th century many of the more unsightly districts have been demolished. In the process several picturesque but insanitary buildings, narrow winding streets and unsavoury closes disappeared, along with a few structures of more or less historic interest, like the castle, the mint and numerous convents. The wholesale clearances, however, improved both the public health and the appearance of the city, some of the new thoroughfares vieing with the finest business streets of the largest commercial centres in the United Kingdom. Queen Victoria granted a charter to Dundee, dated the 25th of January 1889, erecting it to the status of a city, and since 1892 its chief magistrate has been styled lord provost.

Among men more or less eminent who were born in Dundee may be named Hector Boece (1465-1536), the historian; George Dempster of Dunnichen (1732-1818), the agriculturist, a former owner of Skibo; Thomas Dick (1774-1857), the author of The Christian Philosopher; Admiral Lord Duncan (1731-1804); Viscount Dundee (1643-1689); James Halyburton (1518-1589), the Scottish Reformer, who was provost of the town for thirty-three years; Sir James Ivory (1765-1842), the mathematician, who bequeathed his science library to the town, and his nephew Lord Ivory (1792-1866), the judge; Sir George Mackenzie (1636-1691), the celebrated lawyer; Sir Alexander Scrymgeour (d. 1310), Wallace's standard-bearer, and many of the Scrymgeours, his successors, who were constables of the town; James (1495-1553), John (1500-1556) and Robert Wedderburn (1510-1557), the poets, who were all concerned in the authorship or collection of the book of Gude and Godlie Ballatis published in 1578; Sir John Wedderburn (1599-1679), the physician; and Sir Peter Wedderburn(1616 - r 679), the judge. Many well-known persons lived for longer or shorter periods in the town. James Chalmers (1782-1853), the inventor of the adhesive postage stamp (1834), was a bookseller in Castle Street. George Constable of Wallace Craigie, the prototype of Jonathan Oldbuck in Sir Walter Scott's Antiquary, had a residence in the east end of Seagate, the house standing until about 1820. Thomas Hood's father was a native and the poet spent part of his youth in the town, his first literary effort appearing in the Dundee Advertiser about 1816. James Bowman Lindsay (1799-1862), electrician and philologist, carried on his experiments for many years in Dundee, where he died. Robert Nicoll (1814-1837), the poet, kept a circulating library in Castle Street; and William Thom (1798-1848), the writer of The Rhymes of a Handloom Weaver, was buried in the Western Cemetery.

Suburbs

Close to the municipal boundaries on the N.W. lies Benvie, where John Playfair (1748-1819), the mathematician, was born, and which has a mineral well that once enjoyed considerable repute. Camperdown House, the seat of the earl of Camperdown, a fine building of Greek design, standing in beautiful grounds, is situated in the parish. Fowlis, 5 m. N.W., is remarkable for its church, which dates from the 15th century, but has even been assigned to the 12th. It contains a carved ambry and rood-screen (with a curious representation of the Crucifixion), decorated font, crocketed door canopy and several pictures. The ruined castle adjoining the church ultimately became a dwelling for labourers. The Dell of Balruddery is rich in geological and botanical specimens. Lundie, 3 m. farther out in the same direction, contains several lakelets, and its kirkyard is the burial-place of the earls of Camperdown. Tealing, 4 m. N. of Dundee, was the scene of the ministry of John Glas before he was deposed for heresy.

AuTHoRITIEs

David Barrie, The City of Dundee Illustrated (Dundee, 1890); Alexander Maxwell, Old Dundee (Dundee, 1891); A. C. Lamb, Dundee: its Quaint and Historic Buildings (Dundee, 1895); A. H. Millar, Roll of Eminent Burgesses of Dundee (Dundee, 1887).


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Dundee

  1. A city in Scotland

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Simple English

Dundee is a city on the east coast of Scotland where the River Tay flows into the North Sea. It is the fourth largest city in Scotland. Dundee has a population of 143,090 people. It was famous as the city of "Jute, jam, and journalism", because jute and jam were made there, and several newspapers were printed in the city.

There are two universities in Dundee. They are called the University of Dundee and the University of Abertay Dundee.

It also is home to two professional football teams. Dundee F.C., who play in the Scottish First Division and Dundee United F.C., who play in the Scottish Premier League. Unusually, their stadiums (Dens Park and Tannadice) are very close together, in the same street.[1]

References

  1. Google Maps Tannadice and Dens Park







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