|— Metropolitan Area —|
|Nickname(s): Edinburgh of the South
|Territorial authority||Dunedin City|
|Settled by the UK||1848|
|- Mayor||Peter Chin|
|- Territorial||3,314 km2 (1,279.5 sq mi)|
|- Urban||255 km2 (98.5 sq mi)|
|Population (June 2009 estimate)|
|- Density||37.3/km2 (96.7/sq mi)|
|- Urban Density||453.7/km2 (1,175.1/sq mi)|
|Time zone||NZST (UTC+12)|
|- Summer (DST)||NZDT (UTC+13)|
|Postcode||9010, 9011, 9012, 9013, 9014, 9016, 9018, 9022, 9023|
Dunedin ( /dəˈniːdɪn/ (help·info)), (Māori: Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago Region. The city has a population of 123,700 (June 2009 estimate) and is the sixth-largest urban area in New Zealand, and the largest city by territorial land area (athough it will be superseded by Auckland on the creation of the Auckland Council in November 2010). For historic, cultural, and geographic reasons, Dunedin is considered to be one of New Zealand's four major urban centres.
The Dunedin urban area lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour. The harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, and along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean.
The city's largest industry is tertiary education – Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's first university (1869), and the Otago Polytechnic. The University accounts for about 20 percent of the city's population.
Archaeological evidence shows the first human (Māori) occupation of New Zealand occurred between AD 1250–1300, with population concentrated along the southeast coast. A camp site at Kaikai's Beach, near Otago Heads, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic (moa hunter) sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied, particularly in the fourteenth century. The population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at (Taiaroa Head), about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin (Ōtepoti) occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826.
Maori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area, then Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical. The next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Mamoe late in the sixteenth century and then Kai Tahu (Ngai Tahu in modern standard Māori) who arrived in the mid seventeenth century. These migration waves have often been represented as 'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that. They were probably migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed.
Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between February 25, 1770 and March 5, 1770, naming Cape Saunders on the Otago Peninsula and Saddle Hill. He reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Maori, from 1810–1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831 when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Maori population. By the late 1830s, the harbour was an international whaling port. Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.
In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying, among others his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, came south to determine the location of a free church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin.
The Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the Scottish capital. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the characteristics of Edinburgh, produced a striking, 'Romantic' design. The result was both grand and quirky streets as the builders struggled and sometimes failed to construct his bold vision across the challenging landscape. Captain William Cargill, a veteran of the war against Napoleon, was the secular leader. The Reverend Thomas Burns, a nephew of the poet Robert Burns, was the spiritual guide.
In 1852, Dunedin became the capital of the Otago Province, the whole of New Zealand from the Waitaki south. In 1861 the discovery of gold at Gabriel's Gully, to the southwest, led to a rapid influx of population and saw Dunedin become New Zealand's first city by growth of population in 1865. The new arrivals included many Irish, but also Italians, French, Germans, Jews and Chinese. The Dunedin Southern Cemetery was established in 1858, the Dunedin Northern Cemetery in 1872.
Dunedin and the region industrialised and consolidated and the Main South Line connected the city with Christchurch in 1878 and Invercargill in 1879. The University of Otago, the oldest university in New Zealand, was founded in Dunedin in 1869. Otago Girls' High School was founded in 1871. Between 1881 and 1957, Dunedin was home to cable trams, being both one of the first and last such systems in the world. Early in the 1880s the inauguration of the frozen meat industry, with the first shipment leaving from Port Chalmers in 1882, saw the beginning of a later great national industry.
After ten years of gold rushes the economy slowed but Julius Vogel's immigration and development scheme brought thousands more especially to Dunedin and Otago before recession set in again in the 1880s. In these first times of prosperity many institutions and businesses were established, New Zealand's first daily newspaper, art school, medical school and public art gallery the Dunedin Public Art Gallery among them. There was also a remarkable architectural flowering producing many substantial and ornamental buildings. R.A. Lawson's First Church of Otago and Knox Church are notable examples, as are buildings by Maxwell Bury and F.W. Petre. The other visual arts also flourished under the leadership of W. M. Hodgkins. The city's landscape and burgeoning townscape were vividly portrayed by George O'Brien 1821–1888. From the mid 1890s the economy revived. Institutions such as the Otago Settlers Museum and the Hocken Collections – the first of their kind in New Zealand – were founded. More notable buildings such as the Railway Station and Olveston were erected. New energy in the visual arts represented by G.P. Nerli culminated in the career of Frances Hodgkins.
By 1900, Dunedin was no longer the country's biggest city. Influence and activity moved north to the other centres ("the drift north"), a trend which continued for much of the following century. Despite this, the university continued to expand, and a student quarter became established. At the same time people started to notice Dunedin's mellowing, the ageing of its grand old buildings, with writers like E.H. McCormick pointing out its atmospheric charm. In the 1930s and early 1940s a new generation of artists such as M.T. (Toss) Woollaston, Doris Lusk, Anne Hamblett, Colin McCahon and Patrick Hayman once again represented the best of the country's talent. The Second World War saw the dispersal of these painters, but not before McCahon had met a very youthful poet, James K. Baxter, in a central city studio.
Numerous large companies had been established in Dunedin, many of which became national leaders. Late among them was Fletcher Construction, founded by Sir James Fletcher in the early 20th century. Kempthorne Prosser, established in 1879 in Stafford Street, was the largest fertiliser and drug manufacturer in the country for over 100 years. G. Methven, a metalworking and tap manufacturer based in South Dunedin, was also a leading firm, as was H. E. Shacklock, an iron founder and appliance manufacturer later taken over by the Auckland concern Fisher and Paykel. The Mosgiel Woollens was another Victorian Dunedin foundation. Hallensteins was the colloquial name of a menswear manufacturer and national retail chain while the DIC and Arthur Barnett were department stores, the former a nationwide concern. Coulls, Somerville Wilkie – later part of the Whitcoulls group – had its origins in Dunedin in the 19th century. There were also the National Mortgage and Agency Company, Wright Stephensons Limited, the Union Steamship Company and the National Insurance Company and the Standard Insurance Company among many others, which survived into the 20th century.
After World War II prosperity and population growth revived, although Dunedin trailed as the fourth 'main centre'. A generation reacting against Victorianism started demolishing its buildings and many were lost, notably William Mason's Stock Exchange in 1969. (Dunedin Stock Exchange building) Although the university continued to expand, the city's population growth slowed and then contracted, notably from 1976 to 1981. This was, however, a culturally vibrant time with the university's new privately endowed arts fellowships bringing such luminaries as James K Baxter, Ralph Hotere, Janet Frame, and Hone Tuwhare to the city.
During the 1980s Dunedin's popular music scene blossomed, with many acts, such as The Chills, The Clean, The Verlaines, and Straitjacket Fits, gaining national and international recognition. The term "The Dunedin Sound" was coined to describe the 1960s-influenced, guitar-led music which flourished at the time. The music scene continues to thrive, with bands and musicians playing and recording in many styles, from electronica to reggae to folk.
By 1990, population decline had steadied and Dunedin had re-invented itself as a 'heritage city' with its main streets refurbished in Victorian style and R.A. Lawson's Municipal Chambers (Dunedin Town Hall) in the Octagon handsomely restored. The city was also recognised as a centre of excellence in tertiary education and research. The university's and polytechnic's growth accelerated. Dunedin has continued to refurbish itself, embarking on redevelopments of the art gallery railway station and the Otago Settlers Museum.
The city has flourishing niche industries including engineering, software engineering, bio-technology and fashion. Port Chalmers on the Otago Harbour provides Dunedin with deep-water facilities. It is served by the Port Chalmers Branch, a branch line railway which diverges from the Main South Line and runs from Christchurch by way of Dunedin to Invercargill.
The cityscape glitters with gems of Victorian and Edwardian architecture – the legacy of the city's gold-rush affluence. Many, including First Church, Otago Boys' High School and Larnach Castle were designed by one of New Zealand's most eminent architects R A Lawson. Other prominent buildings include Olveston and the Dunedin Railway Station. Other places advertised as tourist attractions include Baldwin Street, the world's steepest street; the famous Captain Cook Tavern; Cadbury Chocolate Factory (Cadbury World); and the local Speight's brewery.
Dunedin is also a centre for ecotourism. The world's only mainland Royal Albatross colony and several penguin and seal colonies lie within the city boundaries on the Otago Peninsula. To the south, on the western side of Lake Waihola, are the Sinclair Wetlands.
The thriving tertiary student population has led to a vibrant youth culture (students are referred to as 'Scarfies' by people who aren't students), consisting of the previously mentioned music scene, and more recently a burgeoning boutique fashion industry. A strong visual arts community also exists in Dunedin and its environs, notably in Port Chalmers and the other settlements which dot the coast of the Otago Harbour, and also in communities such as Waitati.
Sport is catered for in Dunedin by the floodlit rugby and cricket venue of Carisbrook, the new Caledonian Groundsoccer and athletics stadium near the University at Logan Park, the large Edgar Centre indoor sports centre, the University Oval cricket ground, and numerous golf courses and parks. There are also the Forbury Park horseracing circuit in the south of the city and several others within a few kilometres. St Clair Beach is a well-known surfing venue, and the harbour basin is popular with windsurfers and kitesurfers. Dunedin has four public swimming pools: Moana Pool, Port Chalmers Pool, Mosgiel, and St Clair Salt Water Pool.
Dunedin City has a land area of 3,314.8 square kilometres (1,279.9 sq mi), slightly smaller than the American state of Rhode Island or the English county of Cambridgeshire, and a little smaller than Cornwall. It is the largest city in land area in New Zealand. The Dunedin City Council boundaries since 1989 have extended to Middlemarch in the west, Waikouaiti in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and south-east, and the Waipori/Taieri River and the township of Henley in the south-west.
Dunedin is the most remote city in the world from London at 19,100 km (11,870 mi) (90 km (56 mi) more than Invercargill, and 100 km (62 mi) more than Christchurch), and from Berlin at 18,200 km (11,310 mi). Its antipodes are some 300 km (190 mi) north of the Spanish city of A Coruña, in the Bay of Biscay.
The heart of the city lies on the relatively flat land to the west of the head of the Otago Harbour. Here is The Octagon – once a gully, filled in the mid nineteenth century to create the present plaza. The initial settlement of the city took place to the south on the other side of Bell Hill, a large outcrop which had to be reduced in order to provide easy access between the two parts of the settlement. The central city stretches away from this point in a largely northeast-southwest direction, with the main streets of George Street and Princes Street meeting at The Octagon. Here they are joined by Stuart Street, which runs orthogonal to them, from the Dunedin Railway Station in the southeast, and steeply up to the suburb of Roslyn in the northwest. Many of city's notable old buildings are located in the southern part of this area and on the inner ring of lower hills which surround the central city (most of these hills, such as Maori Hill, Pine Hill, and Maryhill, rise to some 200 metres (660 ft) above the plain).
Dunedin is home to Baldwin Street, which, according to the Guinness Book of Records, is the steepest street in the world. Its gradient is 1 in 2.9. The long since abandoned Maryhill Cablecar route had a similar gradient close to its Mornington depot.
Beyond the inner range of hills lie Dunedin's outer suburbs, notably to the northwest, beyond Roslyn. This direction contains Taieri Road and Three Mile Hill, which between them formed the original road route to the Taieri Plains. The modern State Highway 1 follows a different route, passing through Caversham in the west and out past Saddle Hill. Lying between Saddle Hill and Caversham are the outer suburbs of Green Island and Abbotsford. Between Green Island and Roslyn lies the steep-sided valley of the Kaikorai Stream, which is today a residential and light industrial area. Suburban settlements – mostly regarded as separate townships – also lie along both edges of the Otago Harbour. Notable among these are Portobello and Macandrew Bay, on the Otago Peninsula coast, and Port Chalmers on the opposite side of the harbour. Port Chalmers provides Dunedin's main deep-water port, including the city's container port.
The Dunedin skyline is dominated by a ring of (traditionally seven) hills which form the remnants of a volcanic crater. Notable among them are Mount Cargill (700 m/2,300 ft), Flagstaff (680 m/2,230 ft), Saddle Hill (480 m/1,570 ft), Signal Hill (390 m/1,280 ft), and Harbour Cone (320 m/1,050 ft).
The hinterland within Dunedin city encompasses a variety of different landforms. To the southwest lie the Taieri Plains, the broad, fertile lowland floodplains of the Taieri River and its major tributary the Waipori. These are moderately heavily settled, and contain the towns of Mosgiel, East Taieri, and Allanton. They are separated from the coast by a range of low hills rising to some 300 metres (980 ft). Inland from the Taieri Plain is rough hill country. Close to the plain, much of this is forested, notably around Berwick and Lake Mahinerangi, and also around the Silverpeaks Range which lies northwest of the Dunedin urban area. Beyond this, the land becomes drier and opens out into grass and tussock-covered land. A high, broad valley, the Strath-Taieri lies in Dunedin's far northwest, containing the town of Middlemarch, one of the area's few concentrations of population.
To the north of the city's urban area is undulating hill country containing several small, mainly coastal, settlements, including Waitati, Warrington, Seacliff and Waikouaiti. State Highway 1 winds steeply through a series of hills here, notably the The Kilmog. These hills can be considered a coastal extension of the Silverpeaks Range.
To the east, Dunedin City includes the entirety of the Otago Peninsula, a long finger of land that formed the southeastern rim of the Dunedin Volcano. The peninsula is lightly settled, almost entirely along the harbour coast, and much of it is maintained as a natural habitat by the Otago Peninsula Trust. The peninsula contains several fine beaches, and is home to a considerable number of rare species, such as penguins, seals, and shags. Most importantly, it contains the world's only mainland breeding colony of Royal Albatross, at Taiaroa Head on the peninsula's northeastern point.
(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)
Woodhaugh; Glenleith; Leith Valley; Dalmore; Liberton; Pine Hill; Normanby; Mt Mera; North East Valley; Opoho; Dunedin North; Ravensbourne; Highcliff; Shiel Hill; Challis; Waverley; Vauxhall; Ocean Grove (Tomahawk); Tainui; Andersons Bay; Musselburgh; South Dunedin; St Kilda; St Clair; Corstorphine; Kew; Forbury; Caversham; Concord; Maryhill; Kenmure; Mornington; Kaikorai Valley; City Rise; Belleknowes; Roslyn, Otago; Kaikorai; Wakari; Maori Hill.
(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)
Burkes; Saint Leonards; Broad Bay; Company Bay; Macandrew Bay; Burnside; Green Island; Waldronville; Saddle Hill; Sunnyvale; Fairfield; Abbotsford; Bradford; Brockville; Halfway Bush; Helensburgh.
(clockwise from the city centre, starting at due north)
Waitati; Waikouaiti; Karitane; Seacliff; Warrington; Purakanui; Long Beach; Aramoana; Deborah Bay; Careys Bay; Port Chalmers; Sawyers Bay; Roseneath; Otakou; Portobello; Brighton; Taieri Mouth; Henley; Allanton; East Taieri; Momona; Outram; Mosgiel; West Taieri; Waipori; Middlemarch; Hyde.
Since local council reorganisation in the late 1980s, these are suburbs, but are not commonly regarded as such. They are usually regarded locally as towns or townships, and often do not have the qualities associated with suburbs. Most are separated by a considerable distance of open countryside from the urban area.
The climate of Dunedin in general is temperate, however the city is recognised as having a large number of microclimates and the weather conditions often vary between suburbs mostly due to the city's topographical layout. It is also greatly modified by its proximity to the ocean. This leads to warm summers and cool winters. Winter can be frosty, but significant snowfall is uncommon (perhaps every two or three years), except in the inland hill suburbs such as Halfway Bush and Wakari, which tend to receive a few days of snowfall each year. Spring can feature "four seasons in a day" weather, but from November to April it is generally settled and mild. Temperatures during summer can reach 30 °C (86 °F), but temperatures in the high 20s are rare.
Dunedin has relatively low rainfall in comparison to many of New Zealand's cities, with only some 750 millimetres (30 in) recorded per year. Despite this fact it is regarded by many as a damp city, probably due to its rainfall occurring in drizzle over a larger number of days (northern centres such as Auckland and Wellington receive more rain overall through heavy downpours on relatively fewer days). Dunedin is one of the cloudiest centres in the country, recording approximately 1650 hours of bright sunshine per annum  Prevailing winds in the city come from two directions, with cool, damp southwesterlies tending to alternate with northeasterlies. Warmer, dry northwest winds are also characteristic Foehn winds from the northwest. The circle of hills surrounding the inner city shelters the inner city from much of Otago's prevailing weather, often resulting in the main urban area having completely different weather conditions to the rest of Otago.
Inland, beyond the heart of the city, the climate is sub-continental: winters are quite cold and dry, summers hot and dry. Thick freezing ground fogs are common in winter in the upper reaches of the Taieri River's course around Middlemarch, and in summer the temperature frequently reaches into the mid-30s Celsius.
|Average high °C (°F)||18.9
|Average low °C (°F)||11.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||72.9
|Source: NIWA CliFlo data Musselburgh 1947-02-01 to 2007-09-30|
Dunedin features the world's most southern motorway, the eleven-kilometre (7 mi) Dunedin Southern Motorway between the suburbs of Caversham and Mosgiel. Dunedin is the northeastern terminus of the Southern Scenic Route tourist highway to The Catlins, Invercargill and Fiordland.
Although Dunedin's railway station, once the nation's busiest, is no longer served by regular commercial passenger trains, it is used by local tourist services. The most prominent of these is the Taieri Gorge Limited, a popular and famous train operated daily by the Taieri Gorge Railway along the former Otago Central Railway through the scenic Taieri Gorge. Taieri Gorge Railway also operates to Palmerston once weekly. The station is also sometimes visited by excursions organised by other heritage railway societies, and by trains chartered by cruise ships docking at Port Chalmers.
Dunedin International Airport is located southwest of the city on the Taieri Plains at Momona. It is primarily a domestic terminal, with regular flights to and from Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, Rotorua, Palmerston North, and seasonal flights to and from Queenstown, Wanaka, and Fiordland, but it also has international flights arriving from and departing to Brisbane year round and seasonally to Sydney and Melbourne.
Ferries operated between Port Chalmers and Portobello in the late 19th and early 20th centures. Occasional calls have been made to revive them, and a non-profit organisation, Otago ferries Inc., has been set up to examine the logistics of restoring one of the original ferries and again using it for this route.
In 1866, plans were made for a bridge across the Otago Harbour between Port Chalmers and Portobello, but this grand scheme for an 1140-metre structure never eventuated. Plans were also mooted during the 1870s for a canal between the Pacific coast at Tomahawk and Andersons Bay, close to the head of the harbour. This scheme also never came to fruition.
The major daily newspaper is the Otago Daily Times, which is also the country's oldest daily newspaper and part of the Allied Press group. Weekly and bi-weekly community newspapers include The Star, Taieri Herald, D Scene, f*INK (entertainment), and student magazine Critic.
The city is served by all major national radio and television stations, with terrestrial television (both analogue and Freeview|HD) and FM radio broadcasting from Mount Cargill, north of the city. Local radio stations include Radio Dunedin, and the university's radio station Radio One. The city has one local television station, Channel 9, part of Allied Press.
Dunedin is twinned with several cities throughout the world. These include:
Dunedin is known as the Edinburgh of the South and is proud of its Scots heritage. It has as its heart a statue of the poet Robbie Burns, and many of its streets carry the same name as streets in Edinburgh. It was built in a time before the car was king, when ships and railways moved people around. It is built in a natural harbour on a relatively small area of flat land surrounded by steep hillsides. Some of its streets are steep: Baldwin Street is claimed as being the steepest street in the world, a claim which is celebrated during the annual chocolate festival by rolling 15,000+ jaffas down it. It does get cold: many of the streets are iced over in winter, and every two or three years, the city gets a snowfall.
Dunedin's University of Otago, established in 1871, is the oldest university in New Zealand. It is the South Island's second largest employer, and by far the biggest contributor to the Dunedin economy. Dunedin is a University Town rather than just a town with a university. The students make up over a tenth of the population. A consequence of this is that the city is significantly quieter during the university summer holiday period (approx November to February).
Dunedinites (the Dunedin people) are generally friendly, seemingly more friendly than in the bigger cities of NZ (and the bigger cities anywhere else in the world).
Dunedin airport is 30km out of town on the nearest piece of flat land that was big enough for the runway. Taxis and shuttle buses operate from just outside the terminal and are usually there when flights arrive. The fare for a shared shuttle is around $30 and for $45-60 for a taxi to Dunedin. All of the major rental car operators also serve the airport.
The railway station is close to the centre of town. Unfortunately there is no longer a regular long distance passenger train service, but some people arrive in the city by the local scenic trains. These are operated by the Taieri Gorge Railway, which run out as far as Middlemarch. A connecting bus service to Queenstown can be arranged.
State Highway 1 passes through Dunedin. Allow 4 hours 30 minutes hours travel from Christchurch and 2 hours 30 minutes travel from Invercargill. Be sure to get a good detailed map as soon as you can. Most hostels have very detailed maps for the downtown area with reasonable details for the outlying areas. Dunedin's urban roads can be very confusing with lots of one way streets, circles, and tight and winding hill routes.
There are several daily services from Christchurch, Invercargill, Wanaka and Queenstown. The major operators are , Atomic Shuttles, Wanaka-Connection and Knightrider. (which offers an overnight service from Christchurch to Invercargill via Dunedin). nakedbus.com  has the cheapest bus fares starting at $1! The trip from (or to) Christchurch takes about 6.5 hours.
The Dunedin Bus Service is fairly average but cheap and does get you around. The main line service, St Clair-Normanby, runs every 15 minutes and is handy to about a dozen of the City's attractions. Most other routes are every 30-40 minutes. Some of the buses are not too attractive looking, but they are being added to by cast-off wheelchair friendly buses from other cities. The blue/gold coloured buses operated by Citibus  and the beige/dark red buses operated by Passenger Transport share all the town routes. Most drivers from either company will tell you where to find the right bus if you ask nicely, or you can ask the Otago Regional Council [] or call 0800-474-082 free from a cell phone, but only during office hours. The Peninsula bus route from the Museum is a good way to see the Peninsula, unless you're terrified by oncoming traffic: in places the full sized buses are wider than the lanes they travel in. The traffic is generally used to this and travels very cautiously. All Buses on the Peninsula service are Wheel Chair Friendly.
There is a recycling centre down by the north-east end of the docks (in Wickliffe Street) which generally has one or two reasonable-condition bicycles lying about for NZ$10 apiece. Carefully add air (there's a service station due west back over the bridge) and oil and you're set to go. You will also need a skid-lid/stack-hat/helmet, which are generally unavailable second-hand for liability reasons, but can be had new for $20 from the KMart in Meridian, between George Street and Filleul Street. There is another recycling shop called "The Recover Store" at the Dunedin Landfill on Brighton Road, Green Island.
Dunedin's hills are extremely steep but the town centre is reasonably flat There is an excellent flat ride out along the western shore of the Otago Peninsula to Harington Point, although it's a narrow road shared by lots of tour buses. A cycle track runs along of the industrial eastern shore of the harbour, about half way to Port Chalmers (busy highway the rest of the way).
If you like a bit of a hill-climb, ride out along North Road to the Organ Pipes, a collection of rapidly-cooled rocks which have self-formed into organ-pipe-like structures. The walk along a bush track up to the Pipes themselves is very scenic and well attended by small, harmless wildlife. The ride up along the ridge of the Peninsula to Lanarch Castle is also good high-energy exercise.
If you like pushing a bike up a hill because it's too steep, dive off North Road onto Norwood Street, or cross to the east side of the Peninsula, or head straight up the hill behind The Octagon past the Beverly-Begg Observatory to suburbs with a view like Roslyn.
There are no suburban trains. The Taeri Gorge Railway  tel +64-3-477-4449 is a scenic tourist trip, ending at a small village called Middlemarch. Take your camera and lots of memory. The same company runs trips on the old Christchurch line as far as Palmerston, about 2 hours away. These go about twice a week in the summer.
Tramping; Dunedin has some of the most easily-accessible tracks of any city in NZ. In less than half an hour you can be in pristine bush far from the worries of the world. Ask about Green Hut Track, Carey's Creek, Possum Hut, Rosella Ridge, Yellow Ridge, Rocky Ridge, Rongamai, Honeycomb, Powder Creek, Long Ridge, Swampy Ridge, Leith Saddle, Burns, Rustlers, Nichols Creek, Nichols Falls, to name just some of the fabulous tramping tracks around this city. Ask at the Visitor Centre or get "The Ultimate Tramping Guide for around Dunedin" at DoC ($10) and cut loose.
Have a few beers with the local students; alcohol is very reasonably priced at around $6 for a jug of ale.
For the desperate, McDonalds is at 232 George Street, where an internet cafe is attached.
George Street is has many restaurants, starting about two blocks north of The Octagon (in the centre of Dunedin). There are also a few interesting places on Albany Street, which runs across the south of the University Of Otago.
The Friday bakery in Roslyn village is recommended. A cafe and wine shop called RHUBARB  across the road.
If you're looking for brunch type foods on Saturday the farmers market at the Railway Station has delicious delicacies such as crepes (including gluten free), the popular "bacon buttie", Whitebait fritters, and baking as well as fresh fruit and veges.
Being NZ, if you want Fish and Chips, you go to a Chinese restaurant for them.
The Good Oil down George Street (the main street) offers free coffee and herbal teas to tourists.
One interesting local speciality is kumara chips , made with a local sweet-potato variant and typically priced at about double the cost of potato chips.
The kiwis are also good at making ice cream, and many places (including little delis and general stores at places like MacAndrew Bay) sell cones for fairly reasonable prices (e.g. $1.90 for a double cone).
For the freshest local organic produce, including fruit, vegetables, eggs, bread, cheese, etc it's a good idea to check out the Farmer's Market. It's on Saturday mornings, 8AM til around 12:30PM next to the railway station.
Bell Pepper Blues 474 Princes Street Dunedin - Reservations on +64 3 4740973 - Mains ($29.50 - $38.50) Amazing food for dinner, and also have an onsite bar that offers bar snacks. 
Plato Cafe 2 Birch Street Dunedin tel +64 3 4774235 - One of the best places for fresh seafood 
As of November 2009, the Dunedin Public Library did not have WiFi Internet access. They do have some terminals for use by the public for checking e-mail and the like. This use is currently free.
Otherwise, Internet access is available at various cafes for a fee.
The Police Station is in Great King Street, next to Countdown and Real Groovy.
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DUNEDIN, a city of New Zealand, capital of the provincial district of Otago, and the seat of a bishop, in Taieri county. Pop. (1906) 36,070; including suburbs, 56,020. It lies 15 m. from the open sea, at the head of Otago harbour, a narrow inlet (averaging 2 m. in width) on the south-eastern coast of South Island. The situation was chosen on the consideration of this harbour alone, for the actual site offered many difficulties, steep forest-clad hills rising close to the sea, and rendering reclamation necessary. The hills give the town a beautiful appearance, as the forest was allowed to remain closely embracing it, being preserved in the public ground named the Town Belt. The principal thoroughfare is comprised in Prince's Street and George Street, running straight from S.W. to N.E., and passing through the Octagon, which is surrounded by several of the principal buildings. From these streets others strike at right angles down to the harbour, while others again lead obliquely up towards the Belt, beyond which are extensive suburbs. There are several handsome commercial and banking houses.
1 In 1878, as the result of the report of a select committee of the House of Commons appointed in 1877, a grant of f,5000 was made to the then Lord Cochrane `° in respect of the distinguished services of his grandfather, the late earl of Dundonald." The town hall, Athenaeum and museum are noteworthy buildings, the last having a fine biological collection. The university, founded in 1869, built mainly of basalt, has schools of arts, medicine, chemistry and mineralogy. It is in reality a university college, for though it was originally intended to have the power of conferring degrees, it was subsequently affiliated to the New Zealand University. The churches are numerous and some are particularly handsome; such as the First church, which overlooks the harbour, and is so named from its standing on the site of the church of the original settlers; St Paul's, Knox church and the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Joseph. Finally, one of the most striking buildings in the city is the high school (1885) with its commanding tower. The white Oamaru stone is commonly used in these buildings. The primary and secondary schools of the town are excellent, and there is a small training college for state teachers. Besides the Belt there are several parks and reserves, including botanical and acclimatization gardens, the so-called Ocean Beach, and two race-courses.
Dunedin is connected by rail with Christchurch northward and Invercargill southward, with numerous branches. Electric tramways serve the principal thoroughfares and suburbs. The most important internal industries are in wool and frozen meat. The harbour is accessible, owing to extensive dredging, to vessels drawing 19 ft., at high tide; and Dunedin is the headquarters of the coasting services of the Union Steamship Co. Port Chalmers, however (9 m. N.E. by rail) though incapacitated by its site from growing into a large town, is more readily accessible for shipping, and has extensive piers and a graving dock. Dunedin is governed by a mayor and corporation, and most of its numerous suburbs are separate municipalities.
The colony of Otago (from a native word meaning ochre, which was found here and highly prized by the Maoris as a pigment for the body when preparing for battle) was founded as the chief town of the Otago settlement by settlers sent out under the auspices of the lay association of the Free Church of Scotland in 1848. The discovery of large quantities of gold in Otago in 1861 and the following years brought prosperity, a great " rush " of diggers setting in from Australia. Golddredging, in the hands of rich companies, remains a primary source of wealth in the district.
Dunedin is a city in New Zealand, Ōtepoti in Maori, is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the main city of the region of Otago. The city stands on the hills and valleys surrounding the head of Otago Harbour. The harbour and hills are the remnants of an extinct volcano. It is the home of the University of Otago.
Dunedin is twinned with several cities throughout the world. These include: