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Coordinates: 56°04′19″N 3°26′21″W / 56.07192°N 3.43930°W / 56.07192; -3.43930

Dunfermline
Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Phàrlain
Scots: Dunfermline
Auld Grey Toun [1]
Dunfermline is located in Scotland
Dunfermline

 Dunfermline shown within Scotland
Area  7.07 sq mi (18.3 km2)
Population 45,462 (town) [2]
100,342 (urban) [2]
    - Density  6,430 /sq mi (2,480 /km2)
OS grid reference NT105875
Council area Fife
Lieutenancy area Fife
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town DUNFERMLINE
Postcode district KY11, KY12
Dialling code 01383
Police Fife
Fire Fife
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Dunfermline and West Fife
Scottish Parliament Dunfermline West
Mid Scotland and Fife
List of places: UK • Scotland •

Dunfermline (Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Phàrlain) is a large town in Fife, Scotland. It is located on high ground 5 miles (8.0 km) from the northern shore of the Firth of Forth on the route of major road and rail crossings across the firth to Edinburgh and the south. Dunfermline has a population of 45,462, making this the second-largest settlement in Fife. The town also falls under the wider Dunfermline and West-Fife Local Plan area which has an overall total population of around 100,324.

Dunfermline was a capital of Scotland, being an ancient seat of the kingdom's Royal Court and an important ecclesiastical centre. Its former abbey, now a parish church, is the burial place for many in the country's line of monarchs including Robert I and Saint Margaret.[3] Ruins of the former abbey infrastructure today include the remains of the Royal Palace of Dunfermline, birthplace of Charles I, and are an important tourist attraction. The poet Robert Henryson, one of Scotland's major literary figures, was also associated with the abbey.

In modern times, the most famous son of Dunfermline was the wealthy industrialist, businessman, and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. He was the central figure in promoting its early 20th century urban renewal and his financial legacy is still of major importance.

Traditional industries in Dunfermline's catchment area have principally involved textiles, engineering, defence and electronics. In more recent times this has begun to diversify into the service sectors, including tourism.[4]

Contents

History

The first historical record for settlement in Dunfermline was around 506 AD as a centre for the Culdee faith. The first recorded name "Dunfermelitane" followed in 1128 by David II and the form officially adopted as "Dunfermline" in 1609.[5]

Malcolm III established Dunfermline as a new seat for royal power in the mid-11th century and initiated changes that eventually made the township the de facto capital of Scotland for much of the period until the assassination of James I in 1437.[6] Malcolm's second Queen, the Saxo-Hungarian princess Margaret, was instrumental in this transformation, persuading her husband to establish a Benedictine priory in the new royal centre.[6][7][8][9] This foundation, which in 1128 became Dunfermline Abbey, eventually replaced the long established Culdee church there and played a major role in the general romanisation of religion throughout the kingdom. At the peak of its power, the abbey controlled four burghs, three courts of regality and a large portfolio of lands from Moray in the north down into Berwickshire.[6] The royal palace was also connected to the abbey and the first known documentation of the Auld Alliance was signed there on 23 October 1295.

Dunfermline was first credited as a "menus burgh" by David II with evidence suggesting that burgh of barony status was bestowed between 1124 and 1147.[10] Royal burgh status was granted by James VI in 1588[7][11] but the 1603 Union of the Crowns effectively entailed a loss of royal connections when James relocated his Scottish Court to London.[7][8] The Reformation of 1560 had previously meant a loss of the Dunfermline's ecclesiastical importance. In 1624 a major fire left a large part of the medieval-renaissance burgh in ruin. The palace, abbey complex and Abbot's House today are survivals from that period.[6][7][12]

St Leonard's warehouse, now converted into flats

Although the town "impressed" Daniel Defoe as showing the "full perfection of decay", it was in fact beginning to recover a little of its former prosperity in the 18th century. James Blake's introduction of the weaving of fine damask linen in 1718 led to the town becoming the world's leading producer.[7][8][11][13] The most imposing of the linen damask factories was St Leonard's Mill which was established by Erskine Beveridge in 1851. A warehouse and office block was later added around 1869. Other linen factories were built on land to both the north and south ends of the burgh.[14] During the mid-19th century, powerloom weaving started to replace linen damask. The latter did not survive, going into decline straight after the end of First World War.[7] The establishment of Scotland's only Royal Navy Dockland in neighbouring Rosyth in 1909, boosted by two world wars, led to further growth in the town becoming the area's only major employer.[7][8]

Post-war housing began in the late 1940s with the construction of temporary prefabs and Swedish timber houses around areas such as Kingseat and Townhill. Additional provisions were made for electricity, water and sewage systems. Council housing was focused towards Abbeyview, on a 240-acre (97 ha) site on Aberdour Road; Touch, to the south of Garvock Hill; Bellyeoman and Baldridgeburn. Private housing became focused to the north of Garvock Hill and on the site of West Pitcorthie Farm.[15]

Today Dunfermline has effectively become a dormitory town for Edinburgh.[7] Major employers in the town include the Bank of Scotland, Dunfermline Building Society, CR Smith and British Sky Broadcasting.

Governance

City Chambers

Dunfermline had its own town council until this was abolished in 1975 under the acts Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and the County Planning (Scotland) Act 1972 by a three-tier authority. Between 1975 and 1996, Dunfermline District Council (DDC) operated under Fife Regional Council served both the town and West Fife from Kincardine to Aberdour.[16] Today, the town is represented by the local authority Fife Council based in Glenrothes who are the executive,deliberative and legislative body responsible for local governance.[17] Dunfermline has retained some importance with administrative and planning issues still being dealt in the Dunfermline City Chambers. Governmental facilities including Dunfermline police station, sheriff court and fire station are also located close to the town centre at various points on Carnegie Drive.

Dunfermline is within the Dunfermline West (Scottish Parliament constituency), the Mid Scotland and Fife (Scottish Parliament electoral region) of the Scottish Parliament (at Holyrood) and the Dunfermline and West Fife (UK Parliament constituency) (at Westminster).[18] The Dunfermline West Scottish Parliament (or Holyrood) constituency created in 1999 is one of nine within the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region. Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional members to produce a form of proportional representation. The seat is currently held by Jim Tolson for the Liberal Democrats.[18] The Dunfermline and West Fife UK (or Westminster) constituency, created in 2005 when the previous seats Dunfermline East and Dunfermline West were abolished, elects a Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by the first past the post system. The seat is currently held by Willie Rennie for the Liberal Democrats since the result of the Dunfermline and West Fife by-election in 2006 following the passing of the previous MP, Rachel Squire.

Demography

Dunfermline compared according to UK Census 2001[19][20][21][22]
Dunfermline Fife Scotland
Total population 39,229 349,429 5,062,011
Foreign born 1.71% 1.18% 1.10%
Over 75 years old 6.96% 7.46% 7.09%
Unemployed 4.21% 3.97% 4.0%[2]

According to the 2001 census, Dunfermline had a total population of 39,229.[19] The population of Dunfermline increased to around 45,432 in 2006.[2] The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 30 to 44 forms the largest portion of the population (23%).[19] The median age of males and females living in Dunfermline was 36 and 39 years respectively, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.[19]

The place of birth of the town's residents was 96.99% United Kingdom (including 87.02% from Scotland), 0.25% Republic of Ireland, 1.06% from other European Union countries, and 1.71% from elsewhere in the world.[19] The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 46.65% in full-time employment, 12.54% in part-time employment, 4.51% self-employed, 4.21% unemployed, 2.75% students with jobs, 2.11% students without jobs, 13.57% retired, 4.92% looking after home or family, 5.97% permanently sick or disabled, and 2.78% economically inactive for other reasons.[21]

Economy

Dunfermline High Street looking west

Traditionally, industry in Dunfermline was concentrated to the north of the town centre with textiles being particularly important to the town's economy. Following the two world wars, Dunfermline's traditional industries declined. However a number of new engineering, defence and electronics companies developed in the town in industrial estates located in the south at Pitreavie, and to the west at Elgin Street. After the end of the Second World War traditional industries, particularly linen and coal mining became obsolete in the town and many factories ceased production. Manufacturing in the town rejuvenated by the early 1960s when Monotype Corporation opened a new factory in Halbeath.[23] A new business park named the Carnegie Campus opened in the mid-1970s, following the arrival of Philips and the re-location of the offices of the Dunfermline Press. Smaller industrial estates were focused on Dickson Street, Halbeath Drive and Primrose Lane.[23]

Today, Dunfermline's economy is largely reliant on financial and service sector jobs which account for 87% of the town's employment. There are also moderate instances of light industry, local government, construction, retail and other commercial sector employment within the town. Unemployment levels are below the Scottish average at 3.4% and Dunfermline is Fife's second largest employment centre providing approximately 30,000 jobs.[24] Employment in Dunfermline is largely concentrated in the town centre and in peripheral industrial estates and business parks.

A number of new engineering, defence and electronics companies developed in the town in industrial estates located in the south at Pitreavie, and to the west at Elgin Street. In more recent times the economy has begun to diversify into the service sectors, including tourism.[24] Major employment is also generated from the numerous offices located at the Carnegie Campus in the south of the town including BSKYB, HBOS and the Dunfermline Building Society. Major employment opportunities are also being promoted to the east as part of the town's eastern expansion area.[24] Fife Council operate their West Fife services from New City House, a building located to the south of the town centre.

Dunfermline Town Centre is one of the most popular shopping destinations in Fife dominating the west Fife area and has the second largest retail provision in the region.[25] The focus of the town centre is along a pedestrianised High Street which is dominated by the Kingsgate Shopping Centre. The shopping centre was extended and revamped in 2006 as part of a masterplan to regenerate the town centre which included a new department store; several new units and replacement car park. To the north of the centre, adjacent to the Kingsgate shopping centre is the Carnegie Drive Retail Park where a number of warehouse store retailers are located. Major shopping facilities are also provided at the Halbeath Retail Park to the east of the town. Dunfermline is home to a major leisure park which has a cinema and a number of other lesiure outlets and restaurants. [25]

Landmarks and notable buildings

Dunfermline Abbey

To the south of the High Street, on the Kirkgate, lies the historic Dunfermline Abbey which is considered to be one of the best examples of Scoto-Norman monastic architecture.[26][27] Only the incomplete and much altered nave from the medieval church survives.[26] The eastern section of the abbey has since been re-built as a parish church between 1818 and 1821.[27] Despite much of the monastic buildings being destroyed by the troops of Edward I in 1303, there are substantial remains with the lower stories of the dormitory and latrine blocks on the east side of the cloister being the earliest surviving parts, dating back to the early 13th century.[27][28]

Abbots' House

To the north of the abbey, situated on the corner of the May Gate and Abbot Street is one of the oldest houses in Dunfermline—the abbots' house.[29] This is said to partially date from around 1450.[30] Owned and operated by Dunfermline Carnegie Trust, the building is now an award-winning heritage centre which was opened in 1995.[29][30][31] Along Abbot Street, the first of many Carnegie libraries in Scotland, known as Dunfermline Carnegie Library was built between 1881 and 1883.[32] On the east side of Moodie Street is Andrew Carnegie's birthplace, close to the junction with Priory Lane and St Margaret's Street.[33] This is located at number two Moodie Street.[31] The street was named after James Moodie, the provost of Dunfermline from 1792 to 1807.[33] The house was one of the many cottages built for the employees of hand loom weavers.[33][34] The B-listed cottage which dates from the late 18th century is now one of the only examples left of these sort in the surrounding area.[33][34] A memorial hall was added in 1928 to adjoin the cottage.[33] Today, this operates as a birthplace museum for the town's most famous son.[33][34]

St Leonard's Church and round tower

On Bothwell Street is the Bothwell Street viaduct, built between 1874 and 1877, as a sandstone bridge by R Young and Son to carry the Edinburgh to Dunfermline Railway over the Bothwell Gardens Roundabout.[35][36] The bridge was restored in 1994.[36] To the south of the viaduct, is St Leonard's Church and round tower, on Brucefield Avenue, built between 1903 and 1904.[37][38] The round tower with a conical roof is considered to be a landmark.[37][38] On the east side of Bothwell Street is the former warehouse of the St Leonard's Works which date from around 1869.[39][40] The warehouse is the only surviving part of the St Leonard's Works, which was the first power-loom factory to be built in Dunfermline in 1851 and became the largest linen damask factory in Europe by the 1880s.[39]

To the west of Dunfermline, close to the village of Crossford is the Pitfirrane Castle, once the seat of the Halkett family.[41][42] The majority of the castle dates from the 16th century including the plain rectangular tower.[43] The castle and estate were purchased by the Dunfermline Carnegie Trust in 1951 and have become the clubhouse for Dunfermline golf course.[42] To the south of Dunfermline is the L-plan Hill House built in 1623 for William Monteith of Randford as a lairds' house.[44][45] Pitreavie Castle is also located close to the southern end of the dual carriageway between the town and Rosyth.[42] This was built in 1631 as a fortified manor by Sir Hendry Wardlaw.[42] The castle has since been converted into luxury flats.[46] To the south-west of Dunfermline is the three-storey Logie House, built for the Hunt family.[47]

Culture

The town's most famous son is Andrew Carnegie. A museum dedicated to the birthplace of Andrew Carnegie containing artefacts is located on the southern gateway of the town centre. The museum also runs annual heritage walks every summer.[48] Many of his donations to the town such as the Carnegie Leisure Centre, Dunfermline Carnegie Library and particularly, Pittencrieff Park were all intended to "bring into the monotonous lives of the toiling masses of Dunfermline more sweetness and light".[8][31] Four charities in his name still have their headquarters here—the Dunfermline Carnegie Trust; the Carnegie Hero Fund; the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland and the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust which are all based in Andrew Carnegie House within the grounds of Pittencrieff Park.[48] Dunfermline has also been bequeathed two theatres, Carnegie Hall on East Port and the Alhambra on Canmore Street. Carnegie Hall which was built between 1933 and 1937, is a 540-seat theatre complete with a restaurant and adjacent music institute.[49] The Alhambra which was opened in 1922, claims to have one of the largest stages and seat capacities in Scotland.[50]

Local groups include the Dunfermline Folk Club, Dunfermline Abbey Choir and Dunfermline district pipe band. Live Music Venues, also have had a strong prominence in Dunfermline with the likes of Montys and PJ Molloys. Many night clubs are also present such as Harlem, Johnson's, Life and Lorenzo's (Formerly Urban) and are mainly concentrated around the town centre.[51] Velocity/Kinema Live serves as both a nightclub and music venue (previously known as The Kinema Ballroom, Night Magic, Hollywood Boulevard & The Ballroom). In terms of popular music, Dunfermline is home to bands such as The Skids, Big Country, Nazareth and Yoshi (Yoshi band.[52]

Dunfermline is home to professional teams in football, rugby and cricket.[53] The senior football team, Dunfermline Athletic play their games at East End Park in the Scottish Football League First Division. The team have became famous for winning the Scottish Cup twice in the 1960s (1961 and 1968) gaining a reputation as a side for competitive football in both England and mainland Europe.[53] The senior rugby team, Dunfermline RFC play their games at McKane Park in the BT Premiership Division Two. Dunfermline Wanderers Cricket Club play their matches at Carnegie Cricket Ground in the south of Dunfermline.[53] Leisure facilities in the town include the Carnegie Leisure Centre in the town centre; Pitreavie athletic ground to the south of the town and three golf courses (Dunfermline, Canmore and Pitreavie).[53]

Education

The town is home to four secondary schools, several primary schools and two schools for learning difficulties. Dunfermline High School was the main school in the town, until the introduction of the Comprehensive System in 1974.[54] Today, the school serves a wide area to the south of the town centre and neighbouring Rosyth. Queen Anne High School is located to the north of the town. Woodmill High School serves the eastern side of the town along with North Queensferry. St Columba's High School which opened in 1969 is one of two Roman Catholic Secondaries in Fife. The school caters for pupils living in West Fife from Kincardine in the west to Cowdenbeath in the east.[54]

There were also many new primary schools such as Blacklaw, Pitcorthie, Linburn and Touch built between 1958 and 1970 to serve the new housing developments because of the poor access and locations of many of the already existing ones.[54]

Carnegie College, originally known as Lauder College is the only college in the town which is a partner and has links with Dunfermline Business Centre.[54]

Transport

Dunfermline Town Railway Station

Dunfermline is served by the A907 which meets the M90 and A92 to the east of the town at Halbeath Interchange. This connects the town to Perth to the north, Edinburgh to the south and Kirkcaldy to the east. The main route through the town are Halbeath Road and Carnegie Drive (A907) from east to west.[55]

The main bus terminus is located on a site to the north of the town centre which provides seating, toilets and a cafe.[56] Two railway stations serve the town – Dunfermline Town to the south of the town centre and Dunfermline Queen Margaret to the east of the town close to Queen Margaret Hospital.[57][58] Nearby stations also exist at Rosyth, Inverkeithing and Dalgety Bay to the south of the town.

The nearest major international airport to Dunfermline is Edinburgh Airport, 13 miles (21 km) miles south of Dunfermline.

Notables

Twin cities

Notes

  1. ^ Tours of Scotland, Nicknames of Scottish Towns and Cities, retrieved on 19 August 2008. Toun is a word in Scots which can refer to any form of settlement from farm estate to burgh or city (see headword toun in Scots National Dictionary) and the reference occurs most famously in the ballad Sir Patrick Spens: The king sits in Dunfermline Toun,/ Drinking the blude-reid wine...
  2. ^ a b c d "Population Estimates for Towns and Villages in Fife". Fife Council. March 2008. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/uploadfiles/publications/c64_Population06Leaflet.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  3. ^ McEwan Bert Dunfermline The Post War Years 2004, p9.
  4. ^ Fife Council (2006) Dunfermline Economic profile
  5. ^ Durie A Century of Dunfermline pp11–13
  6. ^ a b c d Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend pp.178–180.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Pride Kingdom of Fife pp.8–10.
  8. ^ a b c d e Hendrie Old Dunfermline p.3.
  9. ^ Civic Society, Kirkcaldy A History and Celebration p. 12.
  10. ^ Omand The Fife Book p.136.
  11. ^ a b Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.186.
  12. ^ Durie A Century of Dunfermline pp.16–17.
  13. ^ Omand The Fife Book pp.188–189.
  14. ^ Simpson The Auld Grey Toun - Dunfermline in the time of Andrew Carnegie 1835-1919 p.85.
  15. ^ McEwan Dunfermline: The Post-War Years p87
  16. ^ McEwan Bert Dunfermline: The Post-War Years p.16.
  17. ^ "Reserved and devolved matters". Scotland Office. http://www.scotlandoffice.gov.uk/what-we-do/reserved-and-devolved-matters.html. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  18. ^ a b "Dunfermline and Mid-Fife MSP info". Scottish Parliament. http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/msps/locate/con-dfwe.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  19. ^ a b c d e "Comparative Populartion: Dunfermline Locality Scotland". scrol.co.uk. 2001. http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Population&mainLevel=Locality&mainText=Dunfermline&mainTextExplicitMatch=false&compLevel=CountryProfile&compText=&compTextExplicitMatch=null. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  20. ^ "Comparative Population Profile: Fife Council Area Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Population&mainLevel=CouncilArea&mainArea=Fife&mainText=&mainTextExplicitMatch=false&compLevel=CountryProfile&compText=&compTextExplicitMatch=null. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  21. ^ a b "Comparative Employment Profile: Dunfermline Locality". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Employment&mainLevel=Locality&mainText=Dunfermline&mainTextExplicitMatch=false&compLevel=CountryProfile&compText=&compTextExplicitMatch=null. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  22. ^ "Comparative Employment Profile: Fife Locality Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Employment&mainLevel=CouncilArea&mainArea=Fife&mainText=&mainTextExplicitMatch=false&compLevel=CountryProfile&compText=&compTextExplicitMatch=null. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  23. ^ a b McEwan, Bert Dunfermline The Post-War Years p. 73.
  24. ^ a b c "Dunfermline Economic Profile". Fife Council. 2007-04-14. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/uploadfiles/publications/c64_DunfermlineRevisedApr07.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  25. ^ a b "Dunfermline Town Centre Fact Sheet". Fife Council. http://www.fife.gov.uk/uploadfiles/publications/c64_DunfermlineTownCentreFS.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  26. ^ a b Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus p.129.
  27. ^ a b c Fife Regional Council Medieval Abbeys and Churches in Fife Fife Regional Council p.16.
  28. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.182.
  29. ^ a b Carnegie Dunfermline Trust Dunfermline: Our Heritage pp.13–16.
  30. ^ a b McEwan Bert Dunfermline Post War Years p.13.
  31. ^ a b c Pride Kingdom of Fife pp.12–13.
  32. ^ Gifford Buildings of Fife p.188.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Carnegie Dunfermline Trust Our Heritage p.21.
  34. ^ a b c MacKay Little Boss: The Life of Andrew Carnegie p.23.
  35. ^ Gifford Buildings of Fife p.191.
  36. ^ a b Dunfermline Carnegie Trust Our Heritage p.31.
  37. ^ a b Gifford Fife: Buildings in Scotland pp.185–187.
  38. ^ a b Gifford Buildings of Fife p.195.
  39. ^ a b Pride Kingdom of Fife p.16.
  40. ^ Dunfermline Carnegie Trust Our Heritage p.118.
  41. ^ Gifford Buildings of Fife p.343.
  42. ^ a b c d Dunfermline Carnegie Trust Our Heritage pp.168–171"
  43. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.199.
  44. ^ Gifford Buildings of Fife p.239.
  45. ^ Dunfermline Carnegie Trust Our Heritage p.17.
  46. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend
  47. ^ Gifford Buildings of Fife p.315.
  48. ^ a b Hendrie, William F. Old Dunfermline p. 30.
  49. ^ "Carnegie Hall profile, artfife". http://www.attfife.org.uk/attFife/index.cfm?fuseaction=org.FATFAC&contentID=79B6E643-F530-11D5-8DD500508BBD18A1.  Retrieved on 27 July 2008
  50. ^ "Alhamba Theatre profile, britishtheatreguide". http://www.britishtheatreguide.info/news/dunfermlinealhamba.htm.  Retrieved on 27 July 2008
  51. ^ "nightlife, Dunfermline guide". http://dunfermlineguide.co.uk/entertainmentdunfermline.aspx.  Retrieved on 27 July 2008
  52. ^ "Dunfermline Music Profile, kinemagigz". http://www.kinemagigz.com/.  Retrieved on 27 July 2008
  53. ^ a b c d McEwan, Bert Dunfermline The Post-War Years p. 97.
  54. ^ a b c d McEwan Dunfermline: The Post-War Years pp40–41"
  55. ^ Nicholson Maps Fife – Second Edition pp4–7
  56. ^ "Dunfermline Bus Station info". Fife Council. http://www.fife.gov.uk/atoz/index.cfm?fuseaction=facility.display&FacId=408ACE50-5B59-44CA-8520DD028D253823. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  57. ^ "Dunfermline Queen Margaret Railway Station info". Fife Council. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/atoz/index.cfm?fuseaction=facility.display&facid=6F7FECBC-52C5-4D02-99C87B9B02E6328F. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  58. ^ "Dunfermline Town Railway Station info". Fife Council. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/atoz/index.cfm?fuseaction=facility.display&facid=369E74AF-178E-499F-A9B76AF57837998C. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  59. ^ Trondheims offisielle nettsted - Vennskapsbyer

References

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Bibliography

  • Durie, Bruce (2002). A Century of Dunfermline. WHSmith. ISBN 075093137X. 
  • Hendrie, William F. (2002). Old Dunfermline. Stenlake Publishing. ISBN 1840331941. 
  • Lamont-Brown, Raymond (2002). Fife in History and Legend. 
  • Pride, Glen L. (1999). The Kingdom of Fife (2nd edition ed.). ISBN 1873190492. 
  • McEwan, Bert (2004). Dunfermline The Post-War Years. 
  • Omand, Donald (2000). The Fife Book. Edinburgh: Birlinn. ISBN 1841582743. 
  • Dunfermline Carnegie Trust (1998). Our Heritage. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Dunfermline [1] is a historic town in the Kingdom of Fife, Scotland. It is the ancient capital of Scotland, and the birthplace of philanthropist Andrew Carnegie - at one time the richest man in the world. Dunfermline Abbey is the burial place of Robert The Bruce, while Pittencrieff Park (known locally as The Glen) is one of the most attractive parks in Scotland .

Dunfermline Abbey from Pittencrieff Park
Dunfermline Abbey from Pittencrieff Park

Get in

By plane

The nearest airport to Dunfermline is Edinburgh International Airport [2] (EDI), situated to the south of the Firth of Forth, 14 miles/22km from Dunfermline. The airport offers a wide range of domestic and international flights to Europe and North America. It costs in the region of £30 for a each way by taxi. (See the Edinburgh article for more details, however there is a bus service from the airport to nearby Inverkeithing, which is a £10 taxi fare from Dunfermline (or the train from Inverkeithing to Dunfermline Town is £1.90).

By train

Dunfermline is served by 2 railway stations. Dunfermline Town, which is in the centre of the town, and Dunfermline Queen Margaret, which is located in the northeast of the town, near Queen Margaret Hospital. There is a half hourly (hourly after 19:00) Fife Circle service to Edinburgh Waverley. (See the First ScotRail [3] website for timetable information)

By car

Dunfermline is located near the M90 motorway which runs from the Forth Road Bridge to Perth. Access to the south and centre is via M90 junction 2, and the west is accessed from via junction 3.

By bus

There are frequent bus services to Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee, Perth, and surrounding towns. The Bus Station has been temporarily relocated to the East Port whilst renovation work goes on, including the demolition of the old bus station to allow for the building of a Kingsgate extension.

  • Dunfermline's town centre is fairly well equipped with amenities for the 21st century shopper. Most sites are within walking distance and a bus station is provided for journeys to surrounding areas.

"PlanaJourney" [4] is a free integrated public transport journey planner that covers Dunfermline and includes much of the Scottish, Northern Ireland and UK public transport network. It includes bus, rail, subway, Scottish ferries and internal UK flights. It can assist with planning journeys into and out of Dunfermline from anywhere in the Dunfermline or Fife area or more widely from anywhere in Scotland and the UK. Outside of Scotland and Northern Ireland the bus information is limited.

  • Visit Dunfermline [5]
  • Dunfermline Guide Information [6]
  • Dunfermline Abbey and grounds KY12 7PD [7], located at the West of the town centre. The Abbey dates back to the 11th century, and is mainly ruined, but with a surviving impessive nave. Open daily 9.30 to 5.30 Mid March to End Sept, rest of the year it is closed on Fri and closes at 4.30. Admission £3.70. Adjoining church is open free in summer.
  • The world's first Carnegie Library
  • The original Carnegie Hall
  • Pittencrieff Park
  • The Andrew Carnegie Birthplace Museum [8]
  • Dunfermline Satellite and Road map [9]
  • Take a stroll around Pittencreiff Park this park was purchased by Andrew Carnegie and donated to the people of the town. There are signed walks of various lengths. The park contains a small museum, gardens and hothouses. In the north eastern section of the park is the remains of King Malcolm's tower. This tower appears on the town crest and dates back to around 1000 AD. Snack vendors in the park also sell bags of nuts with which to feed the squirrels.

See website on Pittencrieff Park at [10]

  • Adventure Golf Island Fife Leisure Park, Whimbrel Place KY11 8EX. 01383 737152 [11] Sun- Thurs 10AM-10PM Fri-Sat 10AM- 11PM Florida style adventure golf, featuring two 18 hole courses; Treasure Island and Pirates Cove. Floodlit at night. Located on the Eastern edge of town.

Eat

If you are just stopping off as part of a longer journey there are several restaurants and fast food places at the Fife Leisure Park. (Exit the M90 at junction 3 and take the Duloch Park exit on the roundabout at the top of the slip road).

  • Frankie and Benny's, Whimbrel Place, Fife Leisure Place, Dunfermline, KY11 8EX (01383 622 477), [12].
  • Brewer's Fayre, Crooked Glen, Fife Leisure Park, Whimbrel Place, Dunfermline, KY11 8EX (0870 600 1486), [13].
  • Pizza Hut Fife Leisure Park, Halbeath, Dunfermline KY11 8EX.

If you are staying in Dunfermline, there are a number of good local restaurants.

  • The China Ruby, Dalgety Bay. Thoroughly recommended.
  • The hideaway, North-east of the town centre on the road to Kingseat.
  • There is a very good cafe between the Abbey and the library, with good views of the Abbey from the terrace - traditional home made cooking.
  • The Old Inn Carnock, West of the town on the road to Alloa. This bar and restaurant has a fabulous well priced menu and very friendly staff.
  • Domino's Pizza, 106-114 Hospital Hill, Dunfermline, KY11 3AU (01383 722 422), [14].
  • Elgin Hotel, The Green, Charlestown, Fife, KY11 3EE, +44 (0)1383 872257 (, fax: +44 (0)1383 873044), [15]. Located outskirts of Dunfermline.  edit
  • Pitbauchlie House Hotel, Aberdour Road, +44 (0)1383 722282 (, fax: +44 (0)1383 620738), [16]. Located near the center of town.  edit
  • King Malcolm Hotel, Queensferry Road, +44 (0)1383 722611 (fax: +44 (0)1383 730865), [17]. Situated in the south of the town near the Pitrievie business park.  edit
  • Express By Holiday Inn Dunfermline, Halbeath Road, Halbeath, +44-1383-748220 (fax: +44-1383-748221), [18]. Located to the east of the town.  edit
  • Premier Travel Inn Dunfermline, 4-12 Whimbrel Place, Fife Leisure Park, +44 (0)870 600 1486 (fax: +44 (0)870 600 1487), [19]. Located to the east of the town. GBP 50-55.  edit
  • Travel Lodge Dunfermline, Halbeath Junction, Halbeath, +44 (0)870 191 1787 (fax: +44 (0)1383 844649), [20]. Located to the east of the town.  edit
  • Boreland Lodge Hotel, 31/33 Boreland Road, Inverkeithing, Fife, KY11 1da, [21]. A warm and inviting family-run hotel in Inverkeithing, Fife, near Edinburgh, Scotland. Minutes away from the world-famous Knockhill Racing Circuit and Deep Sea World. Best rates on official website start at GB£27.  edit
  • Inglewood Bed & Breakfast, 42 Boreland Road, Inverkeithing, Fife KY11 1DA (1st Exit North of Forth Road Bridge on M90 also south bound at Admirality Junction), +44(0)1383410899, [22]. checkin: 12.00hrs; checkout: 10.00hrs. £30.00.  edit
  • Aberdour - Described as "The Jewel of Fife", Aberdour is a historic and stunningly attractive coastal village. Aberdour Castle is a must-see, as well as the Blue-Flag awarded beach the Silver Sands. There are also several pubs, restaurants, and boutique shops. 15 minutes drive East of Dunfermline, or hop on the regular train/bus services.
  • Culross - Some 10 miles to the west - the village that time forgot. A quaint selection of dwellings, all restored, dating from the 17th and 18th century. Abbey, Town House, Study and Palace all worth a visit.
  • Dollar - It takes about 40 minutes by car. Take the A823 in the direction of Crieff and follow the signs for Dollar en route. There are great walks around Dollar Glen and there is the partial ruin of Castle Campbell to explore.
  • Falkland - A small village with historic palace, about 40 minutes drive away.
  • Kirkcaldy - 15 minutes in car via the A92 dual carriageway or easily by train or bus. Excellent shopping and theatre, parks, museum and art gallery.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

DUNFERMLINE (Gaelic, "the fort on the crooked linn"), a royal, municipal and police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland. Pop. (1891) 22,157; (1901) 25,250. It is situated on high ground 3 m. from the shore of the Firth of Forth, with two stations on the North British railway - Lower Dunfermline 164 m., and Upper Dunfermline 194 m. N.W. of Edinburgh, via the Forth Bridge. The town is intersected from north to south by Pittencrieff Glen, a deep, picturesque and tortuous ravine, from which the town derives its name and at the bottom of which flows Lyne Burn. The history of Dunfermline goes back to a remote period, for the early Celtic monks known as Culdees had an establishment here; but its fame and prosperity date from the marriage of Malcolm Canmore and his queen Margaret, which was solemnized in the town in 1070. The king then lived in a tower on a mound surrounded on three sides by the glen. A fragment of this castle still exists in Pittencrieff Park, a little west of the later palace. Under the influence of Queen Margaret in 1075 the foundations were laid of the Benedictine priory, which was raised to the rank of an abbey by David I. Robert Bruce gave the town its charter in 1322, though in his Fife: Pictorial and Historical (ii. 223), A. H. Millar contends that till the confirming charter of James VI. (1588) all burghal privileges were granted by the abbots.

In the 18th century Dunfermline impressed Daniel Defoe as showing the "full perfection of decay," but it is now one of the most prosperous towns in Scotland. Its staple industry is the manufacture of table linen. The weaving of damask was introduced in 1718 by James Blake, who had learned the secret of the process in the workshops at Drumsheugh near Edinburgh, to which he gained admittance by feigning idiocy; and since that date the linen trade has advanced by leaps and bounds, much of the success being due to the beautiful designs produced by the manufacturers. Among other industries that have largely contributed to the welfare of the town are dyeing and bleaching, brass and iron founding, tanning, machine-making, brewing and distilling, milling, rope-making and the making of soap and candles,while the collieries in the immediate vicinity are numerous and flourishing.

The town is well supplied with public buildings. Besides the New Abbey church, the United Free church in Queen Anne Street founded by Ralph Erskine, and the Gillespie church, named after Thomas Gillespie (1708-1774), another leader of the Secession movement, possess some historical importance. Erskine is commemorated by a statue in front of his church and a sarcophagus over his grave in the abbey churchyard; Gillespie by a marble tablet on the wall above his resting-place within the abbey. The Corporation buildings, a blend of the Scots Baronial and French Gothic styles, contain busts of several Scottish sovereigns a statue of Robert Burns, and Sir Noel Paton's painting of the "Spirit of Religion." Other structures are the County buildings, the Public, St Margaret's, Music and Carnegie halls, the last in the Tudor style, Carnegie public baths, high school (founded in 1560), school of science and art, and two hospitals. Several distinguished men have been associated with Dunfermline. Robert Henryson (1430-1506), the poet, was long one of its schoolmasters. John Row (1568-1646), the Church historian, held the living of Carnock, 3 m. to the E., and David Ferguson (d. 1598) who made the first collection of Scottish proverbs (not published till 1641), was parish minister; Robert Gilfillan (1798-1850), the poet, and Sir Joseph Noel Paton (1821-1901), painter and poet - whose father was a designer of patterns for the damask trade - were all born here. Andrew Carnegie (b. 1837), however, is in a sense the most celebrated of all her sons, as he is certainly her greatest benefactor. He gave to his birthplace the free library and public baths, and, in 1903, the estate of Pittencrieff Park and Glen, rich in historical associations as well as natural charm, together with bonds yielding 25,000 a year, in trust for the maintenance of the park, the support of a theatre for the production of plays of the highest merit, the periodical exhibitions of works of art and science, the promotion of horticulture among the working classes and the encouragement of technical education in the district. The town is governed by a provost, bailies and council, and, with Stirling, Culross, Inverkeithing and Queensferry (the Stirling group), combines in returning a member to parliament.

Dunfermline Abbey is one of the most important remains in Scotland. Excepting Iona it has received more of Caledonia's royal dead than any other place in the kingdom. Within its precincts were buried Queen Margaret and Malcolm Canmore; their sons Edgar and Alexander I., with his queen; David I. and his two queens; Malcolm IV.; Alexander III., with his first wife and their sons David and Alexander; Robert Bruce, with his queen Elizabeth and their daughter Matilda; and Annabella Drummond, wife of Robert III. and mother of James I. Bruce's heart rests in Melrose, but his bones lie in Dunfermline Abbey, where (after the discovery of the skeleton in 1818) they were reinterred with fitting pomp below the pulpit of the New church. In 1891 the pulpit was moved back and a monumental brass inserted in the floor to indicate the royal vault. The tomb of St Margaret and Malcolm, within the ruined walls of the Lady chapel, was restored and enclosed by command of Queen Victoria. During the winter of 1303 the court of Edward I. was held in the abbey, and on his departure next year most of the buildings were burned. When the Reformers attacked the abbey church in March 1560, they spared the nave, which served as the parish church till the 19th century, and now forms the vestibule of the New church. This edifice, in the Perpendicular style, opened for public worship in 1821, occupies the site of the ancient chancel and transepts, though differing in style and proportions from the original structure. The old building was a fine example of simple and massive Norman, as the nave testifies, and has a beautiful doorway in its west front. Another rich Norman doorway was exposed in the south wall in 1903, when masons were cutting a site for the memorial to the soldiers who had fallen in the South African War. A new site was found for this monument in order that the ancient and beautiful entrance might be preserved. The venerable structure is maintained by the commissioners of woods and forests, and private munificence has provided several stained-glass windows. Of the monastery there still remains the south wall of the refectory, with a fine window. The palace, a favourite residence of many of the kings, occupying a picturesque position near the ravine, was of considerable size, judging from the south-west wall, which is all that is left of it. Here James IV., James V. and James VI. spent much of their time, and within its walls were born three of James VI.'s children - Charles I., Robert and Elizabeth. After Charles I. was crowned he paid a short visit to his birthplace, but the last royal tenant of the palace was Charles II., who occupied it just before the battle of Pitreavie (20th of July 1650), which took place 3 m. to the south-west, and here also he signed the National League and Covenant.

See A. H. Millar's Fife: Pictorial and Historical (2 vols., 18 95); and Sheriff fEneas Mackay's History of Fife and Kinross (1896).


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Simple English

Dunfermline (Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Phàrlain) is a town in Fife, Scotland. It sits on high ground three miles from the northern shore of the Firth of Forth, northwest of Edinburgh, and was an ancient capital of Scotland.[1][2]

Twin towns

References

  1. Dunfermline.info Retrieved 7th September 2008
  2. McEwan Bert Dunfermline The Post War Years 2004, p.9.

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