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Dutch Cross of Resistance
VERZETSKRUIS 1945.jpg
The Dutch Cross of Resistance
Awarded by Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of the Netherlands
Type Civil decoration
Awarded for For extreme bravery awarded to the Dutch Resistance
Status Not awarded anymore
Statistics
Established 3 May 1946
Total awarded 95 times
Posthumous
awards
93 times
Precedence
Next (higher) Honorary Sabre
Next (lower) Honorary Medal for Charitable Assistance
Baton Verzetskruis 1945.jpg
Ribbon bar of the Dutch Cross of Resistance

The Verzetskruis 1940–1945 (English: Cross of Resistance 1940–1945) is one of the highest possible decoration that exists within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

When the Netherlands were liberated in May 1945, the Dutch government in London had succeeded in developing a good and balanced system of both military and civilian decorations. Apart from the already existing Military Order of William, new decorations aroused like the Bronze Lion, the Bronze Cross, the Cross of Merit and the Flyers Cross. Deeds of courage could be awarded in a very efficient way. However there was not a good decoration to award people of the resistance organisations. In surrounding countries the governments had already succeeded in filling this gap. The Dutch government also tried to achieve this goal. Because there could not be found an agreement whether deeds of resistance could be awarded with an existing Military decoration or there was to be developed a special decoration, time passed on.

Especially within the Dutch Resistance there was a forceful movement against the decoration of resistance deeds. During war, every deed of resistance was thought to be equal to any other. However, other countries did decorate Dutch resistance people. A significant number of Dutch people were awarded decorations like the British King’s Medal for Courage in the Cause of Freedom and the American Medal of Freedom for their resistance work. Strengthened by this the Dutch government pushed on. Apart from that it was a personal wish of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands that resistance work should be decorated.

By Royal Decree of 3 May 1946 the Resistance Cross was instituted. The formal disruption was: The Bronze decoration of the Resistance Cross resembled a four armed cross, imbedded on a star of flames and covered with the Royal Crown. On the front one can find Saint George (the Dutch resistance) fighting the dragon (the Germans and Nazism). On the arms of the cross are engraved the words TROUW TOT IN DEN DOOD, meaning "loyalty till death". On the obverse one can find a flaming sword with two broken chains. The ribbon is coloured in crimson red with two golden orange lines. It was awarded 99 times, to only the most brave of the Dutch resistance, in almost all cases, posthumously.

See also

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