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General of the Army
 Dwight D. Eisenhower


In office
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
Vice President Richard Nixon
Preceded by Harry S. Truman
Succeeded by John F. Kennedy

In office
April 2, 1951 – May 30, 1952
Preceded by Post Created
Succeeded by Gen. Matthew Ridgway

In office
May 8 – November 10, 1945
Preceded by Post Created
Succeeded by Gen. George Patton (acting)

In office
1948–1953
Preceded by Frank D. Fackenthal
Succeeded by Grayson L. Kirk

Born October 14, 1890(1890-10-14)
Denison, Texas, United States of America
Died March 28, 1969 (aged 78)
Washington, D.C., United States
Birth name David Dwight Eisenhower
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Mamie Doud Eisenhower
Children Doud Dwight Eisenhower,
John Sheldon David Doud Eisenhower
Alma mater U.S. Military Academy
West Point, New York, United States
Occupation Soldier
Religion Presbyterian
Signature
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1915–1953, 1961–1969[1]
Rank US-O11 insignia.svg General of the Army
Commands Europe
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Army Distinguished Service Medal with four oak leaf clusters,
Legion of Merit,
Order of the Bath,
Order of Merit,
Legion of Honor
(partial list)

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (pronounced /ˈaɪzənhaʊər/ EYE-zən-how-ər; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was a five-star general in the United States Army and the 34th President of the United States, from 1953 until 1961. During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.[2]

As President, Ike oversaw the cease-fire of the Korean War, maintained pressure on the Soviet Union during the Cold War, made nuclear weapons a higher defense priority, launched the Space Race, enlarged the Social Security program, and began the Interstate Highway System. He was the last World War I veteran to serve as U.S. president, and the last president born in the 19th century. Eisenhower ranks highly among former U.S. presidents in terms of approval rating. He was also the first term-limited president in accordance with the 22nd Amendment.

Contents

Early life and family

Eisenhower was born David Dwight Eisenhower on October 14, 1890, at 208 East Day Street in Denison, Texas,[3] the first president born in that state. He was the third of seven sons[4] born to David Jacob Eisenhower and Ida Elizabeth Stover, of German, English and Swiss ancestry. The house in which he was born has been preserved as Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site and is operated by the Texas Historical Commission.

He was named David Dwight and was called Dwight; he reversed the order of his given names when he enrolled at West Point Military Academy.[5]

Eisenhower's paternal ancestors can be traced to Hans Nicolas Eisenhauer, whose surname is German for "iron worker";[6] in his autobiographic book, At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends, Dwight thought the name to mean "iron craftsman". Hans Eisenhauer and his family emigrated from Karlsbrunn (now Saarland), Germany, to Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 1741. Descendants travelled west. Eisenhower's family settled in Abilene, Kansas, in 1892. His father, David Eisenhower, was a college-educated engineer.[7] Dwight graduated from Abilene High School in 1909.[8]

Eisenhower family home, Abilene, Kansas
Eisenhower with his wife Mamie on the steps of St. Mary's University of San Antonio, Texas, in 1916, where Eisenhower was at the time a football coach.

Eisenhower married Mamie Geneva Doud of Boone, Iowa, on July 1, 1916. The couple had two sons: Doud Dwight and John Sheldon Doud. Doud Dwight was born September 24, 1917, and died of scarlet fever on January 2, 1921, at the age of three.[9] Their second son, John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower, was born the following year on August 3, 1922; John served in the United States Army, retiring as a brigadier general, became an author, and served as U.S. Ambassador to Belgium from 1969 to 1971. John, coincidentally, graduated from West Point on D-Day, June 6, 1944, and was married to Barbara Jean Thompson on June 10, 1947. John and Barbara had four children: Dwight David II "David", Barbara Ann, Susan Elaine and Mary Jean. David, after whom Camp David is named, married Richard Nixon's daughter Julie in 1968.

Religion

Eisenhower's father, Hans Nicholas Eisenhauer, was probably of Lutheran or Reformed Protestant practice. Eisenhower's mother, Ida Elizabeth Stover Eisenhower, previously a member of the River Brethren sect of the Mennonites, joined the Bible Students which would evolve into what is now known as Jehovah's Witnesses between 1895 and 1900, when Eisenhower was a child.[10] The Eisenhower home served as the local meeting hall from 1896 to 1915.

When Eisenhower joined the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York in 1911, his ties to Jehovah’s Witnesses were weakened because of the group's anti-militarist stance.[11][12] By 1915, his parents' home no longer served as the meeting hall. All the men in the household abandoned the Witnesses as adults. Some hid their previous affiliation.[13][14]

Eisenhower was baptized, confirmed, and became a communicant in the Presbyterian Church in a single ceremony on February 1, 1953, just 12 days after his first presidential inauguration.[15] He is the only president known to have undertaken these rites while in office. Eisenhower was instrumental in the addition of the words "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance in 1954, and the 1956 adoption of "In God We Trust" as the motto of the United States, and its 1957 introduction on paper currency. In his retirement years, he was a member of the Gettysburg Presbyterian Church in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.[16] The chapel at his presidential library is intentionally inter-denominational.

He questioned evangelist Billy Graham about how people can be certain whether they are going to Heaven or Hell after death.[17]

Eisenhower was sworn into office with his personal West Point Bible, open to Psalm 33:12, at both his 1953 and 1957 inaugural ceremonies. Additionally for 1953, he included the Bible that George Washington had used in 1789 (belonging to St. John's Masonic Lodge No. 1), opened to II Chronicles 7:14.[18][19]

Education

Dwight D. Eisenhower attended Abilene High School in Abilene, Kansas and graduated with the class of 1909.[8] He was then employed as a night foreman at the Belle Springs Creamery.[20]

After Dwight worked for two years to support his brother Edgar's college education, a friend urged him to apply to the Naval Academy. Though Eisenhower passed the entrance exam, he was beyond the age of eligibility for admission to the Naval Academy.[21]

Kansas Senator Joseph L. Bristow recommended Dwight for an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York in 1911, which he received.[21] Eisenhower graduated in the upper half of the class of 1915.[22] The 1915 class was known as "the class the stars fell on", because 59 members eventually became general officers.

Athletic career

Eisenhower long had aspirations of playing professional baseball:

When I was a small boy in Kansas, a friend of mine and I went fishing and as we sat there in the warmth of the summer afternoon on a river bank, we talked about what we wanted to do when we grew up. I told him that I wanted to be a real major league baseball player, a genuine professional like Honus Wagner. My friend said that he'd like to be President of the United States. Neither of us got our wish.[23]

At West Point, Eisenhower unsuccessfully tried out for the baseball team. He would later say that "not making the baseball team at West Point was one of the greatest disappointments of my life, maybe my greatest."[23] However Eisenhower did make the football team. He started as a varsity running back and linebacker in 1912. One spectacular Eisenhower touchdown won praise from the sports reporter of the New York Herald. In a bit of a fabled match-up, he even tackled the legendary Jim Thorpe in a 1912 game.[24] The following week however, Eisenhower hurt his knee after being tackled around the ankles. His knee worsened and became permanently damaged on horseback and in the boxing ring.[25] He would later serve as junior varsity football coach and yell leader.

Controversy persists over whether Eisenhower played minor league baseball for Junction City in the Central Kansas League the year before he attended West Point and played amateur football there.

In 1916, while stationed at Fort Sam Houston, Eisenhower was football coach for St. Louis College, now St. Mary's University.[26][27]

Eisenhower played golf very enthusiastically later in life, and joined the Augusta National Golf Club in 1948, upon the club's invitation, during his first visit there.[28] He played golf frequently during his two terms as president, and after his retirement as well, never shying away from the media interest about his passion for golf. He had a small, basic golf facility installed at Camp David, and became close friends with Augusta National Chairman Clifford Roberts, inviting Roberts to stay at the White House on several occasions; Roberts, an investment broker, also handled the Eisenhower family's investments. Roberts also advised Eisenhower on tax aspects of publishing his memoirs, which proved to be financially lucrative. Roberts gave a series of interviews to Columbia University in 1967 to 1969, covering his relationship with Eisenhower; author David Owen had access to this previously-classified material for his book on the Augusta National Golf Club.[28]

Early military career

Eisenhower enrolled at the United States Military Academy at West Point in June 1911. His parents, who were against militarism, did not object to his entering West Point because they supported his education. Eisenhower was a strong athlete and enjoyed notable successes in his competitive endeavors.

Part of the 1912 West Point football team. Cadet Eisenhower 2nd from left; Cadet Omar Bradley 2nd from right.

Eisenhower graduated in 1915. He served with the infantry until 1918 at various camps in Texas and Georgia. During World War I, Eisenhower became the #3 leader of the new tank corps and rose to temporary (Bvt.) Lieutenant Colonel in the National Army. He spent the war training tank crews in Pennsylvania and never saw combat. After the war, Eisenhower reverted to his regular rank of captain (and was promoted to major a few days later) before assuming duties at Camp Meade, Maryland, where he remained until 1922. His interest in tank warfare was strengthened by many conversations with George S. Patton and other senior tank leaders; however their ideas on tank warfare were strongly discouraged by superiors.[29]

Eisenhower became executive officer to General Fox Conner in the Panama Canal Zone, where he served until 1924. Under Conner's tutelage, he studied military history and theory (including Karl von Clausewitz's On War), and later cited Conner's enormous influence on his military thinking. In 1925–26, he attended the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas,[30] and then served as a battalion commander at Fort Benning, Georgia until 1927.

During the late 1920s and early 1930s Eisenhower's career in the peacetime Army stagnated; many of his friends resigned for high-paying business jobs. He was assigned to the American Battle Monuments Commission, directed by General John J. Pershing, then to the Army War College, and then served as executive officer to General George V. Mosely, Assistant Secretary of War, from 1929 to 1933. He then served as chief military aide to General Douglas MacArthur, Army Chief of Staff, until 1935, when he accompanied MacArthur to the Philippines, where he served as assistant military adviser to the Philippine government. It is sometimes said that this assignment provided valuable preparation for handling the challenging personalities of Winston Churchill, George S. Patton and Bernard Law Montgomery during World War II. Eisenhower was promoted to lieutenant colonel (in a non-brevet status) in 1936 after sixteen years as a major. He also learned to fly, although he was never rated as a military pilot. He made a solo flight over the Philippines in 1937.

Eisenhower returned to the U.S. in 1939 and held a series of staff positions in Washington, D.C., California and Texas. In June 1941, he was appointed Chief of Staff to General Walter Krueger, Commander of the 3rd Army, at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas. He was promoted to brigadier general on October 3, 1941[31]. Although his administrative abilities had been noticed, on the eve of the U.S. entry into World War II he had never held an active command and was far from being considered as a potential commander of major operations.

World War II

Eisenhower (seated, middle) with other US Army officers, 1945. From left to right, the front row includes Simpson, Patton, Spaatz, Eisenhower, Bradley, Hodges, and Gerow.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Eisenhower was assigned to the General Staff in Washington, where he served until June 1942 with responsibility for creating the major war plans to defeat Japan and Germany. He was appointed Deputy Chief in charge of Pacific Defenses under the Chief of War Plans Division, General Leonard T. Gerow, and then succeeded Gerow as Chief of the War Plans Division. Then he was appointed Assistant Chief of Staff in charge of Operations Division under Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall. It was his close association with Marshall that finally brought Eisenhower to senior command positions. Marshall recognized his great organizational and administrative abilities.[32]

In 1942, Eisenhower was appointed Commanding General, European Theater of Operations (ETOUSA) and was based in London.[33] In November, he was also appointed Supreme Commander Allied (Expeditionary) Force of the North African Theater of Operations (NATOUSA) through the new operational Headquarters A(E)FHQ. The word "expeditionary" was dropped soon after his appointment for security reasons. In February 1943, his authority was extended as commander of AFHQ across the Mediterranean basin to include the British 8th Army, commanded by General Bernard Law Montgomery. The 8th Army had advanced across the Western Desert from the east and was ready for the start of the Tunisia Campaign. Eisenhower gained his fourth star and gave up command of ETOUSA to be commander of NATOUSA. After the capitulation of Axis forces in North Africa, Eisenhower oversaw the invasion of Sicily and the invasion of the Italian mainland.

Eisenhower speaks with U.S. paratroopers of the 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division on the evening of June 5, 1944.

In December 1943, it was announced that Eisenhower would be Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. In January 1944, he resumed command of ETOUSA and the following month was officially designated as the Supreme Allied Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), serving in a dual role until the end of hostilities in Europe in May 1945. In these positions he was charged with planning and carrying out the Allied assault on the coast of Normandy in June 1944 under the code name Operation Overlord, the liberation of western Europe and the invasion of Germany. A month after the Normandy D-Day landings on June 6, 1944, the invasion of southern France took place, and control of the forces which took part in the southern invasion passed from the AFHQ to the SHAEF. From then until the end of the War in Europe on May 8, 1945, Eisenhower through SHAEF had supreme command of all operational Allied forces2, and through his command of ETOUSA, administrative command of all U.S. forces, on the Western Front north of the Alps.

As recognition of his senior position in the Allied command, on December 20, 1944, he was promoted to General of the Army, equivalent to the rank of Field Marshal in most European armies. In this and the previous high commands he held, Eisenhower showed his great talents for leadership and diplomacy. Although he had never seen action himself, he won the respect of front-line commanders. He dealt skillfully with difficult subordinates such as Omar Bradley and Patton, and allies such as Winston Churchill, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and General Charles de Gaulle. He had fundamental disagreements with Churchill and Montgomery over questions of strategy, but these rarely upset his relationships with them. He negotiated with Soviet Marshal Zhukov[34], and such was the confidence that President Franklin D. Roosevelt had in him, he sometimes worked directly with Stalin, much to the chagrin of the British High Command who disliked being bypassed.

Memorial To Eisenhower at West Point.

It was never certain that Operation Overlord would succeed. The seriousness surrounding the entire decision, including the timing and the location of the Normandy invasion, might be summarized by a second shorter speech that Eisenhower wrote in advance, in case he needed it. Long after the successful landings on D-Day and the BBC broadcast of Eisenhower's brief speech concerning them, the never-used second speech was found in a shirt pocket by an aide. It read:[35]

Our landings in the Cherbourg-Havre area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time and place was based on the best information available. The troops, the air and the Navy did all that bravery and devotion to duty could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt, it is mine alone.

Aftermath of World War II

Occupation of Germany

Eisenhower served as Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army from 1945 to 1948.

Eisenhower as General of the Army.
The Supreme Commanders on June 5, 1945 in Berlin: Bernard Montgomery, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Georgy Zhukov and Jean de Lattre de Tassigny.

Following the German unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945, Eisenhower was appointed Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone, based in Frankfurt am Main. Germany was divided into four Occupation Zones, one each for the U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. Upon full discovery of the death camps that were part of the Final Solution (Holocaust), he ordered camera crews to comprehensively document evidence of the atrocity for use in the war crimes tribunals.[citation needed] He made the decision to reclassify German prisoners of war (POWs) in U.S. custody as Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEFs), thus depriving them of the protection of the Geneva Convention.[citation needed] As DEFs, their food rations could be lowered and they could be compelled to serve as unfree labor (see Rheinwiesenlager).[citation needed] Eisenhower was an early supporter of the Morgenthau Plan to permanently remove Germany's industrial capacity to wage future wars.[citation needed] In November 1945 he approved the distribution of 1000 free copies of Morgenthau's book Germany is Our Problem, which promoted and described the plan in detail, to American military officials in occupied Germany.[citation needed] Historian Stephen Ambrose draws the conclusion that, despite Eisenhower's later claims the act was not an endorsement of the Morgenthau plan, Eisenhower both approved of the plan and had previously given Morgenthau at least some of his ideas about how Germany should be treated.[36] He also incorporated officials from Morgenthau's Treasury into the army of occupation. These were commonly called "Morgenthau boys" for their zeal in interpreting the occupation directive JCS 1067, which had been heavily influenced by Morgenthau and his plan, as strictly as possible.[37]

Columbia University and NATO

In 1948, Eisenhower became President of Columbia University.[38] In December 1950, he took leave from the university when he became the Supreme Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and given operational command of NATO forces in Europe. Eisenhower retired from active service on May 31, 1952, and resumed the university presidency, which he held until January 1953.

1948 also was the year that Eisenhower's memoir, Crusade in Europe, was published.[39] It is widely regarded as one of the finest U.S. military memoirs.

Entry into politics

Not long after his return in 1952, a "Draft Eisenhower" movement in the Republican party persuaded him to declare his candidacy in the 1952 presidential election to counter the candidacy of non-interventionist Senator Robert Taft. (Eisenhower had been courted by both parties in 1948 and had declined to run then.) Eisenhower defeated Taft for the nomination but came to an agreement that Taft would stay out of foreign affairs while Eisenhower followed a conservative domestic policy. Eisenhower's campaign was noted for the simple but effective slogan, "I Like Ike", and was a crusade against the Truman administration's policies regarding "Korea, Communism and Corruption."[40] Truman, formerly a friend of Eisenhower's, never forgave him for not denouncing Senator Joseph McCarthy during the 1952 campaign.[40] Truman said he had previously thought Eisenhower would be a great President, but "he has betrayed almost everything I thought he stood for."[40]

Eisenhower promised during his campaign to go to Korea himself and end the war there. He also promised to maintain both a strong NATO commitment against Communism and a corruption-free frugal administration at home. He and his running mate Richard Nixon, whose daughter later married Eisenhower's grandson David, defeated Democrats Adlai Stevenson and John Sparkman in a landslide, marking the first Republican return to the White House in 20 years,[40] with Eisenhower becoming the last President born in the 19th century. Eisenhower, at 62, was the oldest man to be elected President since James Buchanan in 1856.[41] Eisenhower was the only general to serve as President in the 20th century, and the most recent President to have never held elected office prior to the Presidency. The other Presidents not to have sought prior elected office were Zachary Taylor, Ulysses S. Grant, William Howard Taft, and Herbert Hoover.

Presidency 1953–1961

From left to right: Nina Kukharchuk, Mamie Eisenhower, Nikita Khrushchev and Dwight Eisenhower at a state dinner in 1959
Francisco Franco and President Dwight D. Eisenhower in Madrid in 1959
Wernher von Braun briefs President Eisenhower in front of a Saturn 1 vehicle at the Marshall Space Flight Center dedication on September 8, 1960.

Throughout his presidency, Eisenhower preached a doctrine of dynamic conservatism.[42] He continued all the major New Deal programs still in operation, especially Social Security. He expanded its programs and rolled them into a new cabinet-level agency, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, while extending benefits to an additional ten million workers. His cabinet, consisting of several corporate executives and one labor leader, was dubbed by one journalist, "Eight millionaires and a plumber."[43]

Eisenhower won his second term in 1956 with 457 of 531 votes in the Electoral College, and 57.6% of the popular vote.

Interstate Highway System

One of Eisenhower's enduring achievements was championing and signing the bill that authorized the Interstate Highway System in 1956.[44] He justified the project through the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 as essential to American security during the Cold War. It was believed that large cities would be targets in a possible future war, and the highways were designed to evacuate them and allow the military to move in.

Eisenhower's goal to create improved highways was influenced by his involvement in the U.S. Army's 1919 Transcontinental Motor Convoy. He was assigned as an observer for the mission, which involved sending a convoy of U.S. Army vehicles coast to coast.[45][46] His subsequent experience with German autobahns during World War II convinced him of the benefits of an Interstate Highway System. Noticing the improved ability to move logistics throughout the country, he thought an Interstate Highway System in the U.S. would not only be beneficial for military operations, but be the building block for continued economic growth.[47]

Eisenhower Doctrine and foreign policy

After the Suez Crisis, the United States became the protector of most Western interests in the Middle East. As a result, Eisenhower proclaimed the "Eisenhower Doctrine" in January 1957. In relation to the Middle East, the U.S. would be "prepared to use armed force...[to counter] aggression from any country controlled by international communism." On July 15, 1958, he sent just under 15,000 soldiers to Lebanon (a combined force of Army and Marine Corps) as part of Operation Blue Bat, a non-combat peace keeping mission to stabilize the pro-Western government. They left in October of the same year.

In addition, Eisenhower explored the option of supporting the French colonial forces in Vietnam who were fighting an independence insurrection there. In 1953, Eisenhower sent Lt. General John W. "Iron Mike" O'Daniel to Vietnam to study and "assess" the French forces therein.[48] Chief of Staff Matthew Ridgway dissuaded the President from intervening by presenting a comprehensive estimate of the massive military deployment that would be necessary. However, later in 1954, Eisenhower did offer military and economic aid to the new nation of South Vietnam.[49] In the years that followed, the number of US military advisors in South Vietnam increased due to North Vietnam's support of "uprisings" in the south and concern the nation would fall.[49]

As the Cold War deepened, Eisenhower's Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, sought to isolate the Soviet Union by building regional alliances of nations against it. His efforts were sometimes called "pacto-mania".[50]

Civil rights and national security

In October 1952, the Eisenhower administration declared racial discrimination a national security issue.[51] In How Free is Free? historian Leon Litwack writes:

The restructuring of race relations took on a new urgency, an importance reserved for matters of national security. White supremacy, at least its most blatant and embarrassing manifestations, had become too costly to defend to sustain. In October 1952, when the Justice Department filed an amicus brief in the case of Brown v. Board of Education[52], it explained the interest of the president and the executive branch in the eventual decision. Nothing less was at stake than the very credibility of the United States in the international anti-Communist struggle. "It is in the context of the present world struggle between freedom and tyranny that the problem of racial discrimination must be viewed... Racial discrimination furnishes grist for the Communist propaganda mills, and it raises doubts even among friendly nations as to the intensity of our devotion to the democratic faith." The brief also cited a response from Secretary of State Dean Acheson affirming the importance of this case in the conduct of foreign relations. "The undeniable existence of racial discrimination, he declared, "gives unfriendly governments the most effective kind of ammunition for their propaganda warfare,... and jeopardizes the effective maintenance of our moral leadership of the free and democratic nations of the world."[53]

The day after the U.S. Supreme Court handed down its decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka in which segregated ("separate but equal") schools were ruled to be unconstitutional, Eisenhower told District of Columbia officials to make Washington a model for the rest of the country in integrating black and white public school children.[54][55] He proposed to Congress the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 and signed those acts into law. Although both Acts were weaker than subsequent civil rights legislation, they constituted the first significant civil rights acts since the Civil Rights Act of 1875, signed by President Ulysses S. Grant. The "Little Rock Nine" incident of 1957 involved the refusal by Arkansas to honor a Federal court order to integrate the schools. Under Executive Order 10730, Eisenhower placed the Arkansas National Guard under Federal control[citation needed] and sent Army troops to escort nine black students into Little Rock Central High School, an all-white public school. The integration did not occur without violence. Eisenhower and Arkansas governor Orval Faubus engaged in tense arguments.

Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

Eisenhower appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Other courts

In addition to his five Supreme Court appointments, Eisenhower appointed 45 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 129 judges to the United States district courts.

States admitted to the Union

  • Alaska – January 3, 1959 49th state
  • Hawaii – August 21, 1959 50th state

Health issues

Eisenhower was probably the first president to allow his personal health problems to become public while in office.[56] In September 1955, while vacationing in Colorado, he had a serious myocardial infarct (heart attack) that required several weeks' hospitalization. He was treated by Dr. Paul Dudley White, a cardiologist with a national reputation, who regularly informed the press of the president's progress. As a consequence of his heart attack, Eisenhower developed a left ventricular aneurysm, which was in turn the source of a thromboembolic cerebrovascular accident (stroke) in November 1957. The president also suffered from regional enteritis (Crohn's disease), a chronic inflammatory condition of the intestine, which necessitated surgery for a bowel obstruction in June 1956. Fortunately, the last 3 years of Eisenhower's term in office were ones of relatively good health. Eventually, however, after leaving the White House, he suffered several additional myocardial infarcts and was ultimately impaired physically because of them.[57]

End of presidency

Eisenhower with President Kennedy on retreat in 1962
Official White House portrait of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

In 1961, Eisenhower became the first U.S. president to be "constitutionally forced" from office, having served the maximum two terms allowed by the 22nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The amendment was ratified in 1951, during Harry S. Truman's term, but it stipulated that Truman would not be affected by the amendment.

Eisenhower was also the first outgoing President to come under the protection of the Former Presidents Act; two then-living former Presidents, Herbert Hoover and Harry S. Truman, left office before the Act was passed. Under the act, Eisenhower was entitled to receive a lifetime pension, state-provided staff and a Secret Service detail.[58]

In the 1960 election to choose his successor, Eisenhower endorsed his own Vice-President, Republican Richard Nixon against Democrat John F. Kennedy. He thoroughly supported Nixon over Kennedy, telling friends: "I will do almost anything to avoid turning my chair and country over to Kennedy."[40] However, he only campaigned for Nixon in the campaign's final days and even did Nixon some harm. When asked by reporters at the end of a televised press conference to list one of Nixon's policy ideas he had adopted, he joked, "If you give me a week, I might think of one." Kennedy's campaign used the quote in one of its campaign commercials. Nixon lost narrowly to Kennedy. Eisenhower, who was the oldest elected president in history at that time, thus handed power over to the youngest elected president.[40]

On January 17, 1961, Eisenhower gave his final televised Address to the Nation from the Oval Office.[59] In his farewell speech to the nation, Eisenhower raised the issue of the Cold War and role of the U.S. armed forces. He described the Cold War saying: "We face a hostile ideology global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose and insidious in method..." and warned about what he saw as unjustified government spending proposals and continued with a warning that "we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex... Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together."

Because of legal issues related to holding a military rank while in a civilian office, Eisenhower resigned his permanent commission as General of the Army before entering the office of President of the United States. Upon completion of his Presidential term, his commission on the retired list was reactivated and Eisenhower again was commissioned a five-star general in the United States Army.[60][61]

Post-presidency

Eisenhower leaving the White House after a visit with President Johnson in 1967.
Funeral services of Eisenhower

Eisenhower retired to the place where he and Mamie had spent much of their post-war time, a working farm adjacent to the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In 1967, the Eisenhowers donated the farm to the National Park Service and since 1980 it has been open to the public as the Eisenhower National Historic Site[62]. In retirement, he did not completely retreat from political life; he spoke at the 1964 Republican National Convention and appeared with Barry Goldwater in a Republican campaign commercial from Gettysburg.[63]

Death and funeral

Eisenhower died of congestive heart failure on March 28, 1969, at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington D.C. The following day his body was moved to the Washington National Cathedral's Bethlehem Chapel where he lay in repose for twenty-eight hours. On March 30, his body was brought by caisson to the United States Capitol where he lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda. On March 31, Eisenhower's body was returned to the National Cathedral where he was given an Episcopal Church funeral service. That evening, Eisenhower's body was placed onto a train en route to Abilene, Kansas. His body arrived on April 2, and was interred later that day in a small chapel on the grounds of the Eisenhower Presidential Library. Eisenhower is buried alongside his son Doud who died at age 3 in 1921, and his wife, Mamie, who died in 1979.[64]

Nixon spoke of Eisenhower's death, "Some men are considered great because they lead great armies or they lead powerful nations. For eight years now, Dwight Eisenhower has neither commanded an army nor led a nation; and yet he remained through his final days the world's most admired and respected man, truly the first citizen of the world."[65]

Legacy

After Eisenhower left office, his reputation declined and he was seen as having been a "do-nothing" President. This was partly because of the contrast between Eisenhower and his young activist successor, John F. Kennedy. Despite his unprecedented use of Army troops to enforce a federal desegregation order at Central High School in Little Rock, Eisenhower was criticized for his reluctance to support the civil rights movement to the degree which other activists wanted. Eisenhower was also criticized for his handling of the 1960 U-2 incident and the international embarrassment,[66][67] the Soviet Union's perceived leadership in the Arms race and the Space race, and his failure to publicly oppose McCarthyism. In particular, Eisenhower was criticized for failing to defend George Marshall from attacks by Joseph McCarthy, though he privately deplored McCarthy's tactics and claims.[68] Such omissions were held against him during the liberal climate of the 1960s and 1970s. Since that time, however, Eisenhower's reputation has risen. In recent surveys of historians, Eisenhower often is ranked in the top 10 among all US Presidents.

Although conservatism was riding on the crest of the wave in the 1950s, and Eisenhower shared the sentiment, his administration played a very modest role in shaping the political landscape. "Eisenhower's victories were," according to Hans Morgenthau, "but accidents without consequence in the history of the Republican party."[69]

Eisenhower was the first President to hire a White House Chief of Staff or "gatekeeper" – an idea that he borrowed from the United States Army, and that has been copied by every president after Lyndon Johnson. (Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter initially tried to operate without a Chief of Staff but both eventually gave up the effort and hired one.)

Eisenhower founded People to People International in 1956, based on his belief that citizen interaction would promote cultural interaction and world peace. The program includes a student ambassador component which sends American youth on educational trips to other countries.[70]

Eisenhower was the first president to appear on color television. He was videotaped when he spoke at the dedication of WRC-TV's new studios in Washington, D.C., on May 21, 1958. The tape has been preserved and is believed to be the oldest surviving color videotape.[71]

Criticism

In the book Other Losses (1989), the Canadian writer James Bacque controversially claims that Allied Supreme Commander Dwight Eisenhower deliberately caused the death of 790,000 German captives in internment camps through disease, starvation and cold from 1944 to 1949. In similar French camps some 250,000 more are said to have perished. The International Committee of the Red Cross was refused entry to the camps, Switzerland was deprived of its status as "protecting power" and POWs were reclassified as "Disarmed Enemy Forces" in order to avoid recognition under the Geneva Convention. Bacque argued that this alleged mass murder was a direct result of the policies of the western Allies, who, with the Soviets, ruled as the Military Occupation Government over partitioned Germany from May 1945 until 1949. He laid the blame on Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, saying Germans were kept on starvation rations even though there was enough food in the world to avert the lethal shortage in Germany in 1945–1946.[72]

In 1990, invited historians, including Stephen Ambrose and Günter Bischof, gathered in the Eisenhower Center for American Studies[73] at the University of New Orleans for an academic conference to examine such charges as Bacque had put forth. The conference concluded that there may have been mistreatment of German prisoners in 1945 but not as a result of any order from Eisenhower. The material that Bacque gathered was said to have been taken out of context and was careless scholarship as such. In 1992 a book with the conference's results was edited by Ambrose and Bischof and published.[74]

Tributes and memorials

The bronze statue of Eisenhower that stands in the rotunda as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection. He is depicted wearing an "Ike Jacket".[75]

Eisenhower's picture was on the dollar coin from 1971 to 1978.[76] Nearly 700 million of the copper-nickel clad coins were minted for general circulation, and far smaller numbers of uncirculated and proof issues (in both copper-nickel and 40% silver varieties) were produced for collectors.[76] He reappeared on a commemorative silver dollar issued in 1990, celebrating the 100th anniversary of his birth, which with a double image of him showed his two roles, as both a soldier and a statesman.[76] The reverse of the commemorative depicted his home in Gettysburg.[76] As part of the Presidential $1 Coin Program, Eisenhower will be featured on a gold-colored dollar coin in 2015.[77]

He is remembered for his role in World War II, the creation of the Interstate Highway System and ending the Korean War. USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, the second Nimitz-class supercarrier, was named in his honor.

The Interstate Highway System is officially known as the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways in his honor. Several highways are also named for him, including the Eisenhower Expressway (Interstate 290) near Chicago and the Eisenhower Tunnel on Interstate 70 west of Denver.

The British A4 class steam locomotive No. 4496 (renumbered 60008) Golden Shuttle was renamed Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1946. It is preserved at the National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, Wisconsin.

Eisenhower College was a small, liberal arts college chartered in Seneca Falls, New York in 1965, with classes beginning in 1968. Financial problems forced the school to fall under the management of the Rochester Institute of Technology in 1979. Its last class graduated in 1983.

Eisenhower Hall, the cadet activities building at West Point, was completed in 1974.[78] In 1983, the Eisenhower Monument was unveiled at West Point.

Eisenhower Monument at West Point

The Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California was named after the President in 1971.

The Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, located at Fort Gordon near Augusta, Georgia, was named in his honor.[79]

In February 1971, Dwight D. Eisenhower School of Freehold Township, New Jersey was officially opened.[80]

In 1983, The Eisenhower Institute was founded in Washington, D.C., as a policy institute to advance Eisenhower's intellectual and leadership legacies.

In 1989, U.S. Ambassador Charles Price and UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher dedicated a bronze statue of Eisenhower in Grosvenor Square, London. The statue is located in front of the current US Embassy, London and across from the former command center for the Allied Expeditionary Force during World War II, offices Eisenhower occupied during the war.[81]

In 1999, the United States Congress created the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, to create an enduring national memorial in Washington, D.C. In 2009, the commission chose the architect Frank Gehry to design the memorial.[82][83] The memorial will stand near the National Mall on Maryland Avenue, SW across the street from the National Air and Space Museum.[84]

On May 7, 2002, the Old Executive Office Building was officially renamed the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. This building is part of the White House Complex, west of the West Wing. It currently houses a number of executive offices, including ones for the Vice President and his or her spouse.[85]

A county park in East Meadow, New York (Long Island) is named in his honor.[86] In addition, Eisenhower State Park on Lake Texoma near his birthplace of Denison is named in his honor; his actual birthplace is currently operated by the State of Texas as Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site.

Many public high schools and middle schools in the U.S. are named after Eisenhower.

There is a Mount Eisenhower in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains in New Hampshire.

A tree overhanging the 17th hole that always gave him trouble at Augusta National Golf Club, where he was a member, is named the Eisenhower Tree in his honor.

The Eisenhower Golf Club at the United States Air Force Academy, a 36-hole facility featuring the Blue and Silver courses and which is ranked #1 among DoD courses, is named in Eisenhower's honor.

The 18th hole at Cherry Hills Country Club, near Denver, is named in his honor. Eisenhower was a longtime member of the club, one of his favorite courses.[87]

Awards and decorations

United States awards

Stamp issued by the USPS in 1969 commemorating Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dollar coin issued by the United States Mint from 1971 to 1978 commemorating Eisenhower
Eisenhower receiving the Civitan International World Citizenship Award in 1966

In Order of Precedence

He was also an honorary member of the Boy Scouts of America's Tom Kita Chara Lodge #96.

International awards

List of citations bestowed by other countries.[88]

Other honors

See also

References

Specific references:

  1. ^ http://www.eisenhower.utexas.edu/All_About_Ike/Post_Presidential/Post_Presidential.html
  2. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-2057/Dwight-D-Eisenhower. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  3. ^ "Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower". Eisenhower Presidential Center. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/quick_links/DDE_Mamie_general_bio.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  4. ^ "Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower". whitehouse.gov. The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/de34.html. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  5. ^ Eisenhower, David (May 2007). "World War II and Its Meaning for Americans". www.pfri.org. Foreign Policy Research Institute. http://www.fpri.org/footnotes/129.200705.eisenhower.ww2meaningamericans.html. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  6. ^ "EISENHOWER – Name Meaning & Origin". The New York Times Company. genealogy.about.com. http://genealogy.about.com/library/surnames/e/bl_name-EISENHOWER.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  7. ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 13–14
  8. ^ a b "Public School Products". Time. 1959-09-14. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,865992,00.html. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  9. ^ Berger-Knorr, Lawrence. The Pennsylvania Relations of Dwight D. Eisenhower. p. 8. 
  10. ^ Smith, Gary Scott, (2006). Faith and the Presidency: From George Washington to George W. Bush. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530060-2. Retrieved: 2008-05-24
  11. ^ The Watchtower, 2002, p.159 | "They Are No Part of the World" Worship the Only True God | © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania
  12. ^ Reasoning From the Scriptures 1985, p. 138 | “Neutrality” | © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania
  13. ^ Bergman, Jerry (December 1999). "Why President Eisenhower Hid His Jehovah's Witness Upbringing". JW Research Journal 6 (2). http://www.seanet.com/~raines/eisenhower.html. 
  14. ^ Jehovah Witnesses Abilene Congregation. Dwight D. Eisenhower Library. Eisenhower Presidential Center. (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). Retrieved: 2008-05-23
  15. ^ Eisenhower Presidential Trivia. (c/o Archive.org. Archive Date: 2007-06-12). Eisenhower Presidential Center. Retrieved: 2008-05-24
  16. ^ "Gettysburg Presbyterian Church". Gettysburg. http://www.gettysburg.com/communit/gpc.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  17. ^ Gibbs, Nancy; and Michael Duffy. "Billy Graham, Pastor In Chief". TIME. August 9, 2007. Retrieved: 2008-06-07
  18. ^ President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953. Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. U.S. Senate.
  19. ^ President Dwight David Eisenhower, 1957. Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. U.S. Senate.
  20. ^ "Eisenhower: Soldier of Peace". TIME. 1969-04-04. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,839998-3,00.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  21. ^ a b "Biography: Dwight David Eisenhower". Eisenhower Foundation. http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/biodde.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  22. ^ "Dwight David Eisenhower". Internet Public Library. http://www.ipl.org/div/potus/ddeisenhower.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  23. ^ a b "President Dwight D. Eisenhower Baseball Related Quotations". Baseball Almanac. http://www.baseball-almanac.com/prz_qde.shtml. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  24. ^ Botelho, Greg (1912-07-15). "Roller-coaster life of Indian icon, sports' first star". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/europe/07/09/jim.thorpe/. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  25. ^ "Ike and the Team". Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial. http://www.eisenhowermemorial.org/stories/Ike-and-team.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  26. ^ "Eisenhower BOQ 1915". Fort Sam Houston. http://ameddregiment.amedd.army.mil/fshmuse/tour8.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  27. ^ "Lt Eisenhower and Football Team". Fort Sam Houston. http://ameddregiment.amedd.army.mil/fshmuse/eisen_football.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  28. ^ a b The Making of the Masters: Clifford Roberts, Augusta National, and Golf's Most Prestigious Tournament, by David Owen, Simon and Schuster, 1999, ISBN 0-684-85729-4
  29. ^ Sixsmith 1973, p. 6
  30. ^ Bender, Mark C. (1990). "Watershed at Leavenworth". U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/bender/bender.asp. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  31. ^ The Eisenhowers: The General
  32. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  33. ^ Eisenhower lived in 'Telegraph Cottage', Warren Road, Coombe, Kingston Upon Thames from 1942 to 1944. A plaque commemorating this, placed there in 1995 by the Royal Borough of Kingston Upon Thames, can be seen at the north end of Warren Road.
  34. ^ Memoir of Eisenhower's translator for the Potsdam Conference meetings with Zhukov Paul P. Roudakoff (1955-07-22). "Ike and Zhukov". Collier's Magazine. 
  35. ^ Wilmont, The Longest Day
  36. ^ Ambrose, Stephen (1983). Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect (1893–1952). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 422. 
  37. ^ Petrov, Vladimir (1967). Money and conquest; allied occupation currencies in World War II.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 228–229. 
  38. ^ Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower, New York, Touchstone Books, 1990, pp 234–235, ISBN 0-671-70107-X
  39. ^ Crusade in Europe, Doubleday; 1st edition (1948), 559 pages, ISBN 1-125-30091-4
  40. ^ a b c d e f Gibbs, Nancy (November 10, 2008). "When New President Meets Old, It's Not Always Pretty". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1857862,00.html. 
  41. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 7. ISBN 0465041957. 
  42. ^ The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers."Dwight Eisenhower." Teaching Eleanor Roosevelt, ed. by Allida Black, June Hopkins, et. al. (Hyde Park, New York: Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site, 2003). http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/glossary/eisenhower-dwight.htm [Accessed July 21, 2009].
  43. ^ "The Flavor of the New". Time. 1969-01-24. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,900543-1,00.html. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  44. ^ "The cracks are showing". The Economist. 2008-06-26. http://www.economist.com/obituary/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8447241. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 
  45. ^ "The Last Week – The Road to War". USS Washington (BB-56). http://www.usswashington.com/dl30au39h1.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  46. ^ "About the Author". USS Washington (BB-56). http://usswashington.com/worldwar2plus55/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  47. ^ "“Interstate Highway System”". Eisenhower Presidential Center. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/dl/InterstateHighways/InterstateHighwaysdocuments.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  48. ^ James Dunnigan and Albert Nofi, Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War. St. Martins Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-19857-4. p 85.
  49. ^ a b James Dunnigan and Albert Nofi, Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War. p 257.
  50. ^ Cornelia Navari, Internationalism and the State in the Twentieth Century. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 978-0415097475. p. 316.
  51. ^ http://press.princeton.edu/titles/6924.html Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy by Mary L. Dudziak 2002 Princeton University Press
  52. ^ Eisenhower administration amicus brief in Brown v. Board of Education
  53. ^ How Free is Free? The Long Death of Jim Crow by Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Leon Litwack 2009 Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674031524 p. 101–102
  54. ^ Eisenhower 1963, p. 230
  55. ^ Parmet 1972, pp. 438–439
  56. ^ Ferrell RH: Ill-Advised: Presidential Health & Public Trust, University of Missouri Press, Columbia, MO, 1992; pp. 53–150.
  57. ^ "President Dwight Eisenhower: Health & Medical History". doctorzebra.com. http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/g34.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  58. ^ "Former Presidents Act". National Archives and Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/about/laws/former-presidents.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  59. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower Farewell Address". USA Presidents. http://www.usa-presidents.info/speeches/eisenhower-farewell.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  60. ^ Eisenhower Archives. Post Presidential Years. Quote: "President Kennedy reactivated his commission as a five star general in the United States Army. With the exception of George Washington, Eisenhower is the only United States President with military service to reenter the Armed Forces after leaving the office of President."
  61. ^ "John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum, A Chronology from The New York Times, March 1961". 1961-03-23. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/New+York+Times+Chronology/1961/March.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-30. "Mr. Kennedy signed into law the act of Congress restoring the five-star rank of General of the Army to his predecessor, Dwight D. Eisenhower. (15:5)" 
  62. ^ Eisenhower National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)
  63. ^ "Johnson vs. Goldwater". The Living Room Candidate. http://livingroomcandidate.movingimage.us/election/index.php?nav_action=election&nav_subaction=overview&campaign_id=168. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  64. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower". Eisenhower Presidential Center. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/quick_links/funeral/DDE_funeral.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  65. ^ http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1969/Chappaquiddick/12303189849225-7/#title "1969 Year in Review, UPI.com"
  66. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 27. ISBN 0465041957. 
  67. ^ Walsh, Kenneth T. (2008-06-06). "Presidential Lies and Deceptions". US News and World Report. http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/politics/2008/06/06/presidential-lies-and-deceptions.html. 
  68. ^ "Presidential Politics". Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/34_eisenhower/eisenhower_politics.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  69. ^ Hans J. Morgenthau: "Goldwater – The Romantic Regression", in Commentary, September 1964.
  70. ^ "Our Heritage". peopletopeople.com. People to People. http://www.peopletopeople.com/AboutUs/Pages/OurHeritage.aspx. Retrieved September 29, 2009. 
  71. ^ http://en.allexperts.com/e/w/wr/wrc-tv.htm
  72. ^ Bacque, James. Other Losses, Toronto, Canada : Stoddart, 1989. ISBN 0773722696. Controversial book on the treatment of WWII prisoners.
  73. ^ The Eisenhower Center for American Studies, University of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
  74. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E.; Bischof, Günter, (editors), Eisenhower and the German POWs : facts against falsehood, Eisenhower Center studies on war and peace, Baton Rouge : Louisiana State University Press, 1992.
  75. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower". www.aoc.gov. Architect of the Capitol. http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/eisenhower.cfm. Retrieved November 29, 2008. 
  76. ^ a b c d Yeoman, R.S. (2007). Kenneth Bressett. ed. 2008 Guide Book of United States Coins (61st ed.). Atlanta: Whitman Publishing. pp. 218, 294. ISBN 0794822673. 
  77. ^ "Presidential Dollar Coin Release Schedule". United States Mint. http://usmint.gov/mint_programs/$1coin/index.cfm?action=schedule. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  78. ^ Agnew, James B. (1979). Eggnog Riot. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press. p. 197.
  79. ^ "History of Eisenhower Army Medical Center". Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center. Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20070203232831/http://www.ddeamc.amedd.army.mil/Visitor/history.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  80. ^ "Eisenhower Middle School History". Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. http://www.freeholdtwp.k12.nj.us/eisenhower/history.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  81. ^ "Statue of President Eisenhower in Grosvenor Square". www.usembassy.org.uk. US Embassy. http://www.usembassy.org.uk/grsvnrsq/eisen.html. Retrieved March 2, 2009. 
  82. ^ "Frank Gehry to design Eisenhower Memorial". bizjournals.com. American City Business Journals. April 1, 2009. http://www.bizjournals.com/albuquerque/stories/2009/03/30/daily41.html. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  83. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline (2009-04-02). "Architect Gehry Gets Design Gig For Ike Memorial". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/01/AR2009040101880.html. 
  84. ^ Plumb, Tiereny (2010-01-22). "Gilbane to manage design and construction of Eisenhower Memorial". Washington Business Journal. American City Business Journals, Inc. http://washington.bizjournals.com/washington/stories/2010/01/18/daily80.html. 
  85. ^ The White House. Eisenhower Executive Office Building. Construction Chronology & Historical Events for the Eisenhower Executive Office Building
  86. ^ "Eisenhower Park". Nassau County, New York. http://www.nassaucountyny.gov/agencies/Parks/WhereToGo/active/eisenhower.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  87. ^ The World Atlas of Golf, second edition, 1988, Mitchell and Beazely publishers, London.
  88. ^ "Eisenhower Decorations and Awards". Eisenhower Presidential Center. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/quick_links/military/decorations_awards_medals/Eisenhower_decorations_awards.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  89. ^ Eisenhower, John S. D.. Allies. 
  90. ^ Armbrester, Margaret E. (1992). The Civitan Story. Birmingham, AL: Ebsco Media. pp. 97. 
  91. ^ President Eisenhower named to World Golf Hall of Fame

General references:

  • Ambrose, Stephen (1983). Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect (1893–1952). New York: Simon & Schuster. .
  • D'Este, Carlo (2002). Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life. .
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1963). Mandate for Change, 1953–1956. .
  • Parmet, Herbert S. (1972). Eisenhower and the American Crusades. .
  • Sixsmith, E. K. G. (1973). Eisenhower, His Life and Campaigns. .

Further reading

Military career

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890–1952 (1983);'
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. The Victors: Eisenhower and his Boys: The Men of World War II, New York : Simon & Schuster, 1998. ISBN 0-684-85628-X
  • Eisenhower, David. Eisenhower at War 1943–1945 (1986), New York : Random House. ISBN 978-0394412375. A detailed study by his grandson.
  • Irish, Kerry E. "Apt Pupil: Dwight Eisenhower and the 1930 Industrial Mobilization Plan", The Journal of Military History 70.1 (2006) 31–61 online in Project Muse.
  • Pogue, Forrest C. The Supreme Command, Washington, D.C. : Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army, 1954. The official Army history of SHAEF.
  • Weigley, Russell. Eisenhower's Lieutenants. Indiana University Press, 1981. Ike's dealings with his key generals in WW2

Civilian career

  • Albertson, Dean, ed. Eisenhower as President (1963).
  • Alexander, Charles C. Holding the Line: The Eisenhower Era, 1952–1961 (1975).
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890–1952 (1983); Eisenhower. The President (1984); one volume edition titled Eisenhower: Soldier and President (2003). Standard biography.
  • Bowie, Robert R. and Richard H. Immerman; Waging Peace: How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War Strategy, Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Damms, Richard V. The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953–1961 (2002).
  • David Paul T. (ed.), Presidential Nominating Politics in 1952. 5 vols., Johns Hopkins Press, 1954.
  • Divine, Robert A. Eisenhower and the Cold War (1981).
  • Greenstein, Fred I. The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader (1991).
  • Harris, Douglas B. "Dwight Eisenhower and the New Deal: The Politics of Preemption" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997.
  • Harris, Seymour E. The Economics of the Political Parties, with Special Attention to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy (1962).
  • Krieg, Joann P. ed. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Soldier, President, Statesman (1987). 24 essays by scholars.
  • McAuliffe, Mary S. "Eisenhower, the President", Journal of American History 68 (1981), pp. 625–632.
  • Medhurst, Martin J. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Strategic Communicator Greenwood Press, 1993.
  • Pach, Chester J. and Elmo Richardson. Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower (1991). Standard scholarly survey.

Primary sources

  • Boyle, Peter G., ed. The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 1953–1955 University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe (1948), his war memoirs.
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. The White House Years: Waging Peace 1956–1961, Doubleday and Co., 1965.
  • Eisenhower Papers 21 volume scholarly edition; complete for 1940–1961.
  • Summersby, Kay. Eisenhower was my boss (1948) New York: Prentice Hall; (1949) Dell paperback.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

No people on earth can be held, as a people, to be an enemy, for all humanity shares the common hunger for peace and fellowship and justice.

Dwight David Eisenhower (14 October 189028 March 1969) was an American soldier and politician. He served as Supreme Commander, Allied forces in Europe during World War II, and was later elected the 34th President of the United States. He was also known by his nickname "Ike".

Contents

Sourced

The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you.
  • When I was a small boy in Kansas, a friend of mine and I went fishing and as we sat there in the warmth of the summer afternoon on a river bank, we talked about what we wanted to do when we grew up. I told him that I wanted to be a real major league baseball player, a genuine professional like Honus Wagner. My friend said that he'd like to be president of the United States. Neither of us got our wish.

Pre-Presidency

  • This is a long tough road we have to travel. The men that can do things are going to be sought out just as surely as the sun rises in the morning. Fake reputations, habits of glib and clever speech, and glittering surface performance are going to be discovered.
    • Letter to Vernon E. Prichard (27 August 1942), published in The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower (1970) edited by Alfred Dupont Chandler, p. 505
  • Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force! You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world. Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy is well trained, well equipped and battle hardened. He will fight savagely. But this is the year 1944! Much has happened since the Nazi triumphs of 1940-41. The United Nations have inflicted upon the Germans great defeats, in open battle, man-to-man. Our air offensive has seriously reduced their strength in the air and their capacity to wage war on the ground. Our Home Fronts have given us an overwhelming superiority in weapons and munitions of war, and placed at our disposal great reserves of trained fighting men. The tide has turned! The free men of the world are marching together to Victory! I have full confidence in your courage and devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full Victory! Good luck! And let us beseech the blessing of Almighty God upon this great and noble undertaking.
    • Order of the Day (2 June 1944) Message to troops before the Normandy landings.
  • Our landings in the Cherbourg-Havre area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time and place was based on the best information available. The troops, the air and the Navy did all that bravery and devotion to duty could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt, it is mine alone.
    • Notes for an announcement, written in advance of the Normandy invasion, in case of its failure, but never delivered (June 1944)
  • Kinship among nations is not determined in such measurements as proximity of size and age. Rather we should turn to those inner things — call them what you will — I mean those intangibles that are the real treasures free men possess. To preserve his freedom of worship, his equality before law, his liberty to speak and act as he sees fit, subject only to provisions that he trespass not upon similar rights of others — a Londoner will fight. So will a citizen of Abilene. When we consider these things, then the valley of the Thames draws closer to the farms of Kansas and the plains of Texas.
  • I hate war as only a soldier who has lived it can, only as one who has seen its brutality, its stupidity.
    • Speech in Ottawa, 10 January 1946, published in Eisenhower Speaks : Dwight D. Eisenhower in His Messages and Speeches (1948) edited by Rudolph L. Treuenfels
  • The hand of the aggressor is stayed by strength – and strength alone.
    • A speech at an English Speaking Union Dinner, July 3, 1951. It is currently on display on the wall of Eisenhower Hall at the USMA at West Point in New York. Eisenhower Memorial Commission

Presidency

History does not long entrust the care of freedom to the weak or the timid. We must acquire proficiency in defense and display stamina in purpose.
  • We must be ready to dare all for our country. For history does not long entrust the care of freedom to the weak or the timid. We must acquire proficiency in defense and display stamina in purpose.
    We must be willing, individually and as a Nation, to accept whatever sacrifices may be required of us. A people that values its privileges above its principles soon loses both.
  • No people on earth can be held, as a people, to be an enemy, for all humanity shares the common hunger for peace and fellowship and justice. ... No nation's security and well-being can be lastingly achieved in isolation but only in effective cooperation with fellow-nations.
  • Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. The cost of one modern heavy bomber is this: a modern brick school in more than 30 cities. It is two electric power plants, each serving a town of 60,000 population. It is two fine, fully equipped hospitals. It is some fifty miles of concrete pavement. We pay for a single fighter plane with a half million bushels of wheat. We pay for a single destroyer with new homes that could have housed more than 8,000 people. This is, I repeat, the best way of life to be found on the road the world has been taking. This is not a way of life at all, in any true sense. Under the cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron. ... Is there no other way the world may live?
    • Speech to the American Society of Newspaper Editors, "The Chance for Peace" (1953-04-16)
  • There is one thing about being President — nobody can tell you when to sit down.
    • As quoted in"Sayings of the Week" in The Observer (9 August 1953), and The MacMillan Dictionary of Quotations (1989) by John Daintith, Hazel Egerton, Rosalind Ferguson, Anne Stibbs and Edmund Wright, p. 447.
  • All of us have heard this term "preventive war" since the earliest days of Hitler. I recall that is about the first time I heard it. In this day and time, if we believe for one second that nuclear fission and fusion, that type of weapon, would be used in such a war — what is a preventive war?
    I would say a preventive war, if the words mean anything, is to wage some sort of quick police action in order that you might avoid a terrific cataclysm of destruction later.
    A preventive war, to my mind, is an impossibility today. How could you have one if one of its features would be several cities lying in ruins, several cities where many, many thousands of people would be dead and injured and mangled, the transportation systems destroyed, sanitation implements and systems all gone? That isn't preventive war; that is war.
    I don't believe there is such a thing; and, frankly, I wouldn't even listen to anyone seriously that came in and talked about such a thing.
    ... It seems to me that when, by definition, a term is just ridiculous in itself, there is no use in going any further.
    There are all sorts of reasons, moral and political and everything else, against this theory, but it is so completely unthinkable in today's conditions that I thought it is no use to go any further.
    • News Conference of (11 August 1954)
    • Variant: When people speak to you about a preventive war, you tell them to go and fight it. After my experience, I have come to hate war. War settles nothing.
      • Quoted in Quote magazine (4 April 1965) and The Quotable Dwight D. Eisenhower (1967) edited by Elsie Gollagher, p. 219
  • Should any political party attempt to abolish social security, unemployment insurance, and eliminate labor laws and farm programs, you would not hear of that party again in our political history. There is a tiny splinter group, of course, that believes you can do these things. Among them are H. L. Hunt (you possibly know his background), a few other Texas oil millionaires, and an occasional politician or business man from other areas. Their number is negligible and they are stupid.
  • No doubt the strongest and most reliable protector of European civilization is The Turkish Army.
    • Said to the Turkish Brigade for their contributions during The Korean War.
  • … this is something, eh, that is the kind of thing that must be gone through with what I believe is best not talked about too much until we know whatever answers there will be.
    • Response to questions about the investigation of Robert Oppenheimer's supposed Communist sympathies
    • Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States. Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1954, p. 435
    • Cited in Brendon, Piers (1986). "The Dawn of Tranquility". Ike: His Life & Times (1st edition ed.). New York: Harper & Row. pp. p. 270 of 478. ISBN 0-06-015508-6.  
  • If a political party does not have its foundation in the determination to advance a cause that is right and that is moral, then it is not a political party; it is merely a conspiracy to seize power.
    • Remarks at Fourth Annual Republican Women's National Conference (1956-03-06)
  • I tell this story to illustrate the truth of the statement I heard long ago in the Army: Plans are worthless, but planning is everything. There is a very great distinction because when you are planning for an emergency you must start with this one thing: the very definition of 'emergency' is that it is unexpected, therefore it is not going to happen the way you are planning.
    • Speech to the National Defense Executive Reserve Conference in Washington, D.C. (1957-11-14)
  • Oh, goddammit, we forgot the silent prayer.
    • Remark at a cabinet meeting, as quoted in Since 1945 : Politics and Diplomacy in Recent American History (1979) by Robert A. Divine, p. 55
  • I do have one instruction for you, General. Do something about that damned football team.
    • Said to William Westmoreland in 1960 when Westmoreland assumed the post of Superintendent of West Point.
    • Cited in Atkinson, Rick (1991). "Year of the Tiger". The Long Gray Line (First Pocket Books printing ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. p. 79. ISBN 0-671-72674-9.  
  • Now this conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence — economic, political, even spiritual — is felt in every city, every Statehouse, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources, and livelihood are all involved. So is the very structure of our society.
    In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.
  • Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial-military posture, has been the technological revolution during recent decades. In this revolution, research has become central, it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government.
    Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers. The prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present — and is gravely to be regarded.
    Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite.

Post-Presidency

  • In preparing for battle, I have always found that plans are useless but planning is indispensable.
    • Quoted in Nixon, Richard (1962). "Krushchev". Six Crises. Doubleday.  
    • Quotation number 18611. The Columbia World of Quotations. Bartleby.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-11.
  • Secretary of War Stimson, visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act. ...the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.
    During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'. The Secretary was deeply perturbed by my attitude...
    • The White House Years: Mandate for Change: 1953–1956: A Personal Account (1963), pp. 312-313
  • I am convinced that the French could not win the war because the internal political situation in Vietnam, weak and confused, badly weakened their military position. I have never talked or corresponded with a person knowledgeable in Indochinese affairs who did not agree that had elections been held as of the time of the fighting, possibly 80 per cent of the population would have voted for the Communist Ho Chi Minh as their leader rather than Chief of State Bao Dai. Indeed, the lack of leadership and drive on the part of Bao Dai was a factor in the feeling prevalent among Vietnamese that they had nothing to fight for. As one Frenchman said to me, "What Vietnam needs is another Syngman Rhee, regardless of all the difficulties the presence of such a personality would entail.
    • The White House Years longer passage quoted at Montclair State University
  • Un-American activity cannot be prevented or routed out by employing un-American methods; to preserve freedom we must use the tools that freedom provides.
    • The White House Years, p. 331
  • I was against it on two counts. First, the Japanese were ready to surrender, and it wasn't necessary to hit them with that awful thing. Second, I hated to see our country be the first to use such a weapon.
    • On his stated opposition to the use of the atomic bomb against the Japanese
    • Newsweek, 1963-11-11
  • Character in many ways is everything in leadership. It is made up of many things, but I would say character is really integrity. When you delegate something to a subordinate, for example, it is absolutely your responsibility, and he must understand this. You as a leader must take complete responsibility for what the subordinate does. I once said, as a sort of wisecrack, that leadership consists of nothing but taking responsibility for everything that goes wrong and giving your subordinates credit for everything that goes well.
    • On military character
    • Edgar F. Puryear Jr., 19 Stars: a Study in Military Character and Leadership
  • It is my personal conviction that almost any one of the newborn states of the world would far rather embrace Communism or any other form of dictatorship than acknowledge the political domination of another government, even though that brought to each citizen a far higher standard of living.
    • Cole C. Kingseed, Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis of 1956, p. 27
  • One circumstance that helped our character development: we were needed. I often think today of what an impact could be made if children believed they were contributing to a family's essential survival and happiness. In the transformation from a rural to an urban society, children are — though they might not agree — robbed of the opportunity to do genuinely responsible work.
    • At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends (1967); also quoted in Childhood Revisited (1974) by Joel I. Milgram and Dorothy June Sciarra, p. 90
  • We are so proud of our guarantees of freedom in thought and speech and worship, that, unconsciously, we are guilty of one of the greatest errors that ignorance can make – we assume our standard of values is shared by all other humans in the world.
    • John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Post-war American National Security Policy (Oxford University Press, 1982)
  • Now I think, speaking roughly, by leadership we mean the art of getting someone else to do something that you want done because he wants to do it.
    • Dwight D. Eisenhower: containing the public messages, speeches, and statements of the President. Por United States. President (1953-1961 : Eisenhower), Dwight David Eisenhower, United States, United States. President, 1953-1961 (Eisenhower)., United States. Office of the Federal Register - pages 477, Published by U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1960
  • Neither a wise man or a brave man lies down on the tracks of history to wait for the train of the future to run over him.
    • The quotable Dwight D. Eisenhower‎ - Página 170, de Dwight David Eisenhower, Elsie Gollagher - Publiched by Droke House; distributed by Grosset and Dunlap, 1967 - 242 pages

Quotes about Eisenhower

  • Eisenhower was known as a harmonizer, a man who could get diverse factions to work toward a common goal... Leadership, he explained, meant patience and conciliation, not "hitting people over the head."
    • David M. Oshinsky, in A Conspiracy So Immense : The World of Joe McCarthy‎, (2005), p. 259

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Dwight Eisenhower 
Birth October 14, 1890 in "Denison"
Death: March 28, 1969 in "Washington"
Skill(s): Soldier (General of the Army (United States))
Companion: Mamie Eisenhower
Sex:
Signature:
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Dwight Eisenhower was born 14 October 1890 and died 28 March 1969 at the age of 78 years of unspecified causes.

For a detailed biography, see the Biography tab.

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This article uses material from the "Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Dwight David Eisenhower
File:Eisenhower


34th President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
Vice President Richard Nixon
Preceded by Harry S. Truman
Succeeded by John F. Kennedy

Born October 14, 1890
Denison, Texas
Died March 28, 1969
Washington DC
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Mamie Doud Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890March 28, 1969) (born in Denison, Texas) was an American soldier and politician. He was known across the world for his help leading the Allied invasions in World War II, and he later became the 34th President of the United States (from 1953 to 1961).

Military Career

Eisenhower was born into a family which did not have a lot of money. He joined the military and he moved up the ranks. During World War II, he rose his way up the ranks to become a 5-star general. He became the Supreme Allied Commander who led Operation Overlord (an Allied attack on Germany which was one of the most important battles of the war).

After World War II ended, he was considered a war hero. In the 1952 U.S. presidential election, the American public begged Eisenhower to run for President. Eisenhower (whose political views were unknown at the time) joined the Republican Party. He chose Richard Nixon as his vice-presidential candidate and won the election by beating Adali Stevenson.

Presidency

He served two terms from 1953-1961.

During the beginning of his first term, he oversaw a ceasefire (which stopped the fighting) during the Korean War. He created NASA (the United State's space program) which began a space race against the Soviet Union. Eisenhower believed that the United States should not try to fight wars overseas, but instead that United States' amount of nuclear weapons should be increased by a lot so it can have an advantage in the Cold War. That way the United States was able to keep the Soviet Union in check without spending a lot of money. For this reason, the U.S. government had balanced budgets during his presidency and did not have to borrow money.

He intimidated the Soviet Union by making them believe that the United States would respond to any act of aggression with the usage of nuclear weapons. That policy is called brinkmanship, new look, and massive retaliation. He also authorized planes to spy on the Soviet Union, but when a U.S. spy plane accidentally crashed into the Soviet Union near the end of Eisenhower's term, it hurt relations between the United States and the Soviet Union.

McCarthyism (when Senator Joseph McCarthy was accusing hundreds of people of being communist spies without evidence) was also an issue during his presidency. Eisenhower disliked Joseph McCarthy and tried to bring him down behind the scenes, but Eisenhower did not like to make enemies, so he did not talk about McCarthy much.

Domestically (in the country), the economy was doing very well and the nation was prosperous. Eisenhower supervised the creation of the interstate highway system and created the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Eisenhower was a moderate conservative (near the center of the political spectrum). He wanted to continue some New Deal programs such as Social Security, but at the same time, he wanted the government to be limited. At first, many criticized him for not doing enough to give civil rights to African Americans, but later during his presidency, he signed two civil rights acts and sent federal troops to Topeka, Kansas to make sure schools were desegregated.

When Eisenhower's presidency ended he was not very popular. Over time his reputation slowly improved and historians now generally consider him to be a good president.

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