|Spoken in||Bhutan , Sikkim (India)|
|Total speakers||First language: 130,000
Second language ~470,000
|Writing system||Tibetan script|
|Official language in||Bhutan|
|Regulated by||Dzongkha Development Commission|
Dzongkha (རྫོང་ཁ Wylie: rdzong-kha, Jong-kă), occasionally Ngalopkha, is the national language of Bhutan. The word "dzongkha" means the language (kha) spoken in the dzong, – dzong being the fortress-like monasteries established throughout Bhutan by Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal in the 17th century.
Dzongkha bears a close linguistic relationship to J'umowa spoken in the Chumbi valley of Southern Tibet and to the Dranjongke language of Sikkim. It has a much more distant relationship to standard modern Central Tibetan. Although spoken Dzongkha and Tibetan are largely mutually unintelligible, the literary forms of both are both highly influenced by the liturgical (clerical) Classical Tibetan language, known in Bhutan as Chöke, which has been used for centuries by Buddhist monks. Chöke was used as the language of education in Bhutan until the early 1960s when it was replaced by Dzongkha in public schools.
Dzongkha and its dialects are the native tongue of eight western districts of Bhutan (viz. Phodrang, Punakha, Thimphu, Gasa, Paro, Ha, Dhakana, and Chukha). There are also some speakers found near the Indian town of Kalimpong, once part of Bhutan but now in West Bengal. Dzongkha study is mandatory in all schools in Bhutan, and the language is the lingua franca in the districts to the south and east where it is not the mother tongue.
Linguistically, Dzongkha is a South Bodish language belonging to the proposed Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan group. It is closely related to Sikkimese (Wylie: 'Bras-ljongs-skad), the national language of the erstwhile kingdom of Sikkim; and to some other Bhutanese languages such as Cho-cha-na-ca (khyod ca nga ca kha), Brokpa (me rag sag steng 'brog skad), Brokkat (dur gyi 'brog skad), and Laka (la ka). Modern Tibetan is a Central Bodish language and thus belongs to a different sub-branch.
Dzongkha is usually written in Bhutanese forms of the Tibetan script known as Joyi (mgyogs yig) and Joshum (mgyogs tshugs ma). Dzongkha books are typically printed using Ucan fonts like those to print the Tibetan abugida.
Dzongkha is rarely heard outside Bhutan and environs. However, the 2003 Bhutanese film, Travellers and Magicians is entirely in Dzongkha.
In October 2005, an internal Microsoft proposal blocked the term "Dzongkha" from all company software and promotional material, substituting the term "Tibetan - Bhutan" instead. The International Campaign for Tibet cites the memorandum as saying Dzongkha "implies affiliation with the Dalai Lama, which is not acceptable to the government of China". The Bhutanese, who have never been under the rule of the Dalai Lamas, even if they revere the 14th Dalai Lama, were dismayed by the decision. Linguists have pointed out that the word "Dzongkha" has no particular association with the Dalai Lama. Ironically, the government of the People's Republic of China continues to use the term "Dzongkha" in its official publications. However, the Chinese government did never use the name "Dzongkha language" (宗喀语), instead, they use the name "Bhutanese language 'Dzongkha'" (不丹语言“宗卡”). The term "Dzongkha" (宗卡) is transcripted in a strange way to make it different to "Tsongkha" (宗喀) in Tsongkhapa.
Dzongkha is the national language of Bhutan.
1 ; chi 2 ; nyi 3 ; sum 4 ; zhi 5 ;nga 6 ;dru 7 ;duen 8 ; gay 9 ; gu 10 ; chu tham 11 ; chu chi 12 ; chu nyi
chu cheg=time o'clock: bazaar 8 o clock: bazaar gyed
duration : dhuetsey
Monday- Migma Tuesday- Lhap Wednesday- Phub Thursday-Pasa Friday- Pem Saturday- Nim Sunday- Daw
Green- Changkha Red- Marp White- Karp Blue- Hoem Black- Naap Yellow- Serp Orange- Leewang
Identified by the yellow top(hood) and BT registration affixed before the number.
Taxi : la khor Fare : la how much : ga day chi mo
How much is this/it ? Ngultrum ga they chi mo
Meal : Toh /shay go
eating : shay go za ni
delicious : zhim bay
bitter ; khag ta
sweet : ngam
sour ; chup
Water ; chu
Tea : ja
Curry : tsoem
Chilly : ema
cook : toh bey ni
eat : zhey
Alcoholic Beverage : Changg
Bar : Changkhang
Tip : soera
Whats the bill : Ga de chi mo
I am drunk : changg dang so ye
Water : chu
Local Drink : Ara
It is strong(spirit) : ah ni gag tra du
It is mild : lha si si du
shop : tsongkhang
how much : ga de chi mo?
discount please : gong phab nang
Car : Numkhor
Drive : Numkhor tang ni
Licence : Lak Kher
Police : thrim sung
Road : Lam
High speed : joba joba shuk bay tang
Low speed : drogay bay tang
please take caution(driving) : reb drim di tang
Lets go : jogay
stop ; numkor kag nang
Risky : ngyen khag
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