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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

E
Basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd    
Ee Ff Gg Hh
Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn
Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt
Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

E› is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. It is also the second vowel of the five vowels in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English (pronounced /ˈiː/) is spelled ‹e›; or, rarely, ‹ee›, and the plural is ees.[1] ‹E› is the most commonly used letter in the Czech,[2] Danish,[2] Dutch,[2] English,[3] French,[4] German,[5] Hungarian,[2] Latin,[2] Norwegian,[2] Spanish,[6] and Swedish languages.[2]

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph
q’
Proto-Semitic
H
Phoenician
he
Etruscan
E
Greek
Epsilon
Roman/Cyrillic
E
A28
Proto-semiticE-01.png PhoenicianE-01.svg Alfabeto camuno-e.svg Epsilon uc lc.svg Roman E

‹E› differs little from its derived source, the Greek letter epsilon ‹Ε›. In etymology, the Semitic probably first represented a praying or calling human figure (hillul 'jubilation'), and was probably based on a similar Egyptian hieroglyph that indicated a different pronunciation. In Semitic, the letter represented /h/ (and /e/ in foreign words), in Greek became epsilon with the value /e/. Etruscans and Romans followed this usage. Although Middle English spelling used ‹e› to represent long and short /e/, the Great Vowel Shift, changed long /eː/ (as in me or bee) to /iː/ while short {{IPA|/e/)) (as in met or bed) remains a mid vowel.

Usage

Like other Latin vowels, ‹e› came in a long and a short variety. Originally, the only difference was in length but later on, short ‹e› represented /ɛ/. In other languages that use the ‹e›, it represents various other phonetic values, sometimes with accents to indicate contrasts (‹e ê é è ë ē ĕ ě ẽ ė ẹ ę ẻ›).

Digraphs with ‹e› are common in many languages to indicate diphthongs and monophthongs, such as ‹ea› or ‹ee› for /iː/ or /eɪ/ in English, ‹ei› for /aɪ/ in German, and ‹eu› for /ø/ in French or /ɔɪ/ in German.

In English, the salient phenomenon silent e's, although arising from old inflections that have been dropped, still retain a function as they indicate that certain vowels in the word are long vowels (for example rat has a short vowel and rate has a long one).

‹E› is the most common (or highest frequency) letter in the English alphabet (starting off the typographer's phrase ETAOIN SHRDLU) and several other European languages, which has implications in both cryptography and data compression. This makes it a hard and popular letter to use when writing lipograms. Ernest Vincent Wright's Gadsby (1939), is considered a "dreadful" novel, and that "at least part of Wright's narrative issues were caused by language limitations imposed by the lack of E."[7] Both Georges Perec's novel A Void (La Disparition) (1969) and its English translation by Gilbert Adair omit ‹e› and are considered better works.[8]

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of E
NATO phonetic Morse code
Echo ·
ICS Echo.svg Semaphore Echo.svg ⠑
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode, the capital ‹E› is codepoint U+0045 and the lower case ‹e› is U+0065.

The ASCII code for capital ‹E› is 69 (01000101 in binary), and the code for lowercase ‹e› is 101 (01100101 in binary). The EBCDIC code for capital ‹E› is 197, and the code for lowercase ‹e› is 133.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "E" and "e" for upper and lower case, respectively.

In British Sign Language (BSL), the letter ‹e› is signed by extending the index finger of the right hand touching the tip of index on the left hand with all fingers of left hand open.

See also

Similar Latin letters:

Similar non-Latin letters:

Similar phonetic symbols:

Special symbols similar to the letter E:

References

  1. ^ "E" Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993). Ees is the plural of the name of the letter; the plural of the letter itself is E's, Es, e's, or es.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kelk, Brian. "Letter frequencies". UK Free Software Network. http://www.bckelk.ukfsn.org/words/etaoin.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  3. ^ Lewand, Robert. "Relative Frequencies of Letters in General English Plain text". Cryptographical Mathematics. Central College. http://pages.central.edu/emp/LintonT/classes/spring01/cryptography/letterfreq.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  4. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in French". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqfr.shtml. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  5. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in German". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://scplweb.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqger.shtml. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  6. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in Spanish". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqsp.shtml. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  7. ^ Ross Eckler, Making the Alphabet Dance: Recreational Word Play. New York: St. Martin's Press (1996): 3
  8. ^ Eckler (1996): 3. Perec's novel "was so well written that at least some reviewers never realized the existence of a letter constraint."
The basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter E with diacritics

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

The Universal Character Set
LetterE.svg
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E
Basic Latin U+0045
See also

Contents

Translingual

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

From Latin E from Ancient Greek Ε (E), Epsilon).

Letter

E upper case (lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.

See also

Symbol

E

  1. Representing × 10x in floating-point notation.
    2E5 = 2 × 105
  2. (computing) Hexadecimal symbol for 14.
  3. (physics) Energy.
  4. (biochemistry) IUPAC 1-letter abbreviation for glutamic acid
  5. (mathematics) expectation function

See also

Other representations of E:


English

Pronunciation

  • (phoneme): IPA: /E/, /iː/, silent
 Audio (UK)help, file

Etymology 1

From Middle English and Old English upper case letter E and split of Æ, EA, EO, and Œ, from five 7th century replacements of Anglo-Saxon Futhorcs by Latin letters:

  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc ᛖ (e) Old English letter E, from replacement by Latin letter E of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (e).
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᚫ (æ) Old English letter Æ from replacement by Latin ligature Æ of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (æ).
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc ᛠ (ea) Old English digraph EA, from replacement by Latin digraph EA of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (ea).
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc ᛇ (ēo) Old English digraph EO from replacement by Latin digraph EO of Anglo-Saxon Futhorc  (ēo).
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc ᛟ (œ) Old English letter Œ from replacement by Latin ligature Œ of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (œ).

Letter

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the English alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: D
  • Next letter: F

Etymology 2

  • (ESRB rating, everyone): Abbreviation of everyone
  • (East): Abbreviation of east
  • (slang, ecstasy): Abbreviation of ecstacy
  • (grade): From the position of the letter E in the English alphabet

Symbol

E

  1. (ESRB rating) Everyone.
  2. East

Noun

Singular
E

Plural
Es

E (plural Es)

  1. (street slang) The illicit drug ecstasy (MDMA).
  2. The grade below D in some grading systems. In most such systems, it is a failing grade.
    • 1999, Julian Stallabrass, High Art Lite: British Art in the 1990s, Verso, ISBN 1859843182, page 25,
      In line with this, he is marketed not only as a mental innocent, but as a class primitive, someone who only got an E in A-level art […]
    • a2003, Rick, quoted in Linda MacDowell, Redundant Masculinities?: Employment Change and White Working Class Youth, Blackwell Publishing (2003), ISBN 1405105860, page 198,
      My results weren’t that great, to be honest. I weren’t right happy with them; I got an E in Maths and that were a surprise, but I did get a B in Technology – that were all right.
    • 2005, S. J. Smith, Joe Public, Virtualbookworm Publishing, ISBN 1589397681, page 125,
      Not really, but perhaps I’d have got an ‘E’ in Tech Drawing no matter how much I’d asserted myself. Maybe Mr. Pinkerton would have seen to it that my exam paper was tampered with. A spot of teacher to student revenge.
    • 2005, Craig Taylor, Light, Reverb, ISBN 1905315007, page 103,
      But she didn’t get the bit about my accidental artistic career, “But you can’t draw love. You got an E in your exam. I remember that. You drew that onion that looked like a boil.”

American Sign Language

Letter

E (Stokoe E)

  1. The letter E

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • (letter name): IPA: /eː/

Letter

E (capital, lowercase e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Dutch alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: D
  • Next letter: F

Esperanto

Pronunciation

  • (letter name): IPA: /e/
  • (phoneme): IPA: /e/

Letter

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The sixth letter of the Esperanto alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: D
  • Next letter: F

Finnish

Noun

E

  1. eximia cum laude approbatur

Galician

Abbreviation

E

  1. leste (east)

Synonyms

  • (east): L

Italian

Pronunciation

Noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
E

Wikipedia it

E m. and f. inv.

  1. The fifth letter of the Italian, and of the Latin alphabets

Romanian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /e/, /je/

Letter

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The seventh letter of the Romanian alphabet.

Usage notes

At the beginnings of many words, this letter takes on the sound of /je/ as in este (he/she/it is) /'je.ste/. This does not happen when the preceding word ends in a vowel, as in el este (he is) /jel'es.te/.

When followed by the letter a, a dipthong representing the phoneme /e̯a/ or /æ/ is formed, as in prea /præ/

See also

  • Previous letter: D
  • Next letter: F

Slovene

Wikipedia-logo.png
Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
E

Wikipedia sl

Pronunciation

Letter

E (capital, lowercase e)

  1. The 6th letter of the Slovene alphabet. Preceded by D and followed by F.

Spanish

Letter

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The sixth letter of the Spanish alphabet.

Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

For the drug sometimes referred to E, see Ecstasy.

E is the fifth (number 5) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for E








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