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Prostaglandin E receptor 4 (subtype EP4)
Identifiers
Symbols PTGER4; EP4; EP4R; MGC126583
External IDs OMIM601586 MGI104311 HomoloGene20261 IUPHAR: EP4 GeneCards: PTGER4 Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5734 19219
Ensembl n/a ENSMUSG00000039942
UniProt P35408 Q3UM94
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000958 NM_008965
RefSeq (protein) NP_000949 NP_032991
Location (UCSC) n/a Chr 15:
5.18 - 5.19 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Prostaglandin E receptor 4 (EP4) is a prostaglandin receptor encoded by the PTGER4 gene in humans.

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. This protein is one of four receptors identified for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). This receptor can activate T-cell factor signaling. It has been shown to mediate PGE2 induced expression of early growth response 1 (EGR1), regulate the level and stability of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA, and lead to the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this receptor may be involved in the neonatal adaptation of circulatory system, osteoporosis, as well as initiation of skin immune responses.[1]

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Further reading

  • Duncan AM, Anderson LL, Funk CD, et al. (1995). "Chromosomal localization of the human prostanoid receptor gene family.". Genomics 25 (3): 740–2. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(95)80022-E. PMID 7759114.  
  • Regan JW, Bailey TJ, Pepperl DJ, et al. (1994). "Cloning of a novel human prostaglandin receptor with characteristics of the pharmacologically defined EP2 subtype.". Mol. Pharmacol. 46 (2): 213–20. PMID 8078484.  
  • Bastien L, Sawyer N, Grygorczyk R, et al. (1994). "Cloning, functional expression, and characterization of the human prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (16): 11873–7. PMID 8163486.  
  • An S, Yang J, Xia M, Goetzl EJ (1994). "Cloning and expression of the EP2 subtype of human receptors for prostaglandin E2.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 197 (1): 263–70. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.2470. PMID 8250933.  
  • Foord SM, Marks B, Stolz M, et al. (1996). "The structure of the prostaglandin EP4 receptor gene and related pseudogenes.". Genomics 35 (1): 182–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0337. PMID 8661119.  
  • Fedyk ER, Phipps RP (1996). "Prostaglandin E2 receptors of the EP2 and EP4 subtypes regulate activation and differentiation of mouse B lymphocytes to IgE-secreting cells.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (20): 10978–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.20.10978. PMID 8855294.  
  • Mori K, Tanaka I, Kotani M, et al. (1996). "Gene expression of the human prostaglandin E receptor EP4 subtype: differential regulation in monocytoid and lymphoid lineage cells by phorbol ester.". J. Mol. Med. 74 (6): 333–6. doi:10.1007/BF00207510. PMID 8862514.  
  • Mukhopadhyay P, Geoghegan TE, Patil RV, et al. (1997). "Detection of EP2, EP4, and FP receptors in human ciliary epithelial and ciliary muscle cells.". Biochem. Pharmacol. 53 (9): 1249–55. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(97)00011-7. PMID 9214685.  
  • Cosme R, Lublin D, Takafuji V, et al. (2000). "Prostanoids in human colonic mucosa: effects of inflammation on PGE(2) receptor expression.". Hum. Immunol. 61 (7): 684–96. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(00)00131-2. PMID 10880739.  
  • Desai S, April H, Nwaneshiudu C, Ashby B (2001). "Comparison of agonist-induced internalization of the human EP2 and EP4 prostaglandin receptors: role of the carboxyl terminus in EP4 receptor sequestration.". Mol. Pharmacol. 58 (6): 1279–86. PMID 11093764.  
  • Sales KJ, Katz AA, Davis M, et al. (2001). "Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis are up-regulated in carcinomas of the cervix: a possible autocrine/paracrine regulation of neoplastic cell function via EP2/EP4 receptors.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86 (5): 2243–9. doi:10.1210/jc.86.5.2243. PMID 11344234.  
  • Faour WH, He Y, He QW, et al. (2001). "Prostaglandin E(2) regulates the level and stability of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in interleukin-1 beta-treated human synovial fibroblasts.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (34): 31720–31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M104036200. PMID 11423555.  
  • Desai S, Ashby B (2001). "Agonist-induced internalization and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of the human prostaglandin EP4 receptor.". FEBS Lett. 501 (2-3): 156–60. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)02640-0. PMID 11470276.  
  • Slipetz D, Buchanan S, Mackereth C, et al. (2001). "Sequestration and phosphorylation of the prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor: dependence on the C-terminal tail.". Biochem. Pharmacol. 62 (8): 997–1012. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(01)00742-0. PMID 11597569.  
  • Fujino H, West KA, Regan JW (2002). "Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and stimulation of T-cell factor signaling following activation of EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors by prostaglandin E2.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (4): 2614–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109440200. PMID 11706038.  
  • Mutoh M, Watanabe K, Kitamura T, et al. (2002). "Involvement of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP(4) in colon carcinogenesis.". Cancer Res. 62 (1): 28–32. PMID 11782353.  
  • Kvirkvelia N, Vojnovic I, Warner TD, et al. (2002). "Placentally derived prostaglandin E2 acts via the EP4 receptor to inhibit IL-2-dependent proliferation of CTLL-2 T cells.". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 127 (2): 263–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2002.01718.x. PMID 11876748.  
  • Asano T, Shoda J, Ueda T, et al. (2002). "Expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E-receptors in carcinoma of the gallbladder: crucial role of arachidonate metabolism in tumor growth and progression.". Clin. Cancer Res. 8 (4): 1157–67. PMID 11948128.  
  • Kyveris A, Maruscak E, Senchyna M (2002). "Optimization of RNA isolation from human ocular tissues and analysis of prostanoid receptor mRNA expression using RT-PCR.". Mol. Vis. 8: 51–8. PMID 11951086.  
  • Scandella E, Men Y, Gillessen S, et al. (2002). "Prostaglandin E2 is a key factor for CCR7 surface expression and migration of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.". Blood 100 (4): 1354–61. doi:10.1182/blood-2001-11-0017. PMID 12149218.  

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

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