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Ear clearing or clearing the ears is any of various maneuvers to equalize the pressure in the middle ear with the outside pressure, by letting air enter along the Eustachian tubes, as this does not always happen automatically when the pressure in the middle ear is lower than the outside pressure. This need can arise in scuba diving, fast descent in an aircraft, fast descent in a mine cage, and being put into pressure in a caisson or similar pressure-bearing structure.[1][2][3][4]

Contents

Methods

The ears can be cleared by:

  • Yawning which helps to open the eustachian tubes;[2]
  • Swallowing which helps to open the eustachian tubes;[2]
  • The "Frenzel maneuver": using the rear part of the tongue and throat muscles;[2][5]
  • The "Toynbee maneuver": pinching the nose and making a swallowing motion; [2]
  • The "Valsalva maneuver": pinching the nose and closing the mouth and trying to breathe out through the nose.[2][5][6][7] If the hand cannot reach the nose, it is possible to learn to pinch the nose shut by the action of two small face muscles called compressor naris. This is the first technique normally taught, but needs to be performed gently to lessen side-effects.[6]

Precautions

The pressure difference between the middle ear and the outside, if not released, can result in a burst eardrum.[8] This damages hearing,[9] and if this occurs underwater, cold water in the middle ear chills the inner ear, causing vertigo.[10] The pressure difference can also cause damage to other body air spaces, such as the paranasal sinuses.[11] This can also be caused by damaged sinus ducts.

To allow successful equalization when diving, it is important that the diving suit hood does not make an airtight seal over the outside ear hole, and that earplugs are not worn.[2] It is not recommended to dive when a eustachian tube is congested or blocked, e.g. with the common cold, as this may cause what is known as a reverse block. Descent is uninhibited as the valsalva maneuver may still clear the eustachian tubes temporarily by force, but during ascent a blockage may stop the air in the middle ear (which is now at depth pressure) from escaping as the diver ascends. The eardrum then bursts outwards, causing the same hazards as with an ordinary burst eardrum, such as cold water in the middle ear deranging the working of the sense organs of balance in the inner ear.[12]

Training

Divers get training in clearing the ears before being allowed to dive.[2] Because of the potential for side effects of the valsalva maneuver, scuba divers and free-divers may train to exercise the muscles that open the Eustachian tubes in a more gentle manner. The French underwater association (Fédération Française d'Études et de Sports Sous-Marins) has produced a series of exercises using the tongue and soft palate to assist a diver in clearing their ears by these techniques. These recommendations were based on work done at the Médecine du sport, Bd st Marcel, Paris.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Molvaer, Otto I (2003). "8: Otorhinolaryngological aspects of diving". in Brubakk, Alf O; Neuman, Tom S. Bennett and Elliott's physiology and medicine of diving, 5th Revised edition. United States: Saunders Ltd. pp. 231–7. ISBN 0702025712. OCLC 51607923.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Kay, E. "Prevention of middle ear barotrauma" (html). http://faculty.washington.edu/ekay/MEbaro.html. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  
  3. ^ Kay, E. "The Diver's Ear - Under Pressure" (Flash video). http://faculty.washington.edu/ekay/. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  
  4. ^ Vincoli, Jeffrey W (1999). Lewis' Dictionary of Occupational and Environmental Safety and Health. CRC Press. p. 325. ISBN 1566703999.  
  5. ^ a b Roydhouse, N (1978). "The squeeze, the ear and prevention.". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 8 (1). ISSN 0813-1988. OCLC 16986801. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/6169. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  
  6. ^ a b Taylor, D (1996). "The Valsalva Manoeuvre: A critical review". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 26 (1). ISSN 0813-1988. OCLC 16986801. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/6264. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  
  7. ^ Roydhouse, N; Taylor, D (1996). "The Valsalva Manoeuvre. (letter to editor)". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 26 (3). ISSN 0813-1988. OCLC 16986801. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/6303. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  
  8. ^ Roydhouse, N (1998). "Ear drum rupture in scuba divers.". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 28 (2). ISSN 0813-1988. OCLC 16986801. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/5930. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  
  9. ^ Butler, FK; Thalmann, ED (June 1983). "Report of an isolated mid-frequency hearing loss following inner ear barotrauma". Undersea Biomed Res 10 (2): 131–4. PMID 6612898. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2948. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  
  10. ^ Edmonds, C; Blackwood, FA (December 1975). "Disorientation with middle ear barotrauma of descent". Undersea Biomed Res 2 (4): 311–4. PMID 1226589. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2740. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  
  11. ^ Fagan, P; McKenzie, BJ; Edmonds, C (1975). "Sinus Barotrauma In Divers.". Royal Australian Navy, School of Underwater Medicine Technical Report Project 1-75. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4966. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  
  12. ^ Richardson, Drew (2006). Padi Open Water Diver Manual. Professional Association of Diving Instructors. ISBN 187866316X.  
  13. ^ "Gymnastique de la Trompe d'Eustache" (in French). Fédération Française d'Études et de Sports Sous-Marins. 5 February 2009. http://apnee.ffessm.fr/Apnee/compensation.htm. Retrieved 1 January 2010.  
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