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John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk

Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal or Marischal) is an ancient chivalric title used separately in England, Ireland and the United Kingdom, and formerly in Scotland.

Contents

England

The Earl Marshal of England is an hereditary Royal officeholder under the King or Queen of the United Kingdom. The title was "Marshal" until William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, whose titles of "Earl" and "Marshal," though separate (although he is often referred to now as "Earl Marshal"), made it stand for something. After it came into the family of the Dukes of Norfolk, it evolved into "Earl Marshal". The Earl Marshal is the eighth of the Great Officers of State, with the Lord High Constable above him and only the Lord High Admiral beneath him.

In the Middle Ages, the Earl Marshal and the Lord High Constable were the officers of the King's horses and stables. When chivalry declined in importance, the Constable's post declined, and the Earl Marshal became the head of the College of Arms, the body concerned with all matters of genealogy and heraldry, although the Earl Marshal's connection with heraldry came about almost accidentally. In conjunction with the Lord High Constable he had held a court, known as the Court of Chivalry, for the administration of justice in accordance with the law of arms, which was concerned with many subjects relating to military matters, such as ransom, booty and soldiers' wages, and including the misuse of armorial bearings. The Marshal, as eighth Great Officer of State, has to organise coronations and the State Opening of Parliament.

In a declaration made on the 16 June 1673 by Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, the Earl of Anglesey and Lord Privy Seal, in reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms the powers of the Earl Marshal were stated as "to have power to order, judge, and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility, honour, and chivalry; to make laws, ordinances, and statutes for the good government of the Officers of Arms; to nominate Officers to fill vacancies in the College of Arms; to punish and correct Officers of Arms for misbehaviour in the execution of their places". Additionally it was also declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal.

The Earl Marshal has responsibility for the organisation of State funerals and the monarch's coronation in Westminster Abbey.[1]

Ireland

Among the men who have held the title of Earl Marshal of Ireland are William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, and Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex (1539-1576).

Scotland

See Earl Marischal.

United Kingdom

The House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, but the Act provided that the Earl Marshal and Lord Great Chamberlain continue for the time being to have seats so as to carry out their ceremonial functions in the House of Lords.

Lords Marshal of England, 1135-1397

Earls Marshal of England, 1397-present

Deputy Earls Marshal

Deputy Earls Marshal have been named at various times, discharging the responsibilities of the office during the minority or infirmity of the Earl Marshal. Prior to an Act of Parliament in 1824, Protestant deputies were required when the Earl Marshal was a Roman Catholic.

References

  1. ^ "The history of the Royal heralds and the College of Arms". The College of Arms website. http://www.college-of-arms.gov.uk/About/01.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-16.  

See also

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