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Earl Warren

In office
October 2, 1953[1] – June 23, 1969
Nominated by Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded by Fred M. Vinson
Succeeded by Warren E. Burger

In office
January 4, 1943 – October 5, 1953
Lieutenant Frederick Houser (1943–1947)
Goodwin Knight (1947–1953)
Preceded by Culbert Olson
Succeeded by Goodwin Knight

In office
January 3, 1939 – January 4, 1943
Governor Culbert Olson
Preceded by Ulysses S. Webb
Succeeded by Robert W. Kenny

In office

Born March 19, 1891(1891-03-19)
Los Angeles, California
Died July 9, 1974 (aged 83)
Washington, D.C.
Spouse(s) Nina Elisabeth Meyers
Alma mater University of California, Berkeley
Religion Protestantism
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1917–1918
Rank US-OF1A.svg First Lieutenant

Earl Warren (March 19, 1891– July 9, 1974) was the 14th Chief Justice of the United States and the only person elected Governor of California three times. Before holding these positions, Warren served as a district attorney for Alameda County, California and Attorney General of California.

His tenure as California governor and Chief Justice was marked by extreme contrast. As governor of California, Warren was very popular across party lines, so much so that in the 1946 gubernatorial election he won the nominations of the Democratic, Progressive, and Republican parties. His tenure as Chief Justice was as divisive as his governorship was unifying. Liberals generally hailed the landmark rulings issued by the Warren Court which affected, among other things, the legal status of racial segregation, civil rights, separation of church and state, and police arrest procedure in the United States. But conservatives decried the Court's rulings, particularly in areas affecting criminal proceedings. In the years that followed, the Warren Court became recognized as a high point in the use of judicial power in the effort to effect social progress in the United States. Warren himself became widely regarded as one of the most influential Supreme Court justices in the history of the United States and perhaps the single most important jurist of the 20th century.

In addition to the constitutional offices he held, Warren was also the vice-presidential nominee of the Republican Party in 1948, and chaired the Warren Commission, which was formed to investigate the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

Warren was the last Chief Justice born in the 19th century.


Education, early career, and military service

Army 1st Lieutenant Warren in 1918

Earl Warren was born in Los Angeles, California, to Methias H. Warren, a Norwegian immigrant, and Crystal Hernlund, a Swedish immigrant. Methias Warren was a longtime employee of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Earl grew up in Bakersfield, California where he attended Washington Junior High and Kern County High School (now called Bakersfield High School). It was in Bakersfield that Warren's father was murdered during a robbery by an unknown killer. Warren went on to attend the University of California, Berkeley, both as an undergraduate (B.A. 1912) in Legal Studies and as a law student at Boalt Hall where he was a member of the The Gun Club secret society[2]. He earned his LL.B. in 1914.[3] While at Berkeley, Warren joined the Sigma Phi Society, a fraternal organization with which he maintained lifelong ties. Warren was admitted to the California bar in 1914.

Warren worked a year for the Associated Oil Co. in San Francisco and then joined a private law firm in Oakland named Robinson & Robinson. The younger partner, Bestor Robinson, whose father became a California Superior Court Justice, was very active in the Sierra Club and conservationism and was an avid rock climber. In August 1917, Warren enlisted in the U.S. Army for World War I service. Assigned to the 91st Division at Camp Lewis, Washington, 1st Lieutenant Earl Warren was discharged in 1918. He served as a clerk of the Judicial Committee for the 1919 Session of the California State Assembly (1919–1920), and as the deputy city attorney of Oakland (1920–25). At this time Warren came to the attention of powerful Republican Joseph R. Knowland, publisher of The Oakland Tribune. In 1925, Warren was appointed district attorney of Alameda County after the incumbent, Ezra Decoto, resigned to become Railroad Commissioner. Earl Warren was re-elected to three four-year terms. Serving Alameda County as D.A. (1925–1939) as a tough-on-crime district attorney and reformer who professionalized the DA's office, Warren had a reputation for high-handedness; however, none of his convictions were ever overturned on appeal.


Warren married Swedish-born widow Nina Elisabeth Palmquist on October 4, 1925 and had six children. Mrs. Warren died in Washington, D.C. at age 100 on April 24, 1993. Warren is the father of Virginia Warren, who married veteran radio and television newsman and host of What's My Line?, John Charles Daly, on December 22, 1960. They had three children, two boys and a girl.

Attorney General of California

Nominated by the Democratic Party, the Progressive Party, and his own Republican Party,[4] Warren was elected Attorney General of the State of California in 1938.[3] Once elected he organized state law enforcement officials into regions and led a statewide anti-crime effort.[4] One of his major initiatives was to crack down on gambling ships operating off the coast of Southern California.[4] Following the United States entry into World War II after the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor, Warren organized the state's civilian defense program.[4] As Attorney General, Warren is most remembered for his support of Japanese internment during the war, the compulsory removal of Japanese Americans to internment camps away from the West Coast of the United States.[5][6] Throughout his lifetime, Warren maintained that this seemed to be the right decision at the time.[6] He did, however, admit in his memoirs that it was a mistake.[6]

Governor of California

Photo as Governor of California

Running as a Republican, Warren was elected Governor of California on November 3, 1942, defeating Democratic incumbent Culbert Olson. California law at the time allowed individuals to run in any primary election they chose; in 1946, attesting to his wide popularity, Warren managed the singular feat of winning the Republican, Democratic, and Progressive primary elections and thus ran virtually unopposed in the 1946 general election. He was elected to a third term (as a Republican) in 1950. He is the only governor of California to have been elected to three terms of office.

As with his predecessor Olson, Warren's governorship was marked by his support for the internment of Japanese and Americans of Japanese descent during World War II. It was also marked by laying the infrastructure to support a two-decade boom that lasted from the end of World War II until the mid-1960s. In particular, Warren and University of California President Robert Gordon Sproul presided over construction of a large public university system that provided education to two generations of Californians.

In 1946 Warren appointed William F. Knowland to the U.S. Senate. Democrats claimed it was political payback, as Knowland’s father Joseph R. Knowland and his newspaper The Oakland Tribune supported the political career of Warren.

On June 14, 1947, Governor Earl Warren signed a law repealing school segregation statutes in the California Education Code after the California Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling banning the practice of school segregation [Mendez v. Westminster School District, 64 F.Supp. 544 (C.D. Cal. 1946), aff'd, 161 F.2d 774 (9th Cir. 1947) (en banc)]

Warren ran for Vice President of the United States in 1948 on a ticket with Thomas Dewey. They lost to Harry Truman and Alben Barkley.

U.S. Supreme Court

Earl Warren

Nomination and confirmation

In 1952, Warren stood as a "favorite son" candidate of California for the Republican nomination for President, but withdrew in support of Eisenhower. Warren was reported to have offered to support Eisenhower's campaign in return for an appointment to the Supreme Court at the first possible opportunity. In 1953, Warren was appointed Chief Justice of the United States by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who wanted a conservative justice and commented that "he represents the kind of political, economic, and social thinking that I believe we need on the Supreme Court.... He has a national name for integrity, uprightness, and courage that, again, I believe we need on the Court".[7] Warren resigned from the governorship shortly afterwards, replaced by Lieutenant Governor Goodwin Knight.

Warren also provided crucial campaigning service to Eisenhower in California after Vice Presidential candidate Richard Nixon was weakened by controversy over an alleged "slush fund".

The Warren Court

Warren was a vastly more liberal justice than had been anticipated. Consequently, President Eisenhower is said to have remarked that nominating Warren for the Chief Justice seat was "the biggest damned-fool mistake I ever made."[8] Warren was able to craft a long series of landmark decisions including:

President & First Lady Kennedy with Mr. & Mrs. Warren, November 1963

After the assassination of Robert Kennedy in 1968, Warren announced that due to his advanced age, he would retire from the Court, "effective at [Johnson's] pleasure."[9] Johnson wrote back that he would accept Warren's resignation upon finding a "qualified" successor.[9] This prompted Senator Sam Ervin to ask whether Warren even planned to leave if a liberal justice was not confirmed as his replacement, and The Washington Post said that Warren should release a more definitive letter of resignation.[9] Although Warren denied it, this was seen by observers as a preemptive move by Warren to keep Richard Nixon from naming his successor; he believed Nixon would win the presidency after Kennedy's death. Warren and Nixon had a tense relationship after Warren declined to endorse Nixon during his first campaign for Congress in 1946. This tension gave way to animosity starting in 1952 at the Republican Convention, where Warren was a candidate; Warren believed Nixon undermined his nomination.

President Lyndon B. Johnson nominated Associate Justice Abe Fortas to succeed Warren, but after his confirmation hearing went badly, Fortas withdrew. As a result, Warren was forced to stay on as Chief Justice. Both he and Fortas returned to the court for the 1969 session as a result. Warren swore in Nixon as President. Nixon then nominated Warren E. Burger - a man Warren did not hold in high regard - to replace Earl Warren as Chief Justice.[10]

"To conservatives, the Warren Court converted constitutional law into ordinary politics," according to Mark Tushnet in Constitutional Interpretation, Character and Experience.[11] "The Warren Court justices saw their service on the Supreme Court as just another job on the national political scene."

Warren Commission

At the direct request of President Lyndon B. Johnson, Warren headed what became known as the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The Commission eventually concluded that the assassination was the result of a single individual, Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone. The Commission's findings have long been controversial.[12]


Earl Warren had a profound impact on the Supreme Court and United States of America. As Chief Justice, his term of office was marked by numerous rulings on civil rights, separation of church and state, and police arrest procedure in the United States.

His critics found him a boring person. "Although Warren was an important and courageous figure and although he inspired passionate devotion among his followers...he was a dull man and a dull judge," wrote Dennis J. Hutchinson.[13]

The first Impeach Earl Warren sign, posted in San Francisco in October of 1958

Warren retired from the Supreme Court in 1969. He was affectionately known by many as the "Superchief", although he became a lightning rod for controversy among conservatives: signs declaring "Impeach Earl Warren" could be seen around the country throughout the 1960s. The unsuccessful impeachment drive was a major focus of the John Birch Society.[14]

As Chief Justice, he swore in Presidents Eisenhower (in 1957), Kennedy (in 1961), Johnson (in 1965) and Nixon (in 1969).


Five and a half years after his retirement, Warren died in Washington, D.C., on July 9, 1974.[15] His funeral was held at Washington National Cathedral and his body was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[16]


On December 5, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Warren into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.[17] The Earl Warren Bill of Rights Project is named in his honor. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously in 1981. An extensive collection of Warren's papers, including case files from his Supreme Court service, is located at the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Most of the collection is open for research.

Earl Warren Hall at University of California, Berkeley was designed to architecturally accommodate this Mongolian Oak.[18]

Various things are named in his honor. In 1977, Fourth College, one of the six undergraduate colleges at the University of California, San Diego, was renamed Earl Warren College in his honor. The California State Building in San Francisco, a middle school in Solana Beach, California, a middle school in his home town of Bakersfield, California, high schools in San Antonio, Texas (Earl Warren High School) and Downey, California, and a building at the high school he attended (Bakersfield High School) are named for him, as are the showgrounds in Santa Barbara, California. The freeway portion of State Route 13 in Alameda County is the Warren Freeway.

Electoral history

See also

Articles about his time as Chief Justice

Articles about his time before becoming Chief Justice


  1. ^ "Federal Judicial Center: Earl Warren". 2009-12-12. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b "Earl Warren". Timeline of the Justices. The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Earl Warren, 20th Attorney General". Office of the Attorney General of California. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  5. ^ Wu, Frank H. (February 19, 2009). "FDR New Deal Legacy Intact, but Internment of Japanese-Americans Lives in Infamy Too". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2009-08-15. 
  6. ^ a b c "Brown v. Board of Education (1954): Landmark Case Biography Earl Warren (1891–1974)". Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  7. ^ Personal and confidential To Milton Stover Eisenhower, 9 October 1953. In The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, ed. L. Galambos and D. van Ee, doc. 460. World Wide Web facsimile by The Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission of the print edition; Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. Accessed 12 October 2005.
  8. ^ Whitman (July 10, 1974). "For 16 Years, Warren Saw the Constitution as Protector of Rights and Equality", p. 24. New York Times.
  9. ^ a b c Laura Kalman (1990). Abe Fortas. Yale University Press. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  10. ^ Jim Newton, Justice for All: Earl Warren and the Nation He Made
  11. ^ 72 B.U. Law Review 747, 759. (1992)
  12. ^ Earl Warren was portrayed by real life New Orleans district attorney Jim Garrison in JFK, the Oliver Stone film about the assassination and Garrison's investigation of it.
  13. ^ in Hail to the Chief: Earl Warren and the Supreme Court, 81 Mich. L. Rev. 922, 930 (1983).
  14. ^ Political Research Associates, "John Birch Society"
  15. ^ "Earl Warren (1891-1974)". Earl Warren College. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  16. ^ Woodward, Bob; Scott Armstrong (2005). The Bretheren: Inside the Supreme Court. New York, New York: Siomn & Schustler. pp. 385. ISBN 0-7432-7402-4. 
  17. ^ Warren inducted into California Hall of Fame, California Museum, Accessed 2007
  18. ^ "Notable Trees of Berkeley" (flash). Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  19. ^ Our Campaigns – CA US President – R Primary Race – May 05, 1936
  20. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1936
  21. ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor – R Primary Race – Aug 25, 1942
  22. ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor – D Primary Race – Aug 25, 1942
  23. ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor Race – Nov 03, 1942
  24. ^ Our Campaigns – CA US President – R Primary Race – May 16, 1944
  25. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1944
  26. ^ Our Campaigns – CA – Governor – R Primary Race – Jun 05, 1946
  27. ^ Our Campaigns – CA – Governor – D Primary Race – Jun 05, 1946
  28. ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor Race – Nov 05, 1946
  29. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1948
  30. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Convention Race – Jun 21, 1948
  31. ^ Our Campaigns – US Vice President – R Convention Race – Jun 21, 1948
  32. ^ Our Campaigns – CA Governor Race – Nov 07, 1950
  33. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1952

Further reading

  • Abraham, Henry J., Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court. 3d. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). ISBN 0-19-506557-3.
  • Belknap, Michael R. The Supreme Court under Earl Warren, 1953–1969 (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2005) ISBN 1570035636
  • Conmy, Peter T. (1961) The Beginnings of Oakland California
  • Cray, Ed. Chief Justice: A Biography of Earl Warren (New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684808529.
  • Cushman, Clare, The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies,1789-1995 (2nd ed.) (Supreme Court Historical Society), (Congressional Quarterly Books, 2001) ISBN 1568021267; ISBN 9781568021263.
  • Frank, John P., The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions (Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel, editors) (Chelsea House Publishers, 1995) ISBN 0791013774, ISBN 978-0791013779.
  • Hall, Kermit L., ed. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN 0195058356; ISBN 9780195058352.
  • Martin, Fenton S. and Goehlert, Robert U., The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography, (Congressional Quarterly Books, 1990). ISBN 0871875543.
  • Melendy, H. Brett and Benjamin F. Gilbert The Governors of California: Peter H. Burnett to Edmund G. Brown (Georgetown, CA: Talisman Press, 1965)
  • Newton, Jim. Justice for All: Earl Warren and the Nation He Made (Riverhead Hardcover, 2006) ISBN 1594489289
  • Orvis, Nathaniel O. (2008) "A History Project"
  • Powe, Lucas A., Jr. The Warren Court and American politics (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000) ISBN 0674000951
  • Schwartz, Bernard. Super Chief: Earl Warren and his Supreme Court (New York: New York University Press, 1983) ISBN 0814778259
  • Urofsky, Melvin I., The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary (New York: Garland Publishing 1994). 590 pp. ISBN 0815311761; ISBN 978-0815311768.
  • Warren, Earl. The Memoirs of Earl Warren (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977) ISBN 0385128351
  • White, G. Edward. Earl Warren, a public life (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982) ISBN 0195031210
  • Woodward, Robert and Armstrong, Scott. The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court (1979). ISBN 9780380521838; ISBN 0380521830. ISBN 9780671241100; ISBN 0671241109; ISBN 0743274024; ISBN 9780743274029.

External links


Legal offices
Preceded by
Ulysses S. Webb
California Attorney General
Succeeded by
Robert W. Kenny
Preceded by
Fred M. Vinson
Chief Justice of the United States
October 2, 1953 – June 23, 1969
Succeeded by
Warren E. Burger
Political offices
Preceded by
Culbert Olson
Governor of California
Succeeded by
Goodwin Knight
Party political offices
Preceded by
John W. Bricker
Republican Party Vice Presidential nominees
Succeeded by
Richard Nixon


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Earl Warren (1891-03-191974-07-09) was the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953-1969)



  • Legislators represent people, not trees or acres. Legislators are elected by voters, not farms or cities or economic interests.
  • Implicit in the term 'national defense' is the notion of defending those values and ideals which set this Nation apart. For almost two centuries, our country has taken singular pride in the democratic ideals enshrined in its Constitution, and the most cherished of those ideals have found expression in the First Amendment. It would indeed be ironic if, in the name of national defense, we would sanction the subversion of one of those liberties - the freedom of association - which makes the defense of the Nation worthwhile.
  • I always turn to the sports section first. The sports section records people's accomplishments; the front page nothing but man's failures.
    • Reported in Sports Illustrated, July 22, 1968. Variants:I always turn to the sports page first, which records people's accomplishments. The front page has nothing but man's failures.
      I always turn to the sports pages first, which records people's accomplishments. The front page has nothing but man's failures.
  • We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.
  • Legislators represent people, not trees or acres. Legislators are elected by voters, not farms or cities or economic interests
  • When an individual is taken into custody or otherwise deprived of his freedom by the authorities and is subjected to questioning...he must be warned prior to any questioning that he has the right to remain silent, that anything he says can be used against him in a court of law, that he has the right to the presence of an attorney, and that if he cannot afford an attorney one will be appointed for him prior to any questioning if he so desires.
  • This concept of "national defense" cannot be deemed an end in itself, justifying any exercise of legislative power designed to promote such a goal. Implicit in the term "national defense" is the notion of defending those values and ideals which set this Nation apart. For almost two centuries, our country has taken singular pride in the democratic ideals enshrined in its Constitution, and the most cherished of those ideals have found expression in the First Amendment. It would indeed be ironic if, in the name of national defense, we would sanction the subversion of one of those liberties — the freedom of association — which make the defense of our nation worthwhile.
  • We may not know the whole story in our lifetime.
    • On the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, quoted in Minute by Minute (1985)


  • Everything I did in my life that was worthwhile, I caught hell for.
    • Variant: Everything that I did in life that was worthwhile, I caught hell for.
  • The only reason that there has been no sabotage or espionage on the part of Japanese-Americans is that they are waiting for the right moment to strike.
    • Testimony before Congress on the Internment of people of Japanese Ancestry (1941).
  • I have since deeply regretted the removal order and my own testimony advocating it, because it was not in keeping with our American concept of freedom and the rights of citizens. Whenever I thought of the innocent little children who were torn from home, school friends and congenial surroundings, I was conscience-stricken.
    • Remarking on his past advocacy on Japanese internment in his autobiography.
  • I feel that the greatest reward for doing is the opportunity to do more.
  • I hate banks. They do nothing positive for anybody except take care of themselves. They're first in with their fees and first out when there's trouble.
  • I'm very pleased with each advancing year. It stems back to when I was forty. I was a bit upset about reaching that milestone, but an older friend consoled me. "Don't complain about growing old— many, many people do not have that privilege."
  • If it is a mistake of the head and not the heart don't worry about it, that's the way we learn.
  • If Nixon is not forced to turn over tapes of his conversations with the ring of men who were conversing on their violations of the law, then liberty will soon be dead in this nation.
  • In civilized life, law floats in a sea of ethics.
  • In mid-life the man wants to see how irresistible he still is to younger women. How they turn their hearts to stone and more or less commit a murder of their marriage I just don't know, but they do.
  • In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education.
  • It is the spirit and not the form of law that keeps justice alive.
  • Liberty, not communism, is the most contagious force in the world.
  • Life and liberty can be as much endangered from illegal methods used to convict those thought to be criminals as from the actual criminals themselves.
  • Many people consider the things which government does for them to be social progress, but they consider the things government does for others as socialism.
    • Variant: Many people consider the things government does for them to be social progress but they regard the things government does for others as socialism.
  • The censor's sword pierces deeply into the heart of free expression.
  • The fantastic advances in the field of electronic communication constitute a greater danger to the privacy of the individual.
  • The man of character, sensitive to the meaning of what he is doing, will know how to discover the ethical paths in the maze of possible behavior.
  • The most tragic paradox of our time is to be found in the failure of nation-states to recognize the imperatives of internationalism.
  • The old Court you and I served so long will not be worthy of its traditions if Nixon can twist, turn and fashion. If Nixon gets away with that, then Nixon makes the law as he goes along— not the Congress nor the courts.
  • The police must obey the law while enforcing the law.
  • There is no requirement that police stop a person who enters a police station and states that he wishes to confess a crime or a person who calls the police to offer a confession because volunteered statements of any kind are not barred by the 5th Amendment.
  • To get what you want, STOP doing what isn't working.
  • You sit up there, and you see the whole gamut of human nature. Even if the case being argued involves only a little fellow and $50, it involves justice. That's what is important.


  • He represents the kind of political, economic, and social thinking that I believe we need on the Supreme Court…he has a national name for integrity, uprightness, and courage that, again, I believe we need on the Court.
  • [He's] the biggest damned-fool mistake I ever made.
    • President Eisenhower after seeing the judgement Warren made while on the Supreme Court.

Related Quotes from The Simpsons

Marge: Do you want your son to become Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, or a sleazy male stripper?
Homer: Can't he be both, like the late Earl Warren?
Marge: Earl Warren wasn't a stripper!
Homer: Now who's being naïve?!

External links

Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English


Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American lawyer, judge and politician. Warren was born in Los Angeles and grew up in Bakersfield before moving to Oakland. He served in World War I. In 1925, he became District Attorney of Alameda County, and later Attorney General of California. He served as Governor of California from 1943 to 1953. Warren ran for Vice-President in 1948 as a Republican, but lost to Alben W. Barkley in a close election. In 1953, he became Chief Justice of the United States. He was Chief Justice when the Supreme Court issued Brown v. Board of Education and Miranda vs. Arizona, two cases which furthered civil rights in the United States. Warren also chaired the Warren Commission, which looked into a possible conspiracy involving the killing of President Kennedy. Warren retired from the Court in 1969, and died in Washington, D.C. in 1974

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