Earth in culture: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The first photograph ever taken of an "Earthrise," on Apollo 8.

The cultural perspective on the Earth, or world, varies by society and time period. Religious beliefs often include a creation belief as well as personification in the form of a deity. The exploration of the world has modified many of the perceptions of the planet, resulting in a viewpoint of a globally-integrated ecosystem. Unlike the remainder of the planets in the Solar System, mankind didn't perceive the Earth as a planet until the sixteenth century.[1]

Contents

Etymology

Unlike the other planets in the Solar System, in English, Earth does not directly share a name with an ancient Roman deity.[2] The name Earth derives from the eighth century Anglo-Saxon word erda, which means ground or soil. It became eorthe later, and then erthe in Middle English.[3] These words are all cognates of Jörð, the name of the giantess of Norse myth. Earth was first used as the name of the sphere of the Earth in the early fifteenth century.[4] The planet's name in Latin, used academically and scientifically in the West during the Renaissance, is the same as that of Terra Mater, the Roman goddess, which translates to English as Mother Earth.

Planetary symbol

The standard astronomical symbol of the Earth consists of a cross circumscribed by a circle. This symbol is known as the wheel cross, sun cross, Odin's cross or Woden's cross. Although it has been used in various cultures for different purposes, it came to represent the compass points, earth and the land. Another version of the symbol is a cross on top of a circle; a stylized globus cruciger that was also used as an early astronomical symbol for the planet Earth.[5]

Religious beliefs

Earth has often been personified as a deity, in particular a goddess. In many cultures the mother goddess is also portrayed as a fertility deity. To the Aztec, Earth was called Tonantzin—"our mother"; to the Incas, Earth was called Pachamama—"mother earth". The Chinese Earth goddess Hou Tu[6] is similar to Gaia, the Greek goddess personifying the Earth. To Hindus it is called Bhuma Devi, the Goddess of Earth. (See also Graha.) In Norse mythology, the Earth giantess Jörð was the mother of Thor and the daughter of Annar. Ancient Egyptian mythology is different from that of other cultures because Earth is male, Geb, and sky is female, Nut.

Creation myths in many religions recall a story involving the creation of the world by a supernatural deity or deities. A variety of religious groups, often associated with fundamentalist branches of Protestantism[7] or Islam,[8] assert that their interpretations of the accounts of creation in sacred texts are literal truth and should be considered alongside or replace conventional scientific accounts of the formation of the Earth and the origin and development of life.[9] Such assertions are opposed by the scientific community[10][11] as well as other religious groups.[12][13][14] A prominent example is the creation-evolution controversy.

Physical form

In the ancient past there were varying levels of belief in a flat Earth, with the Mesopotamian culture portraying the world as a flat disk afloat in an ocean. The spherical form of the Earth was suggested by early Greek philosophers; a belief espoused by Pythagoras. By the Middle Ages—as evidenced by thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas—European belief in a spherical Earth was widespread.[15] Prior to circumnavigation of the planet and the introduction of space flight, belief in a spherical Earth was based on observations of the secondary effects of the Earth's shape and parallels drawn with the shape of other planets.[16]

Modern perspective

The technological developments of the latter half of the 20th century are widely considered to have altered the public's perception of the Earth. Before space flight, the popular image of Earth was of a green world. Science fiction artist Frank R. Paul provided perhaps the first image of a cloudless blue planet (with sharply defined land masses) on the back cover of the July 1940 issue of Amazing Stories, a common depiction for several decades thereafter.[17]

Earth and Moon from Mars, imaged by Mars Global Surveyor. From space, the Earth can be seen to go through phases similar to the phases of the Moon.

Earth was first photographed from space by Explorer 6 in 1959.[18] Yuri Gagarin became the first human to view Earth from space in 1961. The crew of the Apollo 8 was the first to view an Earth-rise from lunar orbit in 1968. In 1972 the crew of the Apollo 17 produced the famous "Blue Marble" photograph of the planet Earth from cislunar space (see top of page). This became an iconic image of the planet as a marble of cloud-swirled blue ocean broken by green-brown continents. NASA archivist Mike Gentry has speculated that "The Blue Marble" is the most widely distributed image in human history. A photo taken of a distant Earth by Voyager 1 in 1990 inspired Carl Sagan to describe the planet as a "Pale Blue Dot."[19]

Since the 1960s, Earth has also been described as a massive "Spaceship Earth," with a life support system that requires maintenance,[20] or, in the Gaia hypothesis, as having a biosphere that forms one large organism.[21]

Over the past two centuries a growing environmental movement has emerged that is concerned about humankind's effects on the Earth. The key issues of this socio-political movement are the conservation of natural resources, elimination of pollution, and the usage of land.[22] Although diverse in interests and goals, environmentalists as a group tend to advocate sustainable management of resources and stewardship of the environment through changes in public policy and individual behavior.[23] Of particular concern is the large-scale exploitation of non-renewable resources.[24] Changes sought by the environmental movements are sometimes in conflict with commercial interests due to the additional costs associated with managing the environmental impact of those interests.[25][26][27]

References

  1. ^ Arnett, Bill (July 16, 2006). "Earth". The Nine Planets, A Multimedia Tour of the Solar System: one star, eight planets, and more. http://nineplanets.org/earth.html. Retrieved 2010-03-09. 
  2. ^ Blue, Jennifer (June 25, 2009). "Planetary Nomenclature FAQ". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/nomenFAQ.html. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  3. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Random House. July 2005. ISBN 0-375-42599-3. 
  4. ^ Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Earth". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=earth. Retrieved 2007-08-07. 
  5. ^ Liungman, Carl G. (2004). "Group 29: Multi-axes symmetric, both soft and straight-lined, closed signs with crossing lines". Symbols -- Encyclopedia of Western Signs and Ideograms. New York: Ionfox AB. pp. pp. 281–282. ISBN 91-972705-0-4. 
  6. ^ Werner, E. T. C. (1922). Myths & Legends of China. New York: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd.. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/15250. Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  7. ^ Dutch, S.I. (2002). "Religion as belief versus religion as fact" (PDF). Journal of Geoscience Education 50 (2): 137–144. http://nagt.org/files/nagt/jge/abstracts/Dutch_v50n2p137.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  8. ^ Taner Edis (2003) (PDF). A World Designed by God: Science and Creationism in Contemporary Islam. Amherst: Prometheus. ISBN 1-59102-064-6. http://www2.truman.edu/~edis/writings/articles/CFI-2001.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  9. ^ Ross, M.R. (2005). "Who Believes What? Clearing up Confusion over Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism" (PDF). Journal of Geoscience Education 53 (3): 319. http://www.nagt.org/files/nagt/jge/abstracts/Ross_v53n3p319.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  10. ^ Pennock RT (2003). "Creationism and intelligent design". Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 4: 143–63. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.4.070802.110400. PMID 14527300. 
  11. ^ Science, Evolution, and Creationism National Academy Press, Washington, DC 2005
  12. ^ Colburn, A.; Henriques, L. (2006). "Clergy views on evolution, creationism, science, and religion". Journal of Research in Science Teaching 43 (4): 419–442. doi:10.1002/tea.20109. 
  13. ^ Roland Mushat Frye (1983). Is God a Creationist? The Religious Case Against Creation-Science.. Scribner's. ISBN 0-68417-993-8. 
  14. ^ Gould, S.J. (1997). "Nonoverlapping magisteria" (PDF). Natural History 106 (2): 16–22. http://www.jbburnett.com/resources/gould_nonoverlapping.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  15. ^ Russell, Jeffrey B.. "The Myth of the Flat Earth". American Scientific Affiliation. http://www.asa3.org/ASA/topics/history/1997Russell.html. Retrieved 2007-03-14. ; but see also Cosmas Indicopleustes
  16. ^ Jacobs, James Q. (1998-02-01). "Archaeogeodesy, a Key to Prehistory". http://www.jqjacobs.net/astro/aegeo.html. Retrieved 2007-04-21. 
  17. ^ Ackerman, Forrest J (1997). Forrest J Ackerman's World of Science Fiction. Los Angeles: RR Donnelley & Sons Company. pp. 116–117. ISBN 1-57544-069-5. 
  18. ^ Staff (October 1998). "Explorers: Searching the Universe Forty Years Later" (PDF). NASA/Goddard. http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/pdf/106420main_explorers.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  19. ^ Staff. "Pale Blue Dot". SETI@home. http://gtrc911.quaker.org/pale_blue_dot.html. Retrieved 2006-04-02. 
  20. ^ Fuller, R. Buckminster (1963). Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (First ed.). New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.. ISBN 0-525-47433-1. http://www.futurehi.net/docs/OperatingManual.html. Retrieved 2007-04-21. 
  21. ^ Lovelock, James E. (1979). Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth (First ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286030-5. 
  22. ^ McMichael, Anthony J. (1993). Planetary Overload: Global Environmental Change and the Health of the Human Species. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521457599. 
  23. ^ Lester, James P. (1995). Environmental Politics and Policy: Theories and Evidence. Duke University Press. pp. 115–119. ISBN 0822315696. 
  24. ^ Lafferty, William M.; Langhelle, Oluf (1999). Towards Sustainable Development: On the Goals of Development and the Conditions of Sustainability. St. Martin's Press. pp. 30–41. ISBN 0312216696. 
  25. ^ Barbera, Anthony J.; McConnell, Virginia D. (January 1990). "The impact of environmental regulations on industry productivity: Direct and indirect effects". Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 18 (1): 50–65. doi:10.1016/0095-0696(90)90051-Y. 
  26. ^ Jaffe, A.; Adam, B.; Peterson, S.; Portney, P.; Stavins, R. (March 1995). "Environmental Regulation and the Competitiveness of U.S. Manufacturing: What Does the Evidence Tell Us?". Journal of Economic Literature 33 (1): 132–163. http://ideas.repec.org/a/aea/jeclit/v33y1995i1p132-163.html. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  27. ^ Moavenzadeh, Fred (1994). Global Construction and the Environment: Strategies and Opportunities. Wiley-IEEE. pp. 30–41. ISBN 0471012890. 

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