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East Asia Summit
Map of EAS members and candidates

ASEAN members

 Indonesia
President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
 Malaysia
Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak
 Philippines
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
 Singapore
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
 Thailand
Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva
 Brunei
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
 Vietnam
Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng
Chairperson of the 5th EAS
 Laos
Prime Minister Bouasone Bouphavanh
Myanmar Myanmar
Prime Minister Thein Sein
 Cambodia
Prime Minister Hun Sen

ASEAN Plus Three members

 China
Premier Wen Jiabao
 Japan
Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama
 South Korea
President Lee Myung-bak

Additional members

 India
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
 Australia
Prime Minister Kevin Rudd
 New Zealand
Prime Minister John Key
Candidates
 Timor-Leste
Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão
 Papua New Guinea
Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare
 Russia
President Dmitry Medvedev

The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of 16 countries in the East Asian region. EAS meetings are held after annual ASEAN leaders’ meetings. The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur on December 14, 2005.

Contents

History prior to the first East Asia Summit

The concept of an East Asia Grouping has significant history going back to an idea first promoted in 1991 by then Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad for an East Asia Economic Caucus[1].

The final report in 2002 of the East Asian Study Group, established by the ASEAN Plus Three countries, was based on an EAS involving ASEAN Plus Three, therefore not involving Australia, New Zealand or India [2]. The EAS as proposed was to be an ASEAN led development, with the summit to be linked to ASEAN summit meetings however the issue was to which countries beyond those in ASEAN the EAS was to be extended to.

The decision to hold the EAS was reached during the 2004 ASEAN Plus Three summit and the initial 16 members determined at the ASEAN Plus Three Ministerial Meeting held in Laos at the end of July 2005[3].

Credit for advancing the forum during the 2004 ASEAN Plus Three summit has been attributed to Malaysia[4]

Meetings held

Meeting Country Location Date Note
First EAS Malaysia Kuala Lumpur December 14, 2005 Russia attended as a guest.
Second EAS Philippines Cebu City January 15, 2007 Rescheduled from December 13, 2006.

Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security

Third EAS Singapore Singapore November 21, 2007 Singapore Declaration on Climate Change, Energy
and the Environment[5]

Agreed to establish Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia

Fourth EAS Thailand Cha-am and Hua Hin October 25, 2009 Thailand was initially to host the Summit. It was announced in late October 2008 that the Summit would be shifted from Bangkok to Chiang Mai due to concerns about political unrest in Bangkok[6].

It was then announced on 2 December 2008 that due to the 2008 Thai political crisis the Summit would be post-poned from 17 December 2008 to March 2009[7].

The re-scheduling of the Heads of Government/State of the 16 nations caused the event to be tentatively re-scheduled for April, co-inciding with Easter[8][9]. This revised date meant the venue, then planned for Phuket, was under consideration for shifting to Pattaya[10]. This revised date and venue was subsequently confirmed[11]. The Summit however was cancelled when anti-Government protesters took over the venue[12].

The Summit was rescheduled for 25 October 2009 in Phuket[13] but then transferred to Cha-am and Hua Hin [14].

Fifth EAS Vietnam Hanoi 2010 To be held

First EAS in 2005

Prior to the first meeting there was significant discussion as to which countries should be represented [15]. At the time there were difficulties in the relationship between the "Plus Three" members (ie Japan, China and South Korea) of ASEAN Plus Three[16], and the perception that India and to a lesser extent Australia and New Zealand were present to balance the growing China power[17] all meant the first meeting's achievements were limited. Russia expressed early interest in EAS membership and attended the first EAS as an observer at the invitation of 2005 EAS host Malaysia.

Second EAS in 2007

The next EAS was to be held on December 13, 2006 in Metro Cebu, Philippines. After the confidence building of the inaugural EAS the 2006 EAS will help to define the future role of the EAS, its relationship with ASEAN Plus Three and the involvement of Russia in EAS. However in the face of Tropical Typhoon Utor the summit was post-poned until January 2007 [18]. It was re-scheduled for January 15, 2007, approximately a month after the original scheduled date.

The outcomes are summarised in the Chairman's Statement of the Second East Asia Summit.

Energy

The EAS members signed the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security, a declaration on energy security and biofuels containing statement for members to prepare, non-binding, targets [19].

Trade and the Comprehensive Economic Partnership in East Asia (CEPEA)

As to trade and regional integration the following was noted in the Chair's report:

12. We welcomed ASEAN's efforts towards further integration and community building, and reaffirmed our resolve to work closely together in narrowing development gaps in our region. We reiterated our support for ASEAN's role as the driving force for economic integration in this region. To deepen integration, we agreed to launch a Track Two study on a Comprehensive Economic Partnership in East Asia (CEPEA) among EAS participants. We tasked the ASEAN Secretariat to prepare a time frame for the study and to invite all our countries to nominate their respective participants in it. We welcomed Japan's proposal for an Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).

The reality appears however that movement towards such a relationship is a long way-off. Lee Kuan Yew has compared the relationshiop between South-East Asia and India with that of the European Community and Turkey, and has suggested that a free-trade area involving South-East Asia and India is 30 to 50 years away[20].

The members of EAS agreed to study the Japanese proposed [21] Comprehensive Economic Partnership in East Asia (CEPEA). The Track Two report on CEPEA is due to be completed in mid-2008[22] and at the Third EAS it was agreed this would be considered at the Fourth EAS.

As noted above the Second EAS welcomed the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA). It was subsequently announced that the ERIA would be established in November 2007[23] and confirmed at the Third EAS.

Third EAS in 2007

The issues of Myanmar (Burma), following the 2007 Burmese anti-government protests,and climate change were expected to be discussed at the Third EAS.

Myanmar successfully blocked formal discussion of its internal affairs[24].

The summit did issue the Singapore Declaration on Climate Change, Energy and the Environment[5].

The Summit also agreed to the establishment of the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia and to receive the final report on the Comprehensive Economic Partnership in East Asia at the Fourth EAS[25].

The outcomes are summarised in the Chairman's Statement of the 3rd East Asia Summit Singapore, 21 November 2007.

Fourth EAS in 2009

The summit was significantly delayed and its location changed a number of times due to internal tensions in Thailand, the host nation. In the lead up to the summit there were several border clashes between Thailand and Cambodia. The summit however is said to be used as an opportunity for discussions on the sidelines between the respective nation's leaders[26]. The summit was cancelled following protesters taking over the summit's venue on the day of the summit[12]. It was re-scheduled and held on 25 October 2009. The summit adopted statements on disaster relief and the Nalanda University.

East Asian Community

After the EAS was established the issue arose of whether any future East Asia Community would arise from the EAS or ASEAN Plus Three. Prior to the creation of the EAS it appeared that ASEAN Plus Three would take the role of community building in East Asia[27]

Malyasia felt that it was still the case that the role of the community building fell to ASEAN Plus Three shortly before the second EAS despite "confusion"[28]. China apparently agreed whereas Japan and India felt the EAS should be the focus of the East Asian Community[29].

After the first EAS the feasibility of EAS to have a community building role was questioned with Ong Keng Yong, the secretary-general of ASEAN being quoted as describing the EAS as little more than a "brainstorming forum"[30]. Nevertheless the Chairman’s Press Statement for the Seventh ASEAN Plus Three Foreign Ministers’ Meeting Kuala Lumpur, 26 July 2006 said

25. The Ministers welcomed the convening of the East Asia Summit as a forum for dialogue on broad strategic, political and economic issues of common interest with the aim of promoting peace, stability and economic prosperity in East Asia. In this respect, they recognized that the East Asia Summit could make a significant contribution to the achievement of the long-term goal of establishing an East Asian community.

It appeared that over time following the first EAS the focus was less on whether the EAS has a role in community building to what the role and whether it was secondary to ASEAN Plus Three. By mid-2006 the Chinese news site Xinhua Net suggested the community would arise through a two-phase process with ASEAN Plus Three as the first phase and the EAS as the second phase [31]. The China-India joint declaration of 21 November 2006 linked, at paragraph 43, the EAS with the East Asian Community process[32].

The concentric circle model of the community process with ASEAN at the centre, ASEAN Plus Three at the next band and the East Asia Summit at the outer band is supported by the Second Joint Statement on East Asia Cooperation Building on the Foundations of ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation which said:

III. Looking Forward to a Decade of Consolidation and Closer Integration (2007-2017)

A. Defining the Objectives and Roles of the ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation in the Emerging Regional Architecture

1. We reaffirmed that the ASEAN Plus Three Process would remain as the main vehicle towards the long-term goal of building an East Asian community, with ASEAN as the driving force.

...

3. We recognised and supported the mutually reinforcing and complementary roles of the ASEAN Plus Three process and such regional fora as EAS, ARF, APEC and ASEM to promote East Asian community building.

4. We reiterated that East Asian integration is an open, transparent, inclusive, and forward-looking process for mutual benefits and support internationally shared values to achieve peace, stability, democracy and prosperity in the region. Guided by the vision for durable peace and shared prosperity in East Asia and beyond, we will stand guided by new economic flows, evolving strategic interactions and the belief to continue to engage all interested countries and organisations towards the realisation of an open regional architecture capable of adapting to changes and new dynamism.

On any view community building is not a short term project. However after the second EAS the Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh was confident that the EAS would lead to an East Asia Community[33]. China had also apparently accepted this was the case[34]

If achieved the Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia (CEPEA) would be a tangible first step in the community building process. The second EAS seems to have increased confidence in CEPEA but is still only a proposal[35].

It has been suggested that as the EAS consists of an "anti-region" the prospects of it forming a community are less than likely[36].

The relationship with ASEAN Plus Three

The relationship between the EAS on the one hand and ASEAN Plus Three on the other is still not clear. As discussed above, some countries are more supportive of the narrower ASEAN Plus Three grouping whereas others support the broader, more inclusive EAS. ASEAN Plus Three, which has been meeting since December 1997[37] has a history, including the Chiang Mai initiative[38] which appears to have led to the development of the Asian Currency Unit. This may be significant for those advocating a broader role for EAS in the future.

The tension between the groupings extends to the respective members' intentions towards future Free Trade Agreements with China and South Korea focused on ASEAN Plus Three and Japan on the broader EAS members[39].

The 1997 Asian financial crisis had demonstrated the need for regional groupings and initiatives. It was during this time ASEAN Plus Three had commenced and it was also during this time that the East Asian caucus was being discussed.

The EAS is just one regional grouping and some members down play its significance, the former Australian Prime Minister John Howard has stated that the EAS was secondary as a regional summit to Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) which has on his view a premier role [40]. Not all members of the EAS, notably India, are members of APEC. However as the EAS meetings are scheduled with the ASEAN Plus Three meetings (they both follow the annual ASEAN meetings) and all members of ASEAN Plus Three are members of EAS the ability of the two forums to remain relevant given the existence of the other remains in question. China has stated its preference for both EAS and ASEAN Plus Three to exist side-by-side[41].

The relationship between APEC, ASEAN Plus Three and the EAS remained unresolved heading into the 2007 APEC meeting[42]. Following the meeting the then Malaysian Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi described ASEAN Plus Three as the primary vehicle and implied APEC was the lesser of the three[43]. At the same time a Malaysian commentator writing in a Singaporean newspaper described concentric circles for the three with ASEAN Plus Three at the centre and APEC at the outer, also suggested the Nikai Initiative, with its regional OECD like plans, might overtaking the remaining role for APEC[44].

Possible future members

Russia participated in the first EAS as an observer at the invitation of 2005 host Malaysia and has requested to become a member. Its request to become a future member seems to be supported by China and India[45].

East Timor is a candidate ASEAN member seeking membership within five years (from 2006) and Papua New Guinea has shown intention to join;[46][47][48] presumably new members of ASEAN would also join the EAS [49] .

Pakistan and Mongolia have been proposed as future members by Malaysia[50].

Pakistan and Bangladesh have been raised by Japan[51].

The United States has now stated that it hopes to have some role in the future of the EAS[52].

The European Union has indicated it wishes to have a role as an observer [53].

The Arab League has held talks and expressed its desire to have a role as an Observer [54]

However, ASEAN has decided to freeze new "membership" of EAS for at least two years [55].

See also

References

  1. ^ Yale Globel Online, The East Asia Summit: More Discord than Accord, 20 December 2005
  2. ^ Report of the East Asian Study Group
  3. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan) - General Information on East Asia Summit First appeared in The Asian Wall Street Journal - Watching the East Asia Summit
  4. ^ Yale Globel Online, The East Asia Summit: More Discord than Accord
  5. ^ a b Singapore Declaration on Climate Change, Energy and the Environment
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view/20081202-175716/Thailand-postpones-ASEAN-summit
  8. ^ ASEAN Notional Calendar
  9. ^ Singapore Minister Sees Opportunity In Adversity
  10. ^ Thailand Might Move Summit To Pattaya
  11. ^ Official site
  12. ^ a b Thai riot police clash with protesters
  13. ^ Thai PM woos Chinese businesses ASEAN Calendar for October 2009
  14. ^ Thailand changes venue for ASEAN+3, East Asia summits
  15. ^ Mahathir blasts Australia over summit - Nine MSN Executive decisions - The Indian Express
  16. ^ International Herald Tribune - An Asian Union? Not yet Battle Looms Over Inaugural East Asia Summit
  17. ^ People's Daily Online - East Asia Summit: in the shadow of sharp divisions
  18. ^ Bangkok Post - Asean summit may be reset for Jan 8-13 Sun Star - Asean summit shelved ‘effectively’?
  19. ^ Cebu Declaration on East Asian energy security
  20. ^ Original link dead
  21. ^ The Japan Time's Online: Success for the EAS? Bloomberg - India, Australia, N.Z. Will Join Trade Bloc, Ong Says
  22. ^ The Jakarta Post - East Asia Summit and broader economic integration in Asia
  23. ^ The Brunei Times - Link Dead
  24. ^ ASEAN stands ready to help Myanmar: Singapore PM Lee - Channel News Asia
  25. ^ Chairman's Statement of the 3rd East Asia Summit Singapore, 21 November 2007 - Paragraphs 13 and 14
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ Asia Times Online: ASEAN: Trouble in the family People's Daily On-line: Establishing East Asian Community becomes common understanding: Interview Wu Jianmin, president of China Foreign Affairs University
  28. ^ Original link dead
  29. ^ Original link dead Original link dead
  30. ^ Timor parliament to consider oil deal
  31. ^ Xinhua - English
  32. ^ PIB Press Release
  33. ^ http://www.dailyindia.com/show/103864.php/East-Asia-Summit-would-ultimately-lead-to-creation-of-East-Asia-community:-PM
  34. ^ Xinhua - English
  35. ^ DNA - World - East Asia summit is an unqualified success for India - Daily News & Analysis
  36. ^ http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/publications/pab/Breslin_07_PAB.pdf
  37. ^ ASEAN secretariat - ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation
  38. ^ ASEAN secretariat - China, Japan, South Korea, ASEAN Agree on Wider Currency Swap Arrangements
  39. ^ Bernama - Japan Pushes For Expanded EAFTA Comprising 16 Countries Gulf Times - Link dead
  40. ^ AM - APEC leads Asian summits, PM says
  41. ^ People's Daily Online - East Asia Summit, a new platform for regional cooperation
  42. ^ VietNamNet Bridge
  43. ^ Make Apec relevant to all
  44. ^ The New Strais Times On-line - Link dead
  45. ^ The Hindu : National : Trilateral business meet later this year
  46. ^ East Timor Needs Five Years to Join ASEAN: PM
  47. ^ Papua New Guinea asks RP support for Asean membership bid Retrieved July 8, 2009
  48. ^ Somare seeks PGMA's support for PNG's ASEAN membership bid Retrieved July 8, 2009
  49. ^ "09-East Timor soon to join ASEAN". Balita - Linking Filipinos worldwide with news since 1994. 2007-01-09. http://news.balita.ph/html/article.php/20070109122630046. Retrieved 2007-03-06.  
  50. ^ People's Daily Online - Interview: Malaysian PM Badawi says China-ASEAN ties developing rapidly Online International News Network - Pak-Malaysia stresses enhancing trade, economic relations
  51. ^ Link in Japanese
  52. ^ The Hindu - Asian integration process an ‘act of foresight’: India
  53. ^ European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy New Visions for EU-Japan Relations Opening of Joint EU-Japan Symposium Brussels, 6 April 2006
  54. ^ League of Arab States
  55. ^ Times of India - East Asia Summit freezes membership for 2 years

External links








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