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East India Company
Fate Dissolved and activities absorbed by the British Raj
Founded 1600
Defunct 1858 (formally dissolved in 1873)
Headquarters London
.The East India Company (also the East India Trading Company, English East India Company[1] and then the British East India Company)[2] was an early English joint-stock company[3] that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China.^ The East India Company (also the East India Trading Company , English East India Company , [ 1 ] and then the British East India Company ) [ 2 ] was an early English joint-stock company [ 3 ] that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies , but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Company Paintings: Indian paintings of the British period.
  • Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie Archive: Glossary: India 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lib.mq.edu.au [Source type: Reference]

^ The British East India Company found itself completely dominant over the French, Dutch and Portuguese trading companies in the Indian subcontinent as a result.

.The oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the Company was granted an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants under the chairmanship of Lord Mayor of London To form an association to trade directly with india, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600.[4] After a rival English company challenged its monopoly in the late 17th century, the two companies were merged in 1708 to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, commonly styled the Honourable East India Company,[5] and abbreviated, HEIC;[6] the Company was colloquially referred to as John Company,[7] and in India as Company Bahadur (Hindustani bahādur, "brave").^ East Indiamen : East India Company registered ships that had the monopoly of sailing from London to the East Indies and return.
  • Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie Archive: Glossary: India 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lib.mq.edu.au [Source type: Reference]

^ The English governor of the East India Company at Bombay also sent gifts annually.
  • Dutch east India Company ............. 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.panhwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a rival English company challenged its monopoly in the late 17th century, the two companies were merged in 1708 to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies , commonly styled the Honourable East India Company , [ 5 ] and abbreviated, HEIC ; [ 6 ] the Company was colloquially referred to as John Company , [ 7 ] and in India as Company Bahadur ( Hindustani bahādur , "brave").
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea, and opium.^ East India Trading Company Kids Sweatshirt $23.99 .
  • East India Trading Company T-shirts & Gifts : IveAlwaysWantedOneOfThose.com - Best Tshirts 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, it also came to rule large swathes of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions, to the exclusion, gradually, of its commercial pursuits.^ However, it also came to rule large swathes of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions, to the exclusion, gradually, of its commercial pursuits.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one which virtually ruled India as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, along with a very large private army consisting of local Indian sepoys, who were loyal to their British commanders and were an important factor in Britain's Asian conquest.

^ Wellesley, however, successfully reversed this policy during his rule on the pretense of a French danger in India.
  • Pindari Society and the Establishment of British Paramountcy in India- McEldowney 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Company rule in India, which effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey, lasted until 1858, when, following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and under the Government of India Act 1858, the British Crown assumed direct administration of India in the new British Raj.^ After the brutal suppression of the Mutiny, British opinion against the East India Company's administration policies produced direct Crown rule and administration.
  • First war of independence: 1857 - India Forum Discussions 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.india-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Company rule in India .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indian rebellion of 1857 .
  • History Indian Mutiny - History Of Ancient, Medieval And Modern India. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bharatadesam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Company itself was finally dissolved on 1 January 1874, as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act.^ The Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Company long held a privileged position in relation to the English, and later the British, government.^ The Company long held a privileged position in relation to the English, and later the British, government.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Companies The British Empire was not built by government action.
  • British Empire page 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The company commenced operations on the West Coast of South America in 1840, and obtained the British Government Mail contract to the area in 1852.
  • History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1850 - Dec 1859 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC alts.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, it was frequently granted special rights and privileges, including trade monopolies and exemptions.^ As a result, it was frequently granted special rights and privileges, including trade monopolies and exemptions.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wealthy merchants of London petitioned Queen Elizabeth to grant them encouragement exclusive privileges for the purpose of carrying on the trade with India.
  • The Government of India and the Mutinies 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They should also fight for equal rights and for special privileges including reservations for Dalits and other backward caste while exposing the hollowness of the ruling class politics in this regard.

.These caused resentment among its competitors, who saw unfair advantage in the Company's position.^ These caused resentment among its competitors, who saw unfair advantage in the Company's position.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These exemptions gave the British traders a decided commercial advantage over other European companies and even over native traders.
  • The truth behind the legend: European doctors in pre-colonial India 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ias.ac.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These advantages he failed not to direct immediately against the Company themselves; and incited the Mogul to make a demand of the tribute due to him from the English.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite this resentment, the Company remained a powerful force for over 200 years over India.^ Despite this resentment, the Company remained a powerful force for over 200 years over India.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allowed any English firm to trade with India, unless specifically prohibited by act of parliament, thereby annulling the charter that was in force for almost 100 years.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the height of its power and influence in the seventeenth and eighteenth century the VOC - acronym for the United Netherland East India Company -was the greatest commercial concern in the world.
  • VOC. A bibliography of publications relating to the Dutch East India Company: 1602-1800. 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2005, Sanjiv Mehta, an Indian businessman bought East India Company from the "30 to 40 people" who owned the shares of East India Company[9].^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ General records of the East India Company.
  • British India Catalogue 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.aigs.org.au [Source type: Academic]

Starting with Mayfair in Central London, Mr. Mehta plans to launch several stores around the world for selling luxury goods under the East India Company brand[10].

Contents

History

The foundation years

.Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, a group of merchants of London presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean.^ Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, a group of merchants of London presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They formed a partnership in a joint-stock company with a group of London merchants in a company called John Pierce & Assoc.
  • Timeline 1600-1625 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This just and sound principle was, in consequence, enforced in several petitions presented to parliament by the importers of Indian goods; and it was also enforced in several able publications that appeared at the time.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

[11] .The permission was granted and in 1591 three ships sailed from England, around the Cape of Good Hope, to the Arabian Sea; one of them, the Edward Bonaventure then sailed around Cape Comorin and on to the Malay Peninsula, and subsequently returned to England in 1594.[11] In 1596, three more ships sailed out east, however, these were all lost at sea.^ The permission was granted and in 1591 three ships sailed from England, around the Cape of Good Hope , to the Arabian Sea ; one of them, the Edward Bonaventure then sailed around Cape Comorin and on to the Malay Peninsula , and subsequently returned to England in 1594.
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^ Cape of Good Hope as seen from the East.
  • Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company. Volume V: Africa. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: General]

^ View of the Cape of Good Hope and its environs.
  • Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company. Volume V: Africa. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: General]

[11] .Two years later, on 24 September 1598, another group of merchants of London, having raised £30,133 in capital, met to form a corporation.^ Two years later, on 24 September 1598, another group of merchants of London, having raised £30,133 in capital, met to form a corporation.
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^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They formed a partnership in a joint-stock company with a group of London merchants in a company called John Pierce & Assoc.
  • Timeline 1600-1625 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although their first attempt was unsuccessful, they nonetheless set about seeking the Queen's unofficial approval, purchased ships for their venture, increased their capital to £68,373, and convened again a year later.^ Although their first attempt was unsuccessful, they nonetheless set about seeking the Queen's unofficial approval, purchased ships for their venture, increased their capital to £68,373, and convened again a year later.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although unsuccessful, it led to the growth of unofficial political committees of soldiers who had several grievances against their British overlords 0 Back to top MultiQuote Reply .
  • First war of independence: 1857 - India Forum Discussions 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.india-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact is that, for the first 20 years, we mistreated the Bengalis so badly that they separated East Pakistan into Bangladesh (with India’s help).
  • Role of overseas Pakistanis in the development of Pakistan | Overseas Pakistani Friends 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.opfblog.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .This time they succeeded, and on 31 December 1600, the Queen granted a Royal Charter to "George, Earl of Cumberland, and 215 Knights, Aldermen, and Burgesses" under the name, Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading with the East Indies.^ But almost simultaneously with the embassy, her Majesty granted a charter on the 31st December, 1600, which erected the merchants who petitioned into a body, or corporation, under the title of Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading to the East Indies.
  • The Government of India and the Mutinies 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Company rule in India On 31 December 1600 Queen Elizabeth I of England granted a royal charter to the British East India Company to carry out trade with the East.
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The corporation was entitled: "The Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies."
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

[12] .The charter awarded the newly formed company, for a period of fifteen years, a monopoly of trade (known today as a patent) with all countries to the east of the Cape of Good Hope and to the west of the Straits of Magellan.^ Cape of Good Hope as seen from the East.
  • Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company. Volume V: Africa. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: General]

^ View of the Cape of Good Hope and its environs.
  • Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company. Volume V: Africa. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: General]

^ Cape of Good Hope as seen from [= towards] the East.
  • Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company. Volume V: Africa. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: General]

[12] Sir James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601.[13]
.Initially, the Company struggled in the spice trade due to the competition from the already well established Dutch.^ Initially, the Company struggled in the spice trade due to the competition from the already well established Dutch .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC in Dutch, literally "United East Indies Company") was established on March 20, 1602, when the government of the Netherlands granted it a monopoly to trade with Asia.
  • September 2003 Archives 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.atpobtvs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Due to effects of the Napoleonic Wars on shipping, the Companys monopoly on trade with India was abolished in 1813.

.However the Company did open a factory (trading post) in Bantam on the first voyage and imports of pepper from Java were an important part of the Company's trade for twenty years.^ Plan of the Companys Trading post at Djambi.
  • Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company. Volume III: Malay Archipelago and Oceania. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: General]

^ By the seizing of Bantam, they have got almost 3 parts in 4 of the pepper trade.
  • The Avalon Project : An Essay on the East-India Trade 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However the Company did open a factory (as the trading posts were known) in Bantam on the first voyage and imports of pepper from Java were an important part of the Company's trade for twenty years.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The factory in Bantam was finally closed in 1683. During this time ships belonging to the company arrived in India, docking at Surat, which was established as a trade transit point in 1608. In the next two years, it managed to build its first factory in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1772 the Company had been allowed to build ships in India, but only for local trade.

^ During this time ships belonging to the company arrived in India, docking at Surat , which was established as a trade transit point in 1608.
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.The high profits reported by the Company after landing in India (presumably owing to a reduction in overhead costs affected by the transit points), initially prompted King James I to grant subsidiary licenses to other trading companies in England.^ The high profits reported by the Company after landing in India (presumably owing to a reduction in overhead costs affected by the transit points), initially prompted King James I to grant subsidiary licenses to other trading companies in England.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British East India Company originally began as a joint-stock company of traders and investors based in Leadenhall Street, in the City of London, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I in 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India.

^ The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC in Dutch, literally "United East Indies Company") was established on March 20, 1602, when the government of the Netherlands granted it a monopoly to trade with Asia.
  • September 2003 Archives 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.atpobtvs.com [Source type: Original source]

.But, in 1609, he renewed the charter given to the Company for an indefinite period, including a clause which specified that the charter would cease to be in force if the trade turned unprofitable for three consecutive years.^ But, in 1609, he renewed the charter given to the Company for an indefinite period, including a clause which specified that the charter would cease to be in force if the trade turned unprofitable for three consecutive years.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The charter awarded the newly formed company, for a period of fifteen years, a monopoly of trade (known today as a patent) with all countries to the east of the Cape of Good Hope and to the west of the Straits of Magellan .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially founded in 1600 as "The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies," the British East India Company began as a group of influential businessmen who, via a Crown charter, were given the exclusive right to trade in the East Indies for a period of fifteen years.
  • Daily Kos: Habeas History: GTMO is The British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Company was led by one Governor and 24 directors who made up the Court of Directors.^ Recall the Company Bahadur .† Who made it Bahadur?
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Company was led by one Governor and 24 directors who made up the Court of Directors.
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^ The managers and governors of the Company made huge sums of money (those that survived the diseases of India) and built palaces in England.
  • British Empire page 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were appointed by, and reported to, the Court of Proprietors.^ They were appointed by, and reported to, the Court of Proprietors.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Court received the report of these same raids, they sent Lord Hastings reluctant permission to "suppress the Pindaris and destroy their further means of action."
  • Pindari Society and the Establishment of British Paramountcy in India- McEldowney 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Take away, say they, the Court of Proprietors, and the Court of Directors will do their duty.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Court of Directors had ten committees reporting to it.^ A secret committee of three directors was formed, with which the board of control might transact any business it did not choose to submit to the court of directors.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Copy of a letter to the Court of Directors, dated 10th August, 1786, printed by order of the House of Commons.—The Select Committee of the House of Commons in 1810, in their Third Report, p.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Several reports of the Committee of Secrecy to the honourable House of Commons, relating to the late South-Sea directors, &c.
  • The South Sea Bubble Collection – Baker Library | Bloomberg Center, Historical Collections 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.library.hbs.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Foothold in India

.English traders frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean.^ Thus it was the Dutch and not the English who brought the downfall of the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean.
  • Dutch east India Company ............. 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.panhwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English traders frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dutch, the English and the Portuguese rivalries for trade, and the difficulties the Dutch had to face with the two other nations.
  • Dutch east India Company ............. 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.panhwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Company achieved a major victory over the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally in 1612. Perhaps realizing the cost of waging trade wars in remote seas, the Company decided to explore the feasibility of gaining a territorial foothold in mainland India, with official sanction of both countries, and requested the Crown to launch a diplomatic mission.^ Perhaps realizing the cost of waging trade wars in remote seas, the Company decided to explore the feasibility of gaining a territorial foothold in mainland India, with official sanction of both countries, and requested the Crown to launch a diplomatic mission.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Company achieved a major victory over the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally in 1612.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was during these campaigns, both against Mysore and the Marathas, that Arthur Wellesley , later Duke of Wellington , first showed the abilities which would lead to victory in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe was instructed by James I to visit the Mughal Emperor Nuruddin Salim Jahangir (r.^ Foster, William, The English Factories in India 1634-1636, Oxford, 1911; The English Factories in India 1637-41, Oxford, 1912; ed., The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to India 1615-1619, As Narrated in his Journal and Correspondence, London, 1926.

^ Foster, W., Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of Great Mughal, 1915-19, 2 Vols., Hakluyt Society, 1921.
  • Dutch east India Company ............. 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.panhwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This mission was highly successful as Jahangir sent a letter to James through Sir Thomas Roe: [ 12 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1605 - 1627) to arrange for a commercial treaty which would give the Company exclusive rights to reside and build factories in Surat and other areas.^ Company exclusive rights to reside and build factories in Surat and other areas.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1615 , King James I sent Sir Thomas Roe as his ambassador to Jahangir's court, and a commercial treaty was concluded in which the Mughals allowed the Company to build trading posts in India in return for goods from Europe.
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other bill would put the management of the Company's commerce under another commission.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.In return, the Company offered to provide the Emperor with goods and rarities from the European market.^ In return, the Company offered to provide the Emperor with goods and rarities from the European market.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This ‘Green Revolution’ was meant not only to provide captive market for the imperialist goods but also was an attempt to counter the emerging threat of the Red Revolution and to solve the chronic food crisis.

^ In addition, the East India Company disfavour the route because they feared that goods from the Indo-Egyptian trade might be carried to European markets by the Levant Company thus seriously competing with their monopoly of goods by way of the Cape of Good Hope.
  • Lieutenant Thomas Waghorn 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.michelhoude.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This mission was highly successful as Jahangir sent a letter to James through Sir Thomas Roe:[14]
.
Upon which assurance of your royal love I have given my general command to all the kingdoms and ports of my dominions to receive all the merchants of the English nation as the subjects of my friend; that in what place soever they choose to live, they may have free liberty without any restraint; and at what port soever they shall arrive, that neither Portugal nor any other shall dare to molest their quiet; and in what city soever they shall have residence, I have commanded all my governors and captains to give them freedom answerable to their own desires; to sell, buy, and to transport into their country at their pleasure.^ They are answerable to US at all times.
  • Damian Green arrest shows how Labour is destroying our political system - Telegraph 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ When their Children will Prosper Pakistan or any other Place where they will be living will prosper.
  • Role of overseas Pakistanis in the development of Pakistan | Overseas Pakistani Friends 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.opfblog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other day they were all shysters.
  • Our political class yaps and squeals but is incapable of rational thought – Telegraph Blogs 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.For confirmation of our love and friendship, I desire your Majesty to command your merchants to bring in their ships of all sorts of rarities and rich goods fit for my palace; and that you be pleased to send me your royal letters by every opportunity, that I may rejoice in your health and prosperous affairs; that our friendship may be interchanged and eternal.^ I’m assuming you got all your answers.
  • Dear Bedu « American Bedu 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC americanbedu.com [Source type: General]

^ My views are as familiar to you as yours are to me.
  • Our political class yaps and squeals but is incapable of rational thought – Telegraph Blogs 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ And I love love love that you enjoy my blog!
  • Dear Bedu « American Bedu 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC americanbedu.com [Source type: General]

Expansion

.The Company, benefiting from the imperial patronage, soon expanded its commercial trading operations, eclipsing the Portuguese Estado da India, which had established bases in Goa, Chittagong and Bombay (which was later ceded to England as part of the dowry of Catherine de Braganza).^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Estado da India: (Port.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Otis Elevator Company (India) was established.
  • Mahindra Corporate 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mahindra.com [Source type: News]

.The Company created trading posts in Surat (where a factory was built in 1612), Madras (1639), Bombay (1668) and Calcutta (1690).^ By the mid- 1600s , the Company had established trading posts or "factories" in major Indian cities, such as Bombay , Calcutta , and Madras in addition to their first factory at Surat (built in 1612 ).
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plan of the Companys Trading post at Djambi.
  • Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company. Volume III: Malay Archipelago and Oceania. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: General]

^ By 1740 the Company had established scattered trading posts at Bombay, Madras and Calcutta.
  • Ancestors Magazine Issue 57 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC issuu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1647, the Company had 23 factories, each under the command of a factor or master merchant and governor if so chosen, and 90 employees in India.^ By 1647, the Company had 23 factories, each under the command of a factor or master merchant and governor if so chosen, and 90 employees in India.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But almost simultaneously with the embassy, her Majesty granted a charter on the 31st December, 1600, which erected the merchants who petitioned into a body, or corporation, under the title of Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading to the East Indies.
  • The Government of India and the Mutinies 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ East India Trading Company Kids Sweatshirt $23.99 .
  • East India Trading Company T-shirts & Gifts : IveAlwaysWantedOneOfThose.com - Best Tshirts 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: General]

.The major factories became the walled forts of Fort William in Bengal, Fort St George in Madras and the Bombay Castle.^ The major factories became the walled forts of Fort William in Bengal, Fort St George in Madras and the Bombay Castle .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the mid- 1600s , the Company had established trading posts or "factories" in major Indian cities, such as Bombay , Calcutta , and Madras in addition to their first factory at Surat (built in 1612 ).
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other aspect is that without the Bengal Army or for that matter the Madras or the Bombay armies there would have been no EEIC's conquest of India.
  • The Causes Of The Rebellion 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1634, the Mughal emperor extended his hospitality to the English traders to the region of Bengal (and in 1717 completely waived customs duties for the trade).^ In 1634, the Mughal emperor extended his hospitality to the English traders to the region of Bengal (and in 1717 completely waived customs duties for the trade).
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four years later, British traders battled the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally , gaining the favour of the Mughal emperor Jahangir in the process.
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same year it obtained a nishan (an official order) from the Mughal governor granting exemption from payment of custom duties.
  • The truth behind the legend: European doctors in pre-colonial India 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ias.ac.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The company's mainstay businesses were by now in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre and tea.^ The East India Company traded mainly in cotton , silk , indigo dye , saltpetre , tea , and opium .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company's mainstay businesses were by now in cotton , silk , indigo dye , saltpetre and tea .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Company traded in such commodities as cotton , silk , saltpetre , indigo , and tea .
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the while in 1650-56, it was making inroads into the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade in the Malaccan straits, which the Dutch had acquired by ousting the Portuguese in 1640-41. In 1657, Oliver Cromwell renewed the charter of 1609, and brought about minor changes in the holding of the Company.^ All the while in 1650-56, it was making inroads into the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade in the Malaccan straits , which the Dutch had acquired by ousting the Portuguese in 1640-41.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1657, Oliver Cromwell renewed the charter of 1609, and brought about minor changes in the holding of the Company.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC in Dutch, literally "United East Indies Company") was established on March 20, 1602, when the government of the Netherlands granted it a monopoly to trade with Asia.
  • September 2003 Archives 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.atpobtvs.com [Source type: Original source]

.The status of the Company was further enhanced by the restoration of monarchy in England.^ The status of the Company was further enhanced by the restoration of monarchy in England.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By a series of five acts around 1670, King Charles II provisioned it with the rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops and form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas.^ In 1670 King Charles II granted the company the right to acquire territory, raise an army, mint its own money, and exercise legal jurisdiction in areas under its control.
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By a series of five acts around 1670, King Charles II provisioned it with the rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops and form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1670, King Charles II, in a series of five acts, gave the Company the rights to acquire territory, mint money, command troops, form alliances, and exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction over acquired territory.
  • Daily Kos: Habeas History: GTMO is The British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In 1711, the Company established a trading post in Canton (Guangzhou), China, to trade tea for silver.^ Plan of the Companys Trading post at Djambi.
  • Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company. Volume III: Malay Archipelago and Oceania. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1711, the Company established a trading post in Canton ( Guangzhou ), China , to trade tea for silver .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It had solved its critical lack of the cash needed to buy tea by exporting Indian-grown opium to China.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The road to a complete monopoly

Trade monopoly

.The prosperity that the officers of the company enjoyed allowed them to return to their country and establish sprawling estates and businesses, and to obtain political power.^ Establish people’s political power!

^ The prosperity that the officers of the company enjoyed allowed them to return to their country and establish sprawling estates and businesses, and to obtain political power.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Establish People’s political Power!

.Consequently, the Company developed for itself a lobby in the English parliament.^ Consequently, the Company developed for itself a lobby in the English parliament.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the following decades there was a constant see-saw battle between the Company lobby and the Parliament.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English East India Company in this aspect was a prisoner of circumstances and its consequent unpopularity in the Indian populace was regarded by its British Directors sitting in London as a necessary evil.
  • The Causes Of The Rebellion 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, under pressure from ambitious tradesmen and former associates of the Company (pejoratively termed Interlopers by the Company), who wanted to establish private trading firms in India, a deregulating act was passed in 1694. This allowed any English firm to trade with India, unless specifically prohibited by act of parliament, thereby annulling the charter that was in force for almost 100 years.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Private trade by employees of East India Company.
  • Dutch east India Company ............. 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.panhwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ East India Company Act 1773 .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By an act that was passed in 1698, a new "parallel" East India Company (officially titled the English Company Trading to the East Indies) was floated under a state-backed indemnity of £2 million.^ East India Trading Company Kids Sweatshirt $23.99 .
  • East India Trading Company T-shirts & Gifts : IveAlwaysWantedOneOfThose.com - Best Tshirts 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, the powerful stockholders of the old company quickly subscribed a sum of £315,000 in the new concern, and dominated the new body.^ However, the powerful stockholders of the old company quickly subscribed a sum of £315,000 in the new concern, and dominated the new body.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under this arrangement, the merged company lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their opinions were, however, divided—part being for throwing the trade open, and part for the formation of a new company on a more liberal footing.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.The two companies wrestled with each other for some time, both in England and in India, for a dominant share of the trade.^ The two companies wrestled with each other for some time, both in England and in India, for a dominant share of the trade.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India’s share of world trade has reached 1%.
  • India | One Live News 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC onelivenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a rival English company challenged its monopoly in the late 17th century, the two companies were merged in 1708 to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies , commonly styled the Honourable East India Company , [ 5 ] and abbreviated, HEIC ; [ 6 ] the Company was colloquially referred to as John Company , [ 7 ] and in India as Company Bahadur ( Hindustani bahādur , "brave").
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it quickly became evident that, in practice, the original Company faced scarcely any measurable competition.^ However, it quickly became evident that, in practice, the original Company faced scarcely any measurable competition.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protecting and extending that monopoly, however, would eventually lead the East India Company a long way from its mercantile origins.
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the union of the New Company and the Old ('London") Company, the United Company became subject to it for the original charter of the New Company then became the foundation of the powers and privileges of the United Company (58) .
  • The STRIPED FLAG of the EAST INDIA COMPANY, and its CONNEXION with the AMERICAN "STARS and STRIPES" 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both companies finally merged in 1708, by a tripartite indenture involving them both as well as the state.^ Both companies finally merged in 1708, by a tripartite indenture involving them both as well as the state.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hastings, the influence which he retained among both those who were, and those who had been the servants of the Company, as well s the influence which arose from those persons who were high in the administration.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well I think there is a very real problem from the point of view of university research in the way that private companies have entered the university, both with direct companies in the universities and with contracts to university researchers.
  • Dissident Voice : Monsanto, a Contemporary East India Company, and Corporate Knowledge in India 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Academic]

.Under this arrangement, the merged company lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed.^ Under this arrangement, the merged company lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ II.1.57 —In 1781 the exclusive privileges of the company were extended to 1791, with three years' notice; the dividend on the company's stock was fixed at 8 per cent.; three-fourths of their surplus revenues, after paying the dividend and the sum of £400,000 payable to government, was to be applied to the public service, and the remaining fourth to the company's own use.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.The amalgamated company became the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies.^ The corporation was entitled: "The Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies."
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The amalgamated company became the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies, 1600–1619 .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.In the following decades there was a constant see-saw battle between the Company lobby and the Parliament.^ In the following decades there was a constant see-saw battle between the Company lobby and the Parliament.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was a battle between the Israelis and the Arabs.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following year, he was elected to the Court of Directors, where he remained until 1813; he also served as the company's chairman or deputy chairman on six occasions between 1804 and 1815.
  • Richard B. Allen | Suppressing a Nefarious Traffic: Britain and the Abolition of Slave Trading in India and the Western Indian Ocean, 1770–1830 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.4 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Company sought a permanent establishment, while the Parliament would not willingly allow it greater autonomy, and so relinquish the opportunity to exploit the Company's profits.^ I am sure the Chinese and their source of inspirations, Soviet Russia, would not miss any opportunity of exploiting these weak spots, partly in support of their ideology and partly in support of their ambitions.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An independent Kashmir would be wholly dependent on the United States and would facilitate establishing a permanent military presence of the United States.

^ As a purely commercial enterprise, the Company had had to calculate carefully whether the goods it bought for export would earn a profit when sold.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1712, another act renewed the status of the Company, though the debts were repaid.^ In 1712, another act renewed the status of the Company, though the debts were repaid.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Scheme of suitable Propositions for procuring an Extension of the Company's Charter, or exclusive right of Trade, by another Act of parliament , folio 2 pp.
  • Clements Manuscript Division Finding Aids 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC quod.lib.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The opinion obtained from the Company’s council was, that though his dismission, pronounced without receiving his defence, was informal, he could not, without submission to the clause of the act, be restored.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.By 1720, 15% of British imports were from India, almost all passing through the Company, which reasserted the influence of the Company lobby.^ By 1720, 15% of British imports were from India, almost all passing through the Company, which reasserted the influence of the Company lobby.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquis of Hastings led to the Company gaining control of all India, except for the Punjab, Sindh and Nepal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike all other British Government records, the records from the East India Company (and its successor the India Office) are not in The National Archives at Kew, London, but are stored by the British Library in London as part of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collection.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The license was prolonged until 1766 by yet another act in 1730.
.At this time, Britain and France became bitter rivals.^ Moreover, Hitler stated that the arms race meant that time for action had to occur before Britain and France obtained a permanent lead in the arms race.
  • Adolf Hitler: Life time Lessons for Dictators! | The Pakistani Spectator 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pakspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Frequent skirmishes between them took place for control of colonial possessions.^ Frequent skirmishes between them took place for control of colonial possessions.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1848 the Second Anglo-Sikh War took place and the Company gained control of the Punjab as well.
  • History Indian Mutiny - History Of Ancient, Medieval And Modern India. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bharatadesam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional skirmishes have taken place between the two nations over the Siachen Glacier.
  • India | One Live News 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC onelivenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1742, fearing the monetary consequences of a war, the British government agreed to extend the deadline for the licensed exclusive trade by the Company in India until 1783, in return for a further loan of £1 million.^ In 1742, fearing the monetary consequences of a war, the British government agreed to extend the deadline for the licensed exclusive trade by the Company in India until 1783, in return for a further loan of £1 million.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the consequences was that the British government nationalized the Company.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British East India Company (1783-1858) .

.The skirmishes did escalate to the feared war.^ The skirmishes did escalate to the feared war.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 1756 and 1763, the Seven Years' War diverted the state's attention towards consolidation and defence of its territorial possessions in Europe and its colonies in North America.^ Between 1756 and 1763, the Seven Years' War diverted the state's attention towards consolidation and defence of its territorial possessions in Europe and its colonies in North America .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The technological gap between pre-industrial America and Western Europe in the late 18th century was insignificant in comparison with the gap between the pre-industrial Caribbean and the Western world today.
  • Early Articles by Cheddi Jagan 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.jagan.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourism to the region has seen a slump since the war on Iraq and the plan may be to try to garner more traffic from travelers in North America.

.The war took place on Indian soil, between the Company troops and the French forces.^ The war took place on Indian soil, between the Company troops and the French forces.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Demand for Indian commodities was boosted by the need to sustain the troops and the economy during the war, and by the increased availability of raw materials and efficient methods of production.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Anglo-Nepal War of 1814 and the subsequent treaty of peace signed between Nepal and the East India Company on December 8, 1816 resulted in the delimitation and delineation of Nepal-India border.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

.This angered the Indian people.^ This angered the Indian people.
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.In 1757, the Law Officers of the Crown delivered the Pratt-Yorke opinion distinguishing overseas territories acquired by conquest from those acquired by private treaty.^ In 1757, the Law Officers of the Crown delivered the Pratt-Yorke opinion distinguishing overseas territories acquired by conquest from those acquired by private treaty .
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^ We have legal opinions, very respectable legal opinions, to the effect, that in strictness of law the territory is not responsible, and that the commercial assets are responsible for every farthing of the debts which were incurred for the government and defence of India.

^ If an extradition treaty with Belgium asked Belgium to deliver people who committed crimes against U.S. law in Antwerp to the U.S., then yes, I would say that treaty extends U.S. law to Belgium.
  • Daily Kos: Habeas History: GTMO is The British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The opinion asserted that, while the Crown of Great Britain enjoyed sovereignty over both, only the property of the former was vested in the Crown.^ The opinion asserted that, while the Crown of Great Britain enjoyed sovereignty over both, only the property of the former was vested in the Crown.
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^ Until October 29th, 2008, Britain had continued to hold that China only had suzerainty (not sovereignty) over Tibet.
  • India Banao! 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC indiabanao.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The value of the merchandise exported from Great Britain to India, which amounted in 1814 to £870,177, amounted in 1819 to £3,052,741, [this is the amount of the company's exports only, and the sum is not quite accurate.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, Britain surged ahead of its European rivals.^ With the advent of the Industrial Revolution , Britain surged ahead of its European rivals.
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^ The Industrial Revolution in Britain, and the consequent search for markets, and the rise of laissez-faire economic ideology form the background to this act.
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^ Charter Act 1833 The Industrial Revolution in Britain, and the consequent search for markets, and the rise of laissez-faire economic ideology form the background to this act.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Demand for Indian commodities was boosted by the need to sustain the troops and the economy during the war, and by the increased availability of raw materials and efficient methods of production.^ Demand for Indian commodities was boosted by the need to sustain the troops and the economy during the war, and by the increased availability of raw materials and efficient methods of production.
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^ II.1.29 —During the latter part of the reign of Charles II. and that of his successor, the number of private adventurers, or interlopers, in the Indian trade, increased in an unusual degree.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time the Chinese boom has also provided a massive market for raw materials and agricultural products from previously recession-hit economies of Brazil and Argentina as well as oil form Venezuela.

.As home to the revolution, Britain experienced higher standards of living.^ As home to the revolution, Britain experienced higher standards of living.
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^ He was also able to say that this accounted for the very high standard of living in the United Kingdom, comparatively higher at that time than in any other country in the world.
  • Early Articles by Cheddi Jagan 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.jagan.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its spiralling cycle of prosperity, demand and production had a profound influence on overseas trade.^ Its spiralling cycle of prosperity, demand and production had a profound influence on overseas trade.
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.The Company became the single largest player in the British global market.^ The Company became the single largest player in the British global market.
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^ And finally, on April 1, 1867, the Straits Settlements became a crown colony thus ending the rule of the British East India Company.
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^ I became very friendly with the old chap, who was an old British soldier who had served under the East India Company, or John Company as he called it.
  • Ancestors Magazine Issue 57 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC issuu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It reserved for itself an unassailable position in the decision-making process of the Government.^ It reserved for itself an unassailable position in the decision-making process of the Government.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ This leads to elimination of inefficient processes and ensures informed decision making.
  • http://www.bseindia.com/cirbrief/new_preview_attach.asp?id={E3B873F7-17E6-4F75-AD61-1446EDE4291C} 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bseindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

William Pyne notes in his book The Microcosm of London (1808) that
"On the 1 March 1801, the debts of the East India Company to £5,393,989 their effects to £15,404,736 and their sales increased since February 1793, from £4,988,300 to £7,602,041."

Saltpetre trade

.Sir John Banks, a businessman from Kent who negotiated an agreement between the King and the Company, began his career in a syndicate arranging contracts for victualling the navy, an interest he kept up for most of his life.^ Sir John Banks , a businessman from Kent who negotiated an agreement between the King and the Company, began his career in a syndicate arranging contracts for victualling the navy, an interest he kept up for most of his life.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first event occurred when the leaders of the "John Company" or, East India Trade Co., began to loose touch with the native soldiers who were called Sepoys.
  • First war of independence: 1857 - India Forum Discussions 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.india-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of them departed to Pakistan and a few who stayed behind stayed long enough to wind up their affairs and dispose of their property.

.He knew Pepys and John Evelyn and founded a substantial fortune from the Levant and Indian trades.^ He knew Pepys and John Evelyn and founded a substantial fortune from the Levant and Indian trades.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1990, he founded Glopec International Inc, a global Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients/Fine Chemicals trading company and was instrumental in USFDA approvals of many Indian pharmaceutical companies.
  • Panel Speakers: India Business Conference 2009, Columbia Business School, Columbia University, New York, NY 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www0.gsb.columbia.edu [Source type: News]

.He also became a Director and later, as Governor of the East Indian Company in 1672, he was able to arrange a contract which included a loan of £20,000 and £30,000 worth of saltpetre for the King 'at the price it shall sell by the candle'[citation needed] - that is by auction - where an inch of candle burned and as long as it was alight bidding could continue.^ He also became a Director and later, as Governor of the East Indian Company in 1672, he was able to arrange a contract which included a loan of £20,000 and £30,000 worth of saltpetre for the King 'at the price it shall sell by the candle' [ citation needed ] - that is by auction - where an inch of candle burned and as long as it was alight bidding could continue.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The East India Company has had a long lasting impact on the Indian Subcontinent.
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^ He also became a Director and later, as Governor of the East Indian Company in 1672, he was able to arrange a contract which included a loan of £20,000 and £30,000 worth of saltpetre for the King 'at the price it shall sell by the candle'[ citation needed ] - that is by auction - where an inch of candle burned and as long as it was alight bidding could continue.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The agreement also included with the price 'an allowance of interest which is to be expressed in tallies.'^ The agreement also included with the price 'an allowance of interest which is to be expressed in tallies.'
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.February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This was something of a breakthrough in royal prerogative because previous requests for the King to buy at the Company's auctions had been turned down as 'not honourable or decent.'^ This was something of a breakthrough in royal prerogative because previous requests for the King to buy at the Company's auctions had been turned down as 'not honourable or decent.'
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^ He also became a Director and later, as Governor of the East Indian Company in 1672, he was able to arrange a contract which included a loan of £20,000 and £30,000 worth of saltpetre for the King 'at the price it shall sell by the candle' [ citation needed ] - that is by auction - where an inch of candle burned and as long as it was alight bidding could continue.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also became a Director and later, as Governor of the East Indian Company in 1672, he was able to arrange a contract which included a loan of £20,000 and £30,000 worth of saltpetre for the King 'at the price it shall sell by the candle'[ citation needed ] - that is by auction - where an inch of candle burned and as long as it was alight bidding could continue.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Outstanding debts were also agreed and the Company permitted to export 250 tons of saltpetre.^ Outstanding debts were also agreed and the Company permitted to export 250 tons of saltpetre.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cr Debt (February 27, 2007) The Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL) is planning to raise Rs.
  • News Analysis @ whatisindia.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.whatisindia.com [Source type: News]

^ Again in 1673, Banks successfully negotiated another contract for 700 tons of saltpetre at £37,000 between the King and the Company.
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.Again in 1673, Banks successfully negotiated another contract for 700 tons of saltpetre at £37,000 between the King and the Company.^ Again in 1673, Banks successfully negotiated another contract for 700 tons of saltpetre at £37,000 between the King and the Company.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sir John Banks , a businessman from Kent who negotiated an agreement between the King and the Company, began his career in a syndicate arranging contracts for victualling the navy, an interest he kept up for most of his life.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also became a Director and later, as Governor of the East Indian Company in 1672, he was able to arrange a contract which included a loan of £20,000 and £30,000 worth of saltpetre for the King 'at the price it shall sell by the candle' [ citation needed ] - that is by auction - where an inch of candle burned and as long as it was alight bidding could continue.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So urgent was the need to supply the armed forces in the United Kingdom, America and elsewhere that the authorities sometimes turned a blind eye on the untaxed sales.^ So urgent was the need to supply the armed forces in the United Kingdom, America and elsewhere that the authorities sometimes turned a blind eye on the untaxed sales.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, the force of logic dictates the conclusion that the aggressor should withdraw his armed forces, and the United Nations should see that Pakistan gets out of the State.

^ Governor-General Dalhousie composed an ultimatum to Wajid Ali Shah: turn over the Kingdom of Oudh or the British would use military force.
  • First war of independence: 1857 - India Forum Discussions 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.india-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One governor of the Company was even reported as saying in 1864 that he would rather have the saltpetre made than the tax on salt.^ One governor of the Company was even reported as saying in 1864 that he would rather have the saltpetre made than the tax on salt.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chengaloo – An ancestor of this family is reported to have been of a light heart and would not conceal his happiness and excitement even over small gains.

^ "It is to be hoped," wrote the governor, "that the company would thus have a true and sure man and would be served by nobody else better than by him."
  • Tonio Andrade | The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War against China, 1621–1662 | Journal of World History, 15.4 | The History Cooperative 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

The basis for the monopoly

Colonial monopoly

Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, became the first British Governor of Bengal.
.The Seven Years' War (1756 – 1763) resulted in the defeat of the French forces and limited French imperial ambitions, also stunting the influence of the industrial revolution in French territories.^ Imperial sentiments emerged during the era of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic wars, and the Industrial Revolution.
  • First war of independence: 1857 - India Forum Discussions 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.india-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further information: Great Britain in the Seven Years War The Seven Years' War (1756 – 1763) resulted in the defeat of the French forces and limited French imperial ambitions, also stunting the influence of the industrial revolution in French territories.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Afghanistan, the coalition forces led by US imperialism is facing serious war of resistance from the people.

.Robert Clive, the Governor General, led the Company to an astounding victory against Joseph François Dupleix, the commander of the French forces in India, and recaptured Fort St George from the French.^ Robert Clive , the Governor General, led the Company to an astounding victory against Joseph François Dupleix , the commander of the French forces in India, and recaptured Fort St George from the French.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquis of Hastings led to the Company gaining control of all India, except for the Punjab, Sindh and Nepal.
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^ By 1647, the Company had 23 factories, each under the command of a factor or master merchant and governor if so chosen, and 90 employees in India.
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.The Company took this respite to seize Manila[17] in 1762. By the Treaty of Paris (1763), the French were allowed to maintain their trade posts only in small enclaves in Pondicherry, Mahe, Karikal, Yanam, and Chandernagar without any military presence.^ Plan of the Companys Trading post at Djambi.
  • Comprehensive Atlas of the Dutch United East India Company. Volume III: Malay Archipelago and Oceania. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.maphist.com [Source type: General]

^ The Company took this respite to seize Manila [ 15 ] in 1762.
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^ It shall however not be allowed to maintain any military.

.Although these small outposts remained French possessions for the next two hundred years, French ambitions on Indian territories were effectively laid to rest, thus eliminating a major source of economic competition for the Company.^ Although these small outposts remained French possessions for the next two hundred years, French ambitions on Indian territories were effectively laid to rest, thus eliminating a major source of economic competition for the Company.
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^ Thus, the British had secured the entire region of Southern India (with the exception of small enclaves of French and local rulers), Western India and Eastern India.
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^ The French Compagnie des Indes and the English East India Company actively recruited native alliances for the next fifteen years in their struggle to control the Coast and the adjacent Carnatic province.
  • First war of independence: 1857 - India Forum Discussions 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.india-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, the Company, fresh from a colossal victory, and with the backing of a disciplined and experienced army, was able to assert its interests in the Carnatic from its base at Madras and in Bengal from Calcutta, without facing any further obstacles from other colonial powers.^ In contrast, the Company, fresh from a colossal victory, and with the backing of a disciplined and experienced army, was able to assert its interests in the Carnatic from its base at Madras and in Bengal from Calcutta , without facing any further obstacles from other colonial powers.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mao and Zhou en-lai asserted that Nehru’s India (with its socialist and anti-colonial pretensions) surely couldn’t base its arguments on a colonial-era treaty.
  • India Banao! 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC indiabanao.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2006 the people of Lebanon led by the Hizbollah put up a heroic and world inspiring resistance to the US-backed Israeli aggression and defeated the powerful Israeli army.

[citation needed]

Military expansion

.The Company continued to experience resistance from local rulers during its expansion.^ Main article: Company rule in India The Company continued to experience resistance from local rulers during its expansion.
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^ Coercive action, threats and diplomacy aided the Company in preventing the local rulers from putting up a united struggle against it.
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^ Having sided with the French during the war, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the Company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars .
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.Robert Clive led company forces against Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa(only Midnapore district) to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, resulting in the conquest of Bengal.^ Clive's victory at Battle of Plassey .
  • Time-Line 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.billbuxton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Robert Clive’s victory at the battle of Plassey in 1757, which confirmed British dominance, the Company became increasingly aggressive.
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^ (Clive demurred, accepting the diwani of Bengal only on the Company’s behalf.
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

.This victory estranged the British and the Mughals, since Siraj Ud Daulah was a Mughal feudatory ally.^ This victory estranged the British and the Mughals , since Siraj Ud Daulah was a Mughal feudatory ally.
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^ The British first established a territorial foothold in the Indian subcontinent when Company-funded soldiers commanded by Robert Clive defeated the Nawab of Bengal - Siraj Ud Daulah at the Battle of Plassey in 1757.
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Robert Clive led company forces against Siraj Ud Daulah , the last independent Nawab of Bengal , Bihar and Orissa (only Midnapore district) to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, resulting in the conquest of Bengal .
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.But the Mughal empire was already on the wane after the demise of Aurangzeb, and was breaking up into pieces and enclaves.^ But the Mughal empire was already on the wane after the demise of Aurangzeb , and was breaking up into pieces and enclaves.
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^ A number of US companies have already expressed their keen interest in entering into business tie up with India in the field of civilian nuclear energy.

^ Jul 1589 Kashmir incorporated into (Mughal) Empire of Hind.

.After the Battle of Buxar, Shah Alam II, the ruling emperor, gave up the administrative rights over Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa (only Midnapore district, rest of Orissa was under the rule of Maratha and Nizam of Hyderabad).^ After the Battle of Buxar , Shah Alam II , the ruling emperor, gave up the administrative rights over Bengal, Bihar , and Orissa (only Midnapore district, rest of Orissa was under the rule of Maratha and Nizam of Hyderabad ).
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^ Robert Clive led company forces against Siraj Ud Daulah , the last independent Nawab of Bengal , Bihar and Orissa (only Midnapore district) to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, resulting in the conquest of Bengal .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Honourable Dr. B. R. Ambedkar : (i) The Central Electricity Board is the authority set up under section 36-A of the Indian Electricity Act, 1910, for making rules under Section 37 of that Act.
  • 44E5. Dr. Ambedkar As The Member of Ex.Gov.Gen.Council QA 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Clive thus became the first British Governor of Bengal.^ Clive thus became the first British Governor of Bengal.
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^ Robert Clive , 1st Baron Clive, became the first British Governor of Bengal .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Thus, Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General of India .
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.Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan, the legendary rulers of Mysore (in Carnatic, modern day Indian state of Karnataka - capital city Bangalore), gave a tough time to the British forces.^ Benares is the capital city of the Indian religion.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan , the legendary rulers of Mysore (in Carnatic, modern day Indian state of Karnataka - capital city Bangalore ), gave a tough time to the British forces.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Political Department of the British Government of India was divided into two separate Political Departments – the Political Department of Pakistan to deal with the Indian Princely States.

.Having sided with the French during the war, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the Company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.^ Having sided with the French during the war, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the Company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ It was during these campaigns, both against Mysore and the Marathas, that Arthur Wellesley , later Duke of Wellington , first showed the abilities which would lead to victory in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo .
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^ Coercive action, threats and diplomacy aided the Company in preventing the local rulers from putting up a united struggle against it.
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.Mysore finally fell to the Company forces in 1799, with the slaying of Tipu Sultan.^ During an interview with the Company in 1781, 12-year-old John Malcolm was asked what he would do if he met the Sultan of Mysore.
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^ By J.R.Henderson Southern Indian Coins of Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan 1763 to 1799.

.With the gradual weakening of the Maratha empire in the aftermath of the three Anglo-Maratha wars, the British also secured Bombay and the surrounding areas.^ With the gradual weakening of the Maratha empire in the aftermath of the three Anglo-Maratha wars , the British also secured Bombay and the surrounding areas.
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^ Indian rulers remembered the defeats they had suffered from the British in the Second Maratha War.
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^ V. Blacker, Memoir of the British Army in India during the Maratha War of 1817, 1818, 1819 (London: 1821).
  • Pindari Society and the Establishment of British Paramountcy in India- McEldowney 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was during these campaigns, both against Mysore and the Marathas, that Arthur Wellesley, later Duke of Wellington, first showed the abilities which would lead to victory in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo.^ It was during these campaigns, both against Mysore and the Marathas, that Arthur Wellesley , later Duke of Wellington , first showed the abilities which would lead to victory in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These victories persuaded Benito Mussolini of Italy to join the war on Hitler’s side on 10 June 1940.
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^ To achieve victory in revolution, these are the three magic weapons which would have to be built and strengthened step by step from the very beginning.

.A particularly notable engagement involving forces under his command was the Battle of Assaye.^ A particularly notable engagement involving forces under his command was the Battle of Assaye .
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^ There is a strong case to be made for Britain taking command of the security element of a post-war force under the overall command of Gen.

^ Coalition forces, operating under the existing command authorities and not the United Nations, must be entrusted with the security of post-Saddam Iraq.

.Thus, the British had secured the entire region of Southern India (with the exception of small enclaves of French and local rulers), Western India and Eastern India.^ Thus, the British had secured the entire region of Southern India (with the exception of small enclaves of French and local rulers), Western India and Eastern India.
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^ By Srinivasa S Raghava Iyengar Including the state of the Country and the condition of the People in former Centuries; the condition of the Presidency at the end of the 18th Century when most of the provinces of Southern India were acquired by the British; Conditions of Agriculture; Economic Conditions; Local and Munciple Administration and Legislation.

^ The region included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom [1] (contemporaneously, "British India") as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown .
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The last vestiges of local administration were restricted to the northern regions of Delhi, Oudh, Rajputana, and Punjab, where the Company's presence was ever increasing amidst the infighting and dubious offers of protection against each other.^ The last vestiges of local administration were restricted to the northern regions of Delhi, Oudh , Rajputana , and Punjab , where the Company's presence was ever increasing amidst the infighting and dubious offers of protection against each other.
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^ Goldman executives, frightened by the growing anger against their company, are taking up guns to protect themselves.
  • Economic News and Analysis, 2009 Archive | EconomyWatch.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.economywatch.com [Source type: News]

^ A motion for the papers relative to the negotiations which Mr. Hastings had carried on at Delhi in the last months of his administration, was also made, and urged with great importunity.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Coercive action, threats and diplomacy aided the Company in preventing the local rulers from putting up a united struggle against it.^ Coercive action, threats and diplomacy aided the Company in preventing the local rulers from putting up a united struggle against it.
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^ Goldman executives, frightened by the growing anger against their company, are taking up guns to protect themselves.
  • Economic News and Analysis, 2009 Archive | EconomyWatch.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.economywatch.com [Source type: News]

^ As its influence spread during the 1750s, the Company came up against growing opposition from both Indian rulers and French forces, often fighting together against a common enemy.
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.The hundred years from the Battle of Plassey in 1757 to the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 were a period of consolidation for the Company, which began to function more as a nation and less as a trading concern.^ This revolution will come a hundred years from the Battle of Plassey.
  • First war of independence: 1857 - India Forum Discussions 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.india-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hundred years from the Battle of Plassey in 1757 to the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 were a period of consolidation for the Company, which began to function more as a nation and less as a trading concern.
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^ The charter awarded the newly formed company, for a period of fifteen years, a monopoly of trade (known today as a patent) with all countries to the east of the Cape of Good Hope and to the west of the Straits of Magellan .
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.The first cholera pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. 10,000 British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic.^ British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic .
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^ The first cholera pandemic began in Bengal , then spread across India by 1820.
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^ Main article: Indian Rebellion of 1857 The Indian Rebellion of 1857, known to the British as the "Great Mutiny", but to Indians as the "First War of Independence", resulted in widespread devastation in India and condemnation of the Company for permitting the events to occur.
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[18] .Between 1736 and 1834 only some 10% of East India Company's officers survived to take the final voyage home.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 1736 and 1834 only some 10% of East India Company's officers survived to take the final voyage home.
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^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
  • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]

Opium trade

.In the eighteenth century, Britain had a huge trade deficit with Qing Dynasty China and so in 1773, the Company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal.^ April 27, 1773 - The British Parliament passed the Tea Act, a bill designed to save East India Company, grant it monopoly on American tea trade; low tax allowed East India Company to undercut even tea smuggled into America by Dutch traders.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For discussions of late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century British public consciousness, see J. R. Oldfield, Popular Politics and British Anti-Slavery: The Mobilisation of Public Opinion against the Slave Trade, 1787–1807 (New York, 1995); Jeremy Osborn, "India and the East India Company in the Public Sphere of Eighteenth-Century Britain," in The Worlds of the East India Company , ed.
  • Richard B. Allen | Suppressing a Nefarious Traffic: Britain and the Abolition of Slave Trading in India and the Western Indian Ocean, 1770–1830 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.4 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IN THE EARLY seventeenth century, the Dutch East India Company stormed into Chinese waters, intent on doing business in China.
  • Tonio Andrade | The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War against China, 1621–1662 | Journal of World History, 15.4 | The History Cooperative 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As opium trade was illegal in China, Company ships could not carry opium to China.^ As opium trade was illegal in China, Company ships could not carry opium to China.
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^ Main article: Opium Wars In the eighteenth century, Britain had a huge trade deficit with Qing Dynasty China and so in 1773, the Company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal .
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^ The proceeds from drug-runners at Lintin Island were paid into the Company’s factory at Canton and by 1825, most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade.
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.So the opium produced in Bengal was sold in Calcutta on condition that it be sent to China.^ So the opium produced in Bengal was sold in Calcutta on condition that it be sent to China.
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[20]
.Despite the Chinese ban on opium imports, reaffirmed in 1799, it was smuggled into China from Bengal by traffickers and agency houses (such as Jardine, Matheson and Company, Ltd.) averaging 900 tons a year.^ Despite the Chinese ban on opium imports, reaffirmed in 1799, it was smuggled into China from Bengal by traffickers and agency houses (such as Jardine, Matheson and Company, Ltd.
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^ The proceeds from drug-runners at Lintin Island were paid into the Company’s factory at Canton and by 1825, most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade.
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^ Main article: Opium Wars In the eighteenth century, Britain had a huge trade deficit with Qing Dynasty China and so in 1773, the Company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal .
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The proceeds from drug-runners at Lintin Island were paid into the Company’s factory at Canton and by 1825, most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade.^ As opium trade was illegal in China, Company ships could not carry opium to China.
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^ In 1711, the Company established a trading post in Canton ( Guangzhou ), China , to trade tea for silver .
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^ The proceeds from drug-runners at Lintin Island were paid into the Company’s factory at Canton and by 1825, most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade.
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.In 1838, with opium smuggling approaching 1400 tons a year, the Chinese imposed a death penalty on opium smuggling and sent a new governor, Lin Zexu to curb smuggling.^ In 1838, with opium smuggling approaching 1400 tons a year, the Chinese imposed a death penalty on opium smuggling and sent a new governor, Lin Zexu to curb smuggling.
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^ It’s a crude form of right anti-capitalism that seems to be finding new expression, 70 years after Trotsky’s death.
  • The scandal deepens – IPCC AR4 riddled with non peer reviewed WWF papers « Watts Up With That? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was good news, but Putmans and his colleagues were skeptical: "the Chinese have now for years tried to keep us satisfied only with frivolous and sweet words."
  • Tonio Andrade | The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War against China, 1621–1662 | Journal of World History, 15.4 | The History Cooperative 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This finally resulted in the First Opium War, eventually leading to the British seizure of Hong Kong.^ This finally resulted in the First Opium War , eventually leading to the British seizure of Hong Kong .
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^ British acquire Hong Kong .
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^ Main article: Indian Rebellion of 1857 The Indian Rebellion of 1857, known to the British as the "Great Mutiny", but to Indians as the "First War of Independence", resulted in widespread devastation in India and condemnation of the Company for permitting the events to occur.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Regulation of the company's affairs

Two ships in a harbor, one in the distance. Onboard, men stripped to the waist and wearing feathers in their hair are throwing crates overboard. A large crowd, mostly men, is standing on the dock, waving hats and cheering. A few people wave their hats from windows in a nearby building.
Monopolistic activity by the company triggered the Boston Tea Party.

Financial troubles

.Though the Company was becoming increasingly bold and ambitious in putting down resisting states, it was getting clearer day by day that the Company was incapable of governing the vast expanse of the captured territories.^ Though the Company was becoming increasingly bold and ambitious in putting down resisting states, it was getting clearer day by day that the Company was incapable of governing the vast expanse of the captured territories.
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^ I shall state to you, as shortly as I am able, the conduct of the Company; 1st, towards the landed interests; next, the commercial interests; 3dly, the native government; and lastly, to their own government.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Much of what happened those days, has been covered under false propaganda by the Government of India as well as the Government of Pakistan and the Interim Government which was instituted in Jammu and Kashmir after the accession of the State to India.

.The Bengal famine, in which one-third of the local population died, set the alarm bells ringing back home.^ The Bengal famine , in which one-third of the local population died, set the alarm bells ringing back home.
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^ Burrabazar Blaze - Alarm bell on Local Governance Posted on January 14th, 2008 by yossarin and read 1,277 times.
  • » 2008 » January - Blogger News Network 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bloggernews.net [Source type: General]

^ There are records of Western Union transactions through which NGOS in Gaya received funds which are sending alarm bells ringing through the administration.

.Military and administrative costs mounted beyond control in British administered regions in Bengal due to the ensuing drop in labour productivity.^ Military and administrative costs mounted beyond control in British administered regions in Bengal due to the ensuing drop in labour productivity.
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^ Burma was separated from the administration of the British Indian Empire in 1937 and directly administered thereafter; it received independence from the UK in 1948 as the Union of Burma .
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^ In addition to a formidable military presence, the British commanded an army of administrators at home and abroad.
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.At the same time, there was commercial stagnation and trade depression throughout Europe following the lull in the post-Industrial Revolution period.^ At the same time, there was commercial stagnation and trade depression throughout Europe following the lull in the post- Industrial Revolution period.
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^ One of the policies we have been following is to make sure that, at such time as committee work is approved, the appropriate budget is approved at the same time so that we know what we are getting into.
  • Debates-Issue 158 (September 14, 1999) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the same time that the tribute trade system itself was falling into desuetude, and the two developments had grave consequences for China's maritime security.
  • Tonio Andrade | The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War against China, 1621–1662 | Journal of World History, 15.4 | The History Cooperative 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The desperate directors of the company attempted to avert bankruptcy by appealing to Parliament for financial help.^ The desperate directors of the company attempted to avert bankruptcy by appealing to Parliament for financial help.
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^ Obama recently announced dramatic changes to US financial regulations in an attempt to avert future meltdowns.
  • Economic News and Analysis, 2009 Archive | EconomyWatch.com 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.economywatch.com [Source type: News]

^ The government had already helped the Company in its financial difficulties by a remission of customs duties.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.This led to the passing of the Tea Act in 1773, which gave the Company greater autonomy in running its trade in America, and allowed it an exemption from the tea tax—which its colonial competitors were required to pay.^ This led to the passing of the Tea Act in 1773, which gave the Company greater autonomy in running its trade in America, and allowed it an exemption from the tea tax—which its colonial competitors were required to pay.
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^ East India Company Act 1773 .
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^ The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly over trade, in exchange for the biennial sum and an obligation to export a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain.
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.When the American colonists, who included tea merchants, were told of the act, they tried to boycott it, claiming that, although the price had gone down on the tea when enforcing the act, it was a tax all the same, and the king should not have the right to just have a tax for no apparent reason.^ When the American colonists, who included tea merchants, were told of the act, they tried to boycott it, claiming that, although the price had gone down on the tea when enforcing the act, it was a tax all the same, and the king should not have the right to just have a tax for no apparent reason.
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^ But they were all on the same expanse.
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^ They have no right to secede.

.The arrival of tax-exempt Company tea, undercutting the local merchants, triggered the Boston Tea Party in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, one of the major events leading up to the American Revolution.^ The arrival of tax-exempt Company tea, undercutting the local merchants, triggered the Boston Tea Party in the Province of Massachusetts Bay , one of the major events leading up to the American Revolution .
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^ Monopolistic activity by the company triggered the Boston Tea Party .
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^ April 27, 1773 - The British Parliament passed the Tea Act, a bill designed to save East India Company, grant it monopoly on American tea trade; low tax allowed East India Company to undercut even tea smuggled into America by Dutch traders.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

Regulating Acts of Parliament

East India Company Act 1773
.By this Act (13 Geo.^ By this Act (13 Geo.
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^ East India Company Act 1773 By this Act (13 Geo.
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III, c. .63), the Parliament of Great Britain imposed a series of administrative and economic reforms and by doing so clearly established its sovereignty and ultimate control over the Company.^ Parliament of Great Britain imposed a series of administrative and economic reforms and by doing so clearly established its sovereignty and ultimate control over the Company.
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^ By the very terms of the lease, then, the U.S. exercises at least as much control over GTMO as the East India Company exercised over India between 1773 and 1813, notwithstanding the lack of "ultimate sovereignty" for both.
  • Daily Kos: Habeas History: GTMO is The British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The formal title of the institution more commonly known as the Board of Control or the India Board, established by Act of Parliament in 1784 to 'superintend, direct and control' the East India Company's civil and military government and the business connected with its Indian revenues.
  • Dictionary & Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC indiafamily.bl.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Act recognized the Company's political functions and clearly established that the "acquisition of sovereignty by the subjects of the Crown is on behalf of the Crown and not in its own right."
.Despite stiff resistance from the East India lobby in parliament, and from the Company's shareholders, the Act was passed.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
  • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It introduced substantial governmental control, and allowed the land to be formally under the control of the Crown, but leased to the Company at £40,000 for two years.^ It introduced substantial governmental control, and allowed the land to be formally under the control of the Crown, but leased to the Company at £40,000 for two years.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ballantyne accepted a lump sum pay-off of CI$295,000 for the two years remaining on his contract, and was indemnified for any claim arising from his official capacity.

.Under this provision, the governor of Bengal Warren Hastings was promoted to the rank of Governor General, having administrative powers over all of British India.^ Warren Hastings being named in the act as governor general of India.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Secured British power over Bengal.
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^ Cornwallis replaces Hastings as governor-general .
  • Time-Line 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.billbuxton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It provided that his nomination, though made by a court of directors, should in future be subject to the approval of a Council of Four appointed by the Crown - namely Lt. General John Clavering, George Monson, Richard Barwell and Philip Francis. .He was entrusted with the power of peace and war.^ He was entrusted with the power of peace and war.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.British judicial personnel would also be sent to India to administer the British legal system.^ What is now Iraq was, immediately after World War I, administered by the India Office of the British government.
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some wanted to support the British during the Battle of Britain , believing the UK would keep its word of granting India independance once the war was won.
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new India that was coming into being, the British India whose foundation Paul Benfield had helped to finance, would have no place for men like him.
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Governor General and the council would have complete legislative powers.^ The Governor General and the council would have complete legislative powers.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lord Cornwallis , that the powers of the Governor-General be enlarged to empower him, in special cases, to override the majority of his Council and act on his own special responsibility.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They consulted the Solicitor-General, Wedderburne, who had sufficient power over technical language to satisfy them completely.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General of India.^ Clive thus became the first British Governor of Bengal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also established the post of Governor-General of India , the first occupant of which was Warren Hastings .
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warren Hastings being named in the act as governor general of India.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly over trade, in exchange for the biennial sum and an obligation to export a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain.^ The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly over trade, in exchange for the biennial sum and an obligation to export a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The charter awarded the newly formed company, for a period of fifteen years, a monopoly of trade (known today as a patent) with all countries to the east of the Cape of Good Hope and to the west of the Straits of Magellan .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Opium Wars In the eighteenth century, Britain had a huge trade deficit with Qing Dynasty China and so in 1773, the Company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The costs of administration were also to be met by the company.^ The costs of administration were also to be met by the company.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These provisions, initially welcomed by the Company, backfired.^ These provisions, initially welcomed by the Company, backfired.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among these provisions was one requiring the Company to keep a stock at least equal to one year's consumption according to the demand of the preceding year, and in 1745 the Legislature (18 Geo.
  • The STRIPED FLAG of the EAST INDIA COMPANY, and its CONNEXION with the AMERICAN "STARS and STRIPES" 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Company had an annual burden on its back, and its finances continued steadily to decline.^ The Company had an annual burden on its back, and its finances continued steadily to decline.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
East India Company Act (Pitt's India Act) 1784
.The India Act of 1784 (24 Geo.^ Dundas had permitted a proper inquiry to be instituted in 1785, as the act of 24 Geo.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pitt's India Act (1784) established reorganization and regulation of the East India Company's Indian administration, and placed the company under Parliament's responsibility.
  • First war of independence: 1857 - India Forum Discussions 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.india-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

III, s. 2, c. 25) had two key aspects:
.
  • Relationship to the British government: the bill differentiated the East India Company's political functions from its commercial activities.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
    • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
    • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ East India Company; India--History--18th century; Great Britain--Politics and government--18th century.
    • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

    .In political matters the East India Company was subordinated to the British government directly.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
    • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
    • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
    • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .To accomplish this, the Act created a Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India, usually referred to as the Board of Control.^ Aug 1858 British Act of Parliament annexes the Empire, creating British India (effective 1 Nov 1858).

    ^ The formal title of the institution more commonly known as the Board of Control or the India Board, established by Act of Parliament in 1784 to 'superintend, direct and control' the East India Company's civil and military government and the business connected with its Indian revenues.
    • Dictionary & Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC indiafamily.bl.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Board of Control, which performs a portion of the double Government of India, is a Government office which was established in 1784.
    • The Government of India and the Mutinies 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The members of the Board were the Chancellor of the Exchequer, a Secretary of State, and four Privy Councillors, nominated by the King.^ The members of the Board were the Chancellor of the Exchequer , a Secretary of State , and four Privy Councillors , nominated by the King.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kary Shankar has been our chief executive officer, secretary and a member of our board of directors since our inception.
    • As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 6, 2006 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hence the formal induction of the Plebiscite Administrator was to be made by the State Government although he was to be nominated by the UN Secretary General.

    The act specified that the Secretary of State "shall preside at, and be President of the said Board".
  • Internal Administration of British India: the bill laid the foundation for the centralized and bureaucratic British administration of India which would reach its peak at the beginning of the twentieth century during the governor-generalship of George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Baron Curzon.
.
The expanded East India House, Leadenhall Street, London, as rebuilt 1799-1800, Richard Jupp, architect (as seen c.
^ Meanwhile, the Company expanded its headquarters at the magnificent East India House in Leadenhall Street.
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^ The expanded East India House , Leadenhall Street, London, as rebuilt 1799-1800, Richard Jupp , architect (as seen c.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In London, HEIC civil servants were based at East India House, surrounded by classical allegories of conquest and commerce.
  • Ancestors Magazine Issue 57 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC issuu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1817; demolished in 1929)
.Pitt's Act was deemed a failure because it quickly became apparent that the boundaries between government control and the company's powers were nebulous and highly subjective.^ Pitt's Act was deemed a failure because it quickly became apparent that the boundaries between government control and the company's powers were nebulous and highly subjective.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government of India Presses, their Works Committees and Workers Unions, were invited by the Controller of Printing and Stationery on the subject; .
  • 44E5. Dr. Ambedkar As The Member of Ex.Gov.Gen.Council QA 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Government regarding the necessities of control and as to the areas in which surplus electric power is likely to be available; and .
  • 44E5. Dr. Ambedkar As The Member of Ex.Gov.Gen.Council QA 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The government also felt obliged to respond to humanitarian calls for better treatment of local peoples in British-occupied territories.^ The government also felt obliged to respond to humanitarian calls for better treatment of local peoples in British-occupied territories.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cameron needs to get on the front foot immediately, if he doesn't then the British people need to take up arms against this disgusting government.
  • Damian Green arrest shows how Labour is destroying our political system - Telegraph 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ While the intention of the British Government was to secure The privileges of the Princes, the representatives of the people must have the primary consideration of promoting the greatest good of the common people.

.Edmund Burke, a former East India Company shareholder and diplomat, was moved to address the situation and introduced a new Regulating Bill in 1783. The bill was defeated, however, due to intense lobbying by company loyalists and accusations of nepotism in the bill's recommendations for the appointment of councillors.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
  • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Act of 1786
.This Act (26 Geo.^ This Act (26 Geo.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

III c. .16) enacted the demand of Lord Cornwallis, that the powers of the Governor-General be enlarged to empower him, in special cases, to override the majority of his Council and act on his own special responsibility.^ Cornwallis replaces Hastings as governor-general .
  • Time-Line 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.billbuxton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lord Cornwallis , that the powers of the Governor-General be enlarged to empower him, in special cases, to override the majority of his Council and act on his own special responsibility.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Governor General and the council would have complete legislative powers.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Act also enabled the offices of the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief to be jointly held by the same official.^ The same bill introduced another innovation, which was, to enable the offices of Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief, to be united in the same person.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Act also enabled the offices of the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief to be jointly held by the same official.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lord Cornwallis , that the powers of the Governor-General be enlarged to empower him, in special cases, to override the majority of his Council and act on his own special responsibility.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This Act clearly demarcated borders between the Crown and the Company.^ The Anglo-Nepal War of 1814 and the subsequent treaty of peace signed between Nepal and the East India Company on December 8, 1816 resulted in the delimitation and delineation of Nepal-India border.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the signing of the Sugauli Treaty between Nepal and India and subsequent demarcation of the Nepal India boundary, there existed free and unrestricted movement of people of Nepal and India across the border.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the Act of 1833 these arbitrary powers were materially limited, and thenceforth the real and personal property of the Company was to be held in trust for the Crown for the service of India.
  • The Government of India and the Mutinies 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.After this point, the Company functioned as a regularized subsidiary of the Crown, with greater accountability for its actions and reached a stable stage of expansion and consolidation.^ As to the double Government of India, it is in itself doubtless a great evil; but, practically, the Government may now be said to be in the hands of the Crown, though the Company is also accountable.
  • The Government of India and the Mutinies 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.Having temporarily achieved a state of truce with the Crown, the Company continued to expand its influence to nearby territories through threats and coercive actions.^ This may, however, be due to the incomplete state of the records or to usage rather than any formal order of the Company, having led to the adoption of these colours (1) .
  • The STRIPED FLAG of the EAST INDIA COMPANY, and its CONNEXION with the AMERICAN "STARS and STRIPES" 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ II.1.56 —Notwithstanding the vast extension of the company's territories, their trade continued to be apparently insignificant.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1764 after having won at Buxar from the political and military point of view the English East India Company (EEIC) was the master of north India at least as far as all territory of the Oudh state extended.
  • The Causes Of The Rebellion 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the middle of the 19th century, the Company's rule extended across most of India, Burma, Malaya, Singapore and Hong Kong, and a fifth of the world's population was under its trading influence.^ India is the world’s second most populous country.
  • As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 6, 2006 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon after arriving in India in 1608, the Company managed to gain favor with the ruler of most of India at the time, Mughal Emperor Jahangir.
  • Daily Kos: Habeas History: GTMO is The British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All these factors contributed to a loss of missionary dynamism in the church from the end of the 15th century to the middle of the 19th century.
  • East of the Euphrates: Early Christianity in Asia 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.religion-online.org [Source type: Original source]

Charter Act 1813
.The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquis of Hastings led to the Company gaining control of all India, except for the Punjab, Sindh and Nepal.^ The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquis of Hastings led to the Company gaining control of all India, except for the Punjab, Sindh and Nepal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wellesley, however, successfully reversed this policy during his rule on the pretense of a French danger in India.
  • Pindari Society and the Establishment of British Paramountcy in India- McEldowney 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wellesley was the first to recognize that the British must destroy the Pindaris to attain control of India.
  • Pindari Society and the Establishment of British Paramountcy in India- McEldowney 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Indian Princes had become vassals of the Company.^ The Indian Princes had become vassals of the Company.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the expense of wars leading to the total control of India strained the Company’s finances to the breaking point.^ But the expense of wars leading to the total control of India strained the Company’s finances to the breaking point.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquis of Hastings led to the Company gaining control of all India, except for the Punjab, Sindh and Nepal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Anglo-Nepal War of 1814 and the subsequent treaty of peace signed between Nepal and the East India Company on December 8, 1816 resulted in the delimitation and delineation of Nepal-India border.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Company was forced to petition Parliament for assistance.^ The Company was forced to petition Parliament for assistance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the Nabob’s vanity, to make his consequence appear, wished rather to force them to it, by the assistance of the Company’s Troops...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In response to the growing imperative of a more formalized government and the Company's need for financial assistance, Parliament passed the East India Company Act of 1773 (13 Geo.
  • Daily Kos: Habeas History: GTMO is The British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.This was the background to the Charter Act of 1813 (53 Geo.^ Charter Act 1813 .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the background to the Charter Act of 1813 (53 Geo.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ II.1.70 —Besides the restraints imposed by the act of 1813 on the proceedings of the free traders (these restraints were a good deal modified by the act of 3 Geo.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 1, EAST INDIA COMPANY | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

III c. 155) which, among other things:
  • asserted the sovereignty of the British Crown over the Indian territories held by the Company;
  • renewed the Charter of the Company for a further twenty years but,
    • deprived the Company of its Indian trade monopoly except for trade in tea and the trade with China;
    • required the Company to maintain separate and distinct its commercial and territorial accounts; and,
  • opened India to missionaries.
Charter Act 1833
.The Industrial Revolution in Britain, and the consequent search for markets, and the rise of laissez-faire economic ideology form the background to this act.^ The Industrial Revolution in Britain, and the consequent search for markets, and the rise of laissez-faire economic ideology form the background to this act.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the USA, South Asia in general and India in particular, forms a region of possible economic growth, and, as such, a lucrative future market for American goods.
  • IPRI :: Islamabad Policy Research Institute 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipripak.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the advent of the Industrial Revolution , Britain surged ahead of its European rivals.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Act:
.
  • removed the Company's remaining trade monopolies and divested it of all its commercial functions;
  • renewed for another twenty years the Company’s political and administrative authority;
  • invested the Board of Control with full power and authority over the Company.^ It is true that the power of the Company is an anomaly in politics.

    ^ The commercial funds of the Company were blended with the political.
    • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the basis of the principle of controlling capital the state will have to take over the authority and administration of all the monopoly industries and trade.

    .As stated by Kapur Professor Sri Ram Sharma, thus, summed up the point: "The President of the Board of Control now became Minister for Indian Affairs";
  • carried further the ongoing process of administrative centralization through investing the Governor-General in Council with, full power and authority to superintend and, control the Presidency Governments in all civil and military matters;
  • initiated a machinery for the codification of laws;
  • provided that no Indian subject of the Company would be debarred from holding any office under the Company by reason of his religion, place of birth, descent or colour.^ By the Government of India Act of 1858, the powers of the Board and the Company were transferred to the Secretary of State for India in Council.
    • Dictionary & Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC indiafamily.bl.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He said a powerful governor, who would be appointed by the President, would enjoy absolute authority.

    ^ With the US economy in a bad shape, US companies and the Bush Administration now expects that the Indian Government would expedite the process.

    However, this remained a dead letter well into the 20th century;
  • vested the Island of St Helena in the Crown.
.Meanwhile, British influence continued to expand; in 1845, the Danish colony of Tranquebar was sold to Great Britain.^ Nov 1845 Tranquebar and remaining Danish India settlements sold to Britain, part of British India.

^ Oct 1845 Frederiksnagore sold to Britain.

^ Oct 1868 Danish rights to the Nicobar Islands sold to Britain, which become part of British India.

.The Company had at various stages extended its influence to China, the Philippines, and Java.^ The Company had at various stages extended its influence to China , the Philippines , and Java .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of time they will devote in any time period will vary based on whether a target business has been selected for the business combination and the stage of the business combination process the company is in.
  • As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 6, 2006 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a whole we have also succeeded in expanding and extending several areas of our strong influence in various parts of the country ranging from Assam to Punjab and from Uttarakhand to Kerala.

.It had solved its critical lack of the cash needed to buy tea by exporting Indian-grown opium to China.^ Finally, the British found the trade in opium from their Indian lands very profitable when sold in China.
  • British Empire page 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.China's efforts to end the trade led to the First Opium War with Britain.^ South and South East Asia - the Company retained its monopoly on trade between Britain and India until 1813 and between Britain and China until 1833.
  • Dictionary & Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC indiafamily.bl.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jon, who led the 2006 Ancestors tour to the Somme, is a specialist in military history, and author of numerous books on the First World War.
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^ Whoever led them, the pirates of Taiwan were a nuisance for the company, interfering with their attempts to trade in China.
  • Tonio Andrade | The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War against China, 1621–1662 | Journal of World History, 15.4 | The History Cooperative 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Charter Act 1853
.This Act provided that British India would remain under the administration of the Company in trust for the Crown until Parliament should decide otherwise.^ As a specialist in this period of South Asian history, I have very few quibbles with what you've written -- the trade scene was actually wide-open until the late 17th/early 18th centuries, and British-occupied India remained technically under Company Raj until the 1857 Revolt -- but find the substance is completely superb.
  • Daily Kos: Habeas History: GTMO is The British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 27, 1773 - The British Parliament passed the Tea Act, a bill designed to save East India Company, grant it monopoly on American tea trade; low tax allowed East India Company to undercut even tea smuggled into America by Dutch traders.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

Indian Rebellion of 1857-8

.The Indian Rebellion of 1857, known to the British as the "Great Mutiny", but to Indians as the "First War of Independence", resulted in widespread devastation in India and condemnation of the Company for permitting the events to occur.^ East India Company: Battle of Trafalgar recreates the legendary sea battle fought between the British Royal navy and the combined fleets of the French and Spanish navies during the height of the Napoleonic wars in late 1805.

^ A series of peasant struggles and rebellions against the British colonialists and their feudal props, such as the Santhal revolt of 1854-56, culminated in the First War of Independence of 1857, which is the beginning of the Indian democratic revolution.

^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

.January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] One of the consequences was that the British government nationalized the Company.^ The British government had established one in 1716 to reduce the national debt.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply 97 Anonymous says: January 31, 2010 at 12:37 pm and likewise the population according to reports in some national dailies recently .
  • Andy Murray Cursed (Again) Loses Open - Guy Fawkes' blog 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC order-order.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Companies The British Empire was not built by government action.
  • British Empire page 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Company lost all its administrative powers; its Indian possessions, including its armed forces, were taken over by the Crown pursuant to the provisions of the Government of India Act 1858.^ Pakistan and India, the world’s newest nuclear powers, both claim all of Kashmir, the Himalayan region that straddles their border.

^ Aug 1858 British Act of Parliament annexes the Empire, creating British India (effective 1 Nov 1858).

^ The Political Department of the British Government of India was divided into two separate Political Departments – the Political Department of Pakistan to deal with the Indian Princely States.

.The Company continued to manage the tea trade on behalf of the British government (and the supply of Saint Helena) until the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act came into effect, on 1 January 1874, under the terms of which the Company was dissolved.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A grade of manager in the East India Company London warehouses.
  • Dictionary & Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC indiafamily.bl.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]

Legacy

.The East India Company has had a long lasting impact on the Indian Subcontinent.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
  • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although dissolved following the rebellion of 1857, it stimulated the growth of the British Empire.^ Linda Colley - Captives The growth of the British empire and the English and Irish slaves of the north African pirates .
  • British Empire page 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Indian Mutiny in 1857 the HEIC was taken over by the British government, which established an India Office the following year to supervise the authorities on the sub-continent.
  • Ancestors Magazine Issue 57 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC issuu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later on after 1857, the British by and large accepted it as one of the principal causes of the rebellion of 1857.
  • The Causes Of The Rebellion 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its armies after 1857 were to become the armies of British India and it played a key role in replacing the official language of India from Persian to English.^ By now the Persian had become the official language.

^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They see English colleges arising for the instruction of Hindoo women, and the English language replacing their own.
  • The Government of India and the Mutinies 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even today the English language has official status in Pakistan and India, being used by the government and civil service.^ The Political Department of the British Government of India was divided into two separate Political Departments – the Political Department of Pakistan to deal with the Indian Princely States.

^ India´s official stand is that PoK is legally a part of its territory and as such settlers can not be granted the status of refugees.

^ About 1000 British civil servants of the Indian Civil Service (ICS) ruled the whole of India (about 300 million people).
  • British Empire page 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some phrases introduced by the company are considered to be archaic in British English today, such as do the needful, but live on in the English of South Asia and are used daily.^ Additionally, the Society holds the publications of the British Association for Cemeteries in South Asia (BACSA), which is recording inscriptions from British cemeteries and churches around the sub-continent.
  • Ancestors Magazine Issue 57 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC issuu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reorganization regulated the Sepoy officers into inferior positions and introduced British line officers into the Sepoy companies.
  • First war of independence: 1857 - India Forum Discussions 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.india-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some considerations relating to the management of the affairs of the South-Sea Company (London: Printed for John Morphew, near Stationers-Hall, 1716).
  • The South Sea Bubble Collection – Baker Library | Bloomberg Center, Historical Collections 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.library.hbs.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.They are seen as the villains in the movies Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest and Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End.^ They lived as those who expected the end of the world in their own life time.
  • East of the Euphrates: Early Christianity in Asia 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.religion-online.org [Source type: Original source]

East India Club

.The East India Club in London was formed in 1849 for officers of the East India Company.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A grade of manager in the East India Company London warehouses.
  • Dictionary & Glossary 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC indiafamily.bl.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Club still exists today as a private Gentlemen's Club and its club house is situated at 16, St. James's Square, London.
.The East India Club in Edinburgh was active earlier, at least as early as August 22, 1806, when the Club hosted an evening of entertainment to honor Warren Hastings, the former Governor-General of India, then visiting the Oman Tavern in Edinburgh.^ Cornwallis replaces Hastings as governor-general .
  • Time-Line 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.billbuxton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warren Hastings appointed governor-general of India .
  • Time-Line 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.billbuxton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usman (Former member of Governor General’s Executive council and acting Governor of Madras) .

[24]

Flags

.The East India Company flag changed over time.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
  • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the period of 1600 to 1707 (Act of Union between England and Scotland) the flag consisted of a St George's cross in the canton and a number of alternating Red and White stripes.^ It was the East India flag with the red and white stripes and the blue rectangle.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article - 2: Flag : Party Flag is red in color with hammer and sickle printed in the middle in white colour.

^ That flag has seven red bars and six white bars.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.After 1707 the canton contained the original Union Flag consisting of a combined St George's cross and a St Andrew's cross.^ (AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99) 1606 Apr 12, England's King James I decreed the design of the original Union Flag (also referred to as the Union Jack), which combined the flags of England and Scotland.
  • Timeline 1600-1625 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the Act of Union 1800, that joined Ireland into the United Kingdom, the canton of the East India Company's flag was altered accordingly to include the new Union Flag with the additional St Patrick's cross.^ Papers relating to the East India Company .
  • Clements Manuscript Division Finding Aids 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC quod.lib.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The East India Company was there to stay.
  • The Causes Of The Rebellion 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oct 1774 Union of all East India Company settlements.

.There has been much debate and discussion regarding the number of stripes on the flag and the order of the stripes.^ The question was whether or not there would be a parliamentary debate, where all parties would have an opportunity to discuss and debate the issue of whether it is appropriate and feasible to send troops to East Timor.
  • Debates-Issue 158 (September 14, 1999) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Probably there’s no other Parliament in the world like the Indian Parliament that shows so much profligacy while debating supremely critical national issues.

.Historical documents and paintings show many variations from 9 to 13 stripes, with some images showing the top stripe being red and others showing the top stripe being white.^ Images of some of the collection, and an extensive educational section called "A Resource of Glass "that is used as a syllabus for many schools and researchers.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some foreigners who had been evacuated were being ferried to a nearby hospital for first aid, while others are being taken by bus to alternate accommodations.

^ Some people are fooled by your image as an embittered old man but your attachment to the notion of historical inevitability, your hatred of those who believe in God and your subtle and debilitating anti-white defeatism all point to you being an outlet for communist propaganda.
  • Our political class yaps and squeals but is incapable of rational thought – Telegraph Blogs 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.It has been suggested that the stripes were inspired by the flag of the Majapahit Empire, whose flags may still have flown across the Spice Islands in the Company's early days.^ In the alternative, we may seek to consummate a business combination with a company that may be financially unstable or in its early stages of development or growth.
  • As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 6, 2006 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Across from them can still be seen the headstone of Benjamin Catchpole, whose great-great-grandson wrote your article about the disaster.
  • Ancestors Magazine Issue 57 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC issuu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his offices in Bombay (which still exist), on the wall there is the flag of the British East India Company.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.At the time of the American Revolution the East India Company flag would have been identical to the Grand Union Flag.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
  • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The flag probably inspired the Stars and Stripes (as argued by Sir Charles Fawcett in 1937).[25] .Comparisons between the Stars and Stripes and the Company's flag from historical records present some convincing arguments.^ Nigerian Global, a joint venture company between the government, Triation AG of Switzerland and some Nigerian partners, will soon replace Nigeria Airways, they said.

^ It is difficult to present the early history of St. Thomas Christians in India as a connected story due to lack of sufficient historical records.
  • East of the Euphrates: Early Christianity in Asia 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.religion-online.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also some unique notes on the Phillimore Historical Records of the Survey of India.
  • Ancestors Magazine Issue 57 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC issuu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The John Company flag dates back to the 1600s whereas the United States adopted the Stars and Stripes in 1777.[26]
The flag of Malaysia may also be derived from the British East India Company's flag, as well as the flag of Hawai'i
The stripes and gridlike appearance of the flag gave rise to several pieces of imperial slang. .Most notably is the phrase 'riding the gridiron'; this referred to travelling on a ship flying the company flag to / from India.^ Wall later in 1792 at Penang was on the East India Company ship Duke of Buccleugh .
  • bc25 - The Blackheath Connection 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.danbyrnes.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Honourable East India Company ships associated with Light's occupation of Penang were Vansittart and Valentine .
  • bc25 - The Blackheath Connection 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.danbyrnes.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jan 1801 - 2 Aug 1858 British East India Company flag .

Ships

.A ship of the East India Company can also be called an East Indiaman.^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While Clive achieved his successes in Bengal, (or rapacity, depending on opinion), he had the support of the chairman of the East India Company, John Payne.
  • bc25 - The Blackheath Connection 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.danbyrnes.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

East India Company records

.Unlike all other British Government records, the records from the East India Company (and its successor the India Office) are not in The National Archives at Kew, London, but are stored by the British Library in London as part of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collection.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of this kind is the charter of the East India Company.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course the most extensive collection of records – the archives of the India Office, and the East India Company – are held with the British Library’s Asia Pacific and Africa Collections at www.bl.uk/collections/ asiapacificafrica.html.
  • Ancestors Magazine Issue 57 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC issuu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The catalogue is searchable online in the Access to Archives catalogues.[28] .Many of the East India Company records are freely available online under an agreement that FIBIS have with the British Library.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of this kind is the charter of the East India Company.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

Trading Again

.On 14 September 2004, the name The British East India Company Limited [1] was purchased from The British Government Agents by Captain William George MacDonald.^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Third Edition; to Which is Added a Postscript, Containing Brief Strictures on the "Preface" to Observations on the Present State of the East India Company.
  • William Carey, D. D. (1761-1834): Polemics 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wmcarey.edu [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
The Company Registered Number is now on The British Companies House Register and it is Number 3667052.
.The Company Head Office is The John Laird Centre, Park Road North, Birkenhead, Wirral, CH41 4EZ, United Kingdom.^ [Ends] Foreign Office please repeats to United Kingdom High Commissioner New Delhi and Pakistan as my telegrams Nos.

^ Welch, Jack (John Francis), 1935- ; General Electric Company--Management; Electric industries--United States--Management--Case studies.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Welch, Jack (John Francis), 1935- ; General Electric Company--Management; Electric industries--United States; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography; Leadership--United States.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.On 21 July 2006, the name and the house flag of The British East India Company Limited was trademarked on The British Trademark Registry and two certificates were issued.^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
  • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jan 1801 - 2 Aug 1858 British East India Company flag .

.The first certificate was for the name (The British East India Company Limited) - Trademark Number 2404311B (Dated 28 September 2005).^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
  • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second certificate was for The Original House Flag of The British East India Company Limited - Trademark Number 2404311A (Dated 28 September 2005).^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While Clive achieved his successes in Bengal, (or rapacity, depending on opinion), he had the support of the chairman of the East India Company, John Payne.
  • bc25 - The Blackheath Connection 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.danbyrnes.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both trademarks belong exclusively to Captain William George MacDonald who is Chairman of The British East India Company Limited.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ East India Company (1612), surgeon to .
  • p-medicine.msg 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]link title
.Indian entrepreneur Sanjiv Mehta buys The British East India Company Limited.^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
  • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
  • Chp 3, Part II: A Special Operation 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1795 the East India Company charter was relaxed sufficiently to allow British whalers entering the Pacific via Cape Horn to go as far west as long.
  • bc46 - The Blackheath Connection 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.danbyrnes.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With a $15-million investment, Mehta is poised to open the first East India Company store in London’s upmarket Mayfair neighbourhood in March.^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Banks - executive with East India Company.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The East India Company was there to stay.
  • The Causes Of The Rebellion 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

He says,“But, at an emotional level as an Indian, when you think with your heart as I do, I had this huge feeling of redemption — this indescribable feeling of owning a company that once owned us.”

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica 2008, "East India Company"
  2. ^ 1. Columbia Encyclopedia 2007, "East India Company, British". 2. Marx, Karl (June 25, 1853), "The British rule in India", New York Daily Tribune  republished in Carter, Mia; Harlow (editors), Barbara (2003), Archives of Empire, Raleigh: Duke University Press. Pp. 802, ISBN 0822331640, http://books.google.com/books?id=13pyxO8o4moC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA117,M1 . Quote (p. 118): "I do not allude to European despotism, planted upon Asiatic despotism, by the British East India Company, forming a more monstrous combination than any of the divine monsters startling us in the temple of Salsette."
  3. ^ The Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock.
  4. ^ The Register of Letters &c. of the Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies, 1600–1619. On page 3, a letter written by Elizabeth I on January 23, 1601 ("Witnes or selfe at Westminster the xxiiijth of Ianuarie in the xliijth yeare of or Reigne.") states, "Haue been pleased to giue lysence vnto or said Subjects to proceed in the said voiadgs, & for the better inabling them to establish a trade into & from the said East Indies Haue by or tres Pattents vnder or great seale of England beareing date at Westminster the last daie of december last past incorporated or said Subjecte by the name of the Gournor & Companie of the merchaunts of London trading into the East Indies, & in the same tres Pattents haue geven them the sole trade of theast Indies for the terme of XVteen yeares ..."
  5. ^ A. Oxford English Dictionary (Draft Edition, September 2008, requires subscription) entry for "honourable": "2b. Applied as an official or courtesy title of honour or distinction." Usage: ... the prefix ‘Honourable’ ... is also applied to the House of Commons collectively; ... also formerly to the East India Company, etc. Examples: 1698 FRYER Acc. E. India & P. 38 "In pay for the Honourable East India Company." B. Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911, "HONOURABLE (Fr. honorable, from Lat. honorabilis, worthy of honour), a style or title of honour common to the United Kingdom, the British colonies and the United States of America.... The epithet is also applied to the House of Commons as a body and to individual members during debate ('the honourable member for X.'). Certain other corporate bodies have, by tradition or grant, the right to bear the style; e.g. the Honourable Irish Society, the Inns of Court (Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, &c.) and the Honourable Artillery Company; the East India Company also had the prefix 'honourable' . The style may not be assumed by corporate bodies at will, as was proved in the case of the Society of Baronets, whose original style of 'Honourable' Society was dropped by command." C. Birdwood, George (1891), Report on The Old Record of the India Office, London: W. H. Allen & Co., Limited, and at Calcutta, http://books.google.com/books?id=m-WBAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA14&dq=Charter+of+1709+%22Honourable+East+India+Company%22&lr=&num=100&as_brr=1  Quote (p. 14): "The English Company [Including The General Society chartered by William III, 3rd September 1698] trading with the East , commonly called "the New Company," was incorporated by William III, 5th September 1698; its charter running to 1714. The above Company of Merchants of London and the English Company, were finally incorporated under the name of "The United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East [commonly styled, "the Honourable East India Company"] in 1708-9."
  6. ^ Hawes, Christopher J. (1996), Poor Relations: The Making of a Eurasian Community in British India, 1773-1833, London: Routledge. Pp. 217., ISBN 0700704256, http://books.google.com/books?id=d22WUEmG49IC&pg=PR13&vq=HEIC&lr=&source=gbs_search_r&cad=1_1  Quote (p. xiii): "Abbreviations: Honourable East India Company (HEIC)."
  7. ^ Ride, Lindsay; Ride, May; Mellor, Bernard (1995), An East India Company Cemetery: Protestant Burials in Macao, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. Pp. 304, ISBN 9622093841, http://books.google.com/books?id=flbXWNoVraEC&pg=PA7&dq=charter+1709+%22honourable+east+india+company%22&lr=lang_en&num=100&as_brr=3  Quote (p. 7): "In 1709, the Company amalgamated with a rival group, which had been chartered in 1698 by William III. This union took the title 'The Honourable East India Company,' which was shortened for general use to 'the Honourable Company' and more often still to John Company, until it ceased operations in 1834, after its monopoly of British trade with China was discontinued."
  8. ^ Gandhi, M. K. (1997), Hind Swaraj and other writings, (Edited by Anthony J. Parel) Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 208., ISBN 0521574315, http://books.google.com/books?id=oc47gUOPZfcC&pg=PA39&dq=%22Company+Bahadur%22#PPA39,M1 . Quote (p.39): "... They came to our country originally for the purpose of trade. Recall the Company Bahadur. Who made it Bahadur? They had not the slightest intention at the time of establishing a kingdom. Who assisted the Company's officers? Who was tempted by their silver? Who bought their goods? History testifies that we did all this. ... †: 'the Company Bahadur': an honorific title by which the East India Company was known among Indians. 'Bahadur' means brave, powerful, sovereign."
  9. ^ Sarkar, Dipanker (2010-02-14), East India Company now has n Indian owner, The Hindustan Times, http://www.hindustantimes.com/News-Feed/business/East-India-Company-now-has-an-Indian-owner/Article1-508853.aspx }}
  10. ^ Fresco, Adam (2010-02-10), With one eye firmly on the past, new chapter begins for East India Company, The Times Online, http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/retailing/article7018409.ece 
  11. ^ a b c d Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1908, p. 454
  12. ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II 1908, p. 6
  13. ^ Gardner, Brian (1972). The East India Company: a History. McCall Publishing Company. ISBN 0841501246. 
  14. ^ Indian History Sourcebook: England, India, and The East Indies, 1617 A.D
  15. ^ Thomas, P. D. G. (2008) "Pratt, Charles, first Earl Camden (1714–1794)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, online edn, accessed 15 February 2008 subscription or UK public library membership required
  16. ^ SALTPETER the secret salt - Salt made the world go round
  17. ^ Company incursion, Manila 1762-1763. See the Bib. for the citation of Sirs Draper and Cornish; see also Cushner's citation.
  18. ^ Cholera's seven pandemics. CBC News. December 2, 2008
  19. ^ Sahib: The British Soldier in India, 1750-1914 by Richard Holmes
  20. ^ EAST INDIA COMPANY FACTORY RECORDS Sources from the British Library, LondonPart 1: China and Japan
  21. ^ Anthony, Frank. Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story of the Anglo Indian Community. Second Edition. London: The Simon Wallenberg Press, 2007 Pages 18- 19, 42, 45.
  22. ^ The Times reported, "It accomplished a work such as in the whole history of the human race no other company ever attempted and as such is ever likely to attempt in the years to come."
  23. ^ Deccan Herald
  24. ^ from William Matthews Gilbert, Edinburgh in the Nineteenth Century: Being a Diary of the Chief Events Which Have Occurred in the City from 1800 A.D. to 1900 A.D., p. 44.
  25. ^ The Striped Flag Of The East India Company, And Its Connexion With The American "Stars And Stripes"
  26. ^ http://www.kimber.org/flag/index.htm
  27. ^ Sutton, Jean (1981) Lords of the East: the East India Company and its ships. London: Conway Maritime
  28. ^ A2A - Access to Archives Home

References

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    ^ The British in Asia: Trade to Dominion’ in P. J. Marshall , ed., The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford 1998) .
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    .Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

    ^ Sydney, Cambridge University Press, 1991., p.
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    ^ Robb, Peter G. The Evolution of British Policy Towards Indian Politics, 1880-1920 .

    ^ (Bowen, Revenue and Reform , variously, and Valentine, British Establishment , Vol.
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    ^ Cambridge University Press.
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    ISBN 0521403162.
     
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    ^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
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    ^ While Clive achieved his successes in Bengal, (or rapacity, depending on opinion), he had the support of the chairman of the East India Company, John Payne.
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    Rochester, NY: Brewer. ISBN 0851158773.
     
  • Brenner, Robert (1993). .Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London’s Overseas Traders, 1550–1653.^ Shiva, Vandana, The Violence of the Green Revolution: Third World Agriculture, Ecology and Politics, London, 1991.

    .Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.^ Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.

    ^ Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

    ^ Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

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    ISBN 978-0-691-04455-2.
     
  • Chaudhuri, K. N. (1965). .The English East India Company: The Study of an Early Joint-Stock Company, 1600–1640.^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
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    ^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
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    ^ Meanwhile, the Company expanded its headquarters at the magnificent East India House in Leadenhall Street.
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    London: Cass.
     
  • Chaudhuri, K. N. (1978). .The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660–1760.^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
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    ^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
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    ^ The Third Edition; to Which is Added a Postscript, Containing Brief Strictures on the "Preface" to Observations on the Present State of the East India Company.
    • William Carey, D. D. (1761-1834): Polemics 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wmcarey.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

    ^ Sydney, Cambridge University Press, 1991., p.
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    ^ Cambridge University Press.
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    .ISBN 0521217164. 
  • Farrington, Anthony (2002).^ (East India Company), Anthony Farrington (2002).
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    .Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia, 1600–1834.^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
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    ^ Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later.
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    ^ The Third Edition; to Which is Added a Postscript, Containing Brief Strictures on the "Preface" to Observations on the Present State of the East India Company.
    • William Carey, D. D. (1761-1834): Polemics 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wmcarey.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .London: British Library.^ For many years it was held in a separate archive in South London but since the mid-1990s has been available in the main British Library building.
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    ^ (London, UK: British Library, 128 p.
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    ^ Catalogue of the Jain manuscripts of the British library including the holdings of the British museum and the Victoria & London : British Library & The Institute of Jainology, 2006.
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    ISBN 0712347569. 
  • Furber, Holden (1976). Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600–1800. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. .ISBN 0816607877. 
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol.^ An essential guide for anyone who needs to find their way around British India is the Imperial Gazetteer of India at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/ gazetteer.
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    ^ Imperial Gazetteer India - Provincial series The Physical aspects of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; their History; Populations; Industries and Trade.

    .II (1908), The Indian Empire, Historical, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press.^ The Honourable Dr. B. R. Ambedkar : (i) The Central Electricity Board is the authority set up under section 36-A of the Indian Electricity Act, 1910, for making rules under Section 37 of that Act.
    • 44E5. Dr. Ambedkar As The Member of Ex.Gov.Gen.Council QA 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.

    Pp. xxxv, .1 map, 573. 
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol.^ An essential guide for anyone who needs to find their way around British India is the Imperial Gazetteer of India at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/ gazetteer.
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    ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India .

    .IV (1908), The Indian Empire, Administrative, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press.^ The Honourable Dr. B. R. Ambedkar : (i) The Central Electricity Board is the authority set up under section 36-A of the Indian Electricity Act, 1910, for making rules under Section 37 of that Act.
    • 44E5. Dr. Ambedkar As The Member of Ex.Gov.Gen.Council QA 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Political Department of the British Government of India was divided into two separate Political Departments – the Political Department of Pakistan to deal with the Indian Princely States.

    ^ Verney, Douglas V. "The Role of the Governor in India's Administrative Federalism," Indian Journal of Public Administration [New Delhi], 31, No.

    Pp. xxx, .1 map, 552. 
  • Lawson, Philip (1993).^ (East India Company), Philip Lawson (1993).
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    .The East India Company: A History.^ "The Star in the East: The Controversy over Christian Missions to India, 1805-1813," The Historian: A Journal of History 60 (1998): 507-522.
    • William Carey, D. D. (1761-1834): Polemics 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wmcarey.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ While Clive achieved his successes in Bengal, (or rapacity, depending on opinion), he had the support of the chairman of the East India Company, John Payne.
    • bc25 - The Blackheath Connection 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.danbyrnes.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Third Edition; to Which is Added a Postscript, Containing Brief Strictures on the "Preface" to Observations on the Present State of the East India Company.
    • William Carey, D. D. (1761-1834): Polemics 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wmcarey.edu [Source type: Academic]

    London: Longman. ISBN 0582073863. 
  • Sen, Sudipta (1998). .Empire of Free Trade: The East India Company and the Making of the Colonial Marketplace.^ The Third Edition; to Which is Added a Postscript, Containing Brief Strictures on the "Preface" to Observations on the Present State of the East India Company.
    • William Carey, D. D. (1761-1834): Polemics 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wmcarey.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Meanwhile, the Company expanded its headquarters at the magnificent East India House in Leadenhall Street.
    • Ancestors Magazine Issue 57 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC issuu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ East India Company--History; Great Britain--Commerce--Asia--History; Asia--Commerce--Great Britain--History.
    • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.^ Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1966.

    ^ Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978.

    ^ Philadelphia: Department of South Asia Regional Studies, University of Pennsylvania, 1990.

    ISBN 978-0812234268.
     
  • Steensgaard, Niels (1975). .The Asian Trade Revolution of the Seventeenth Century: The East India Companies and the Decline of the Caravan Trade.^ The Delineation and Demarcation of Nepal-India Boundary Prior to the domination of India by the British East India Company, both Nepal and India were divided into petty kingdoms and principalities.
    • Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nepaldemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ While Clive achieved his successes in Bengal, (or rapacity, depending on opinion), he had the support of the chairman of the East India Company, John Payne.
    • bc25 - The Blackheath Connection 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.danbyrnes.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Third Edition; to Which is Added a Postscript, Containing Brief Strictures on the "Preface" to Observations on the Present State of the East India Company.
    • William Carey, D. D. (1761-1834): Polemics 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.wmcarey.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Chicago: University of Chicago Press.^ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

    ^ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

    ^ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

    ISBN 0226771385.
     
  • Dirks, Nicholas (2006). .The Scandal of EMPIRE : India and the creation of Imperial Britain.^ Aug 1858 British Act of Parliament annexes the Empire, creating British India (effective 1 Nov 1858).

    ^ Marshall, P.J. Problems of Empire: Britain and India, 1757-1813 .
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    ^ The Business of Empire: The East India Company and Imperial Britain, 1756-1833 .
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    .Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

    ^ Cambridge University Press, 1960., p.
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    ISBN 0674021665.
     

External links

[2] East India Company now has an Indian owner

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.EAST INDIA COMPANY, an incorporated company for exploiting the trade with India and the Far East.^ A formal theoretical model of the East India Company's trade; 3.
  • The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company - Cambridge University Press 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Get alerts about East India Company .
  • East India Company Topics Page - USATODAY.com 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC content.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ The Leubantian East Indian Company was a Leubantian trading company that run Leubantian India.
  • Leubantian East India Company - Constructed worlds 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC conworld.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 17th and 18th centuries East India companies were established by England, Holland, France, Denmark, Scotland, Spain, Austria and Sweden.^ Screens of East India Company (10) .
  • What They Play - East India Company for PC - Video Game Rating and Review Guide for Parents and Kids 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.whattheyplay.com [Source type: General]

^ English East India Company establishes colony in Madras.
  • http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/%7Efisher/hst373/chronology/seventeenthothermiddleeast.html 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Get alerts about East India Company .
  • East India Company Topics Page - USATODAY.com 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC content.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.By far the most important of these was the English East India Company, which became the dominant power in India, and only handed over its functions to the British Government in 1858 (see also Dutch East India Company, Ostend Company).^ These arguments were too powerful for the British government to ignore.
  • UK Tea Council - East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.tea.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Flag British East India Company, 1801-1858.
  • British East India Company - Wikimedia Commons 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Trade that the British East India Company was involved in, 1814-35 .

.The English East India Company was founded at the end of the 16th century in order to compete with the Dutch merchants, East pepper from s to 8s.^ Screens of East India Company (10) .
  • What They Play - East India Company for PC - Video Game Rating and Review Guide for Parents and Kids 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.whattheyplay.com [Source type: General]

^ English East India Company establishes colony in Madras.
  • http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/%7Efisher/hst373/chronology/seventeenthothermiddleeast.html 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Colonial merchants agreed not to sell East India Company tea.
  • Amazon Seller Community: Are we willing to have a new class of ... 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.amazonsellercommunity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

per lb. i India Co. P e PP 3 Queen P Q English with the Spice Islands, and had raised the price of who had obtained a practical monopoly of the trade Elizabeth ncor porated it by royal charter, dated December 31, 1600, under the title of "The Governor and Company of Merchants of London, trading into the East Indies." This charter conferred the sole right of trading with the East Indies, i.e. with all countries lying beyond the Cape of Good Hope or the Straits of Magellan, upon the company for a term of 15 years. Unauthorized interlopers were liable to forfeiture of ships and cargo. .There were 125 shareholders in the original East India Company, with a capital of f72,000: the first governor was Sir Thomas Smythe.^ Colonel of the 89 th Foot and Governor of the East India Company.
  • The Right Honourable Sir Thomas Sewell and his Descendants 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sole.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ East India Company back in business!
  • N3V Games Pty Ltd 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.n3vgames.com [Source type: General]

^ The East India Company starts the first tea plantations in Assam, India.
  • The History of Tea 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.2basnob.com [Source type: News]

.The early voyages of the company, from 1601 to 1612, are distinguished as the "separate voyages," because the subscribers individually bore the cost of each voyage and reaped the whole profits, which seldom fell below loo %.^ Until 1612 the company conducted separate voyages, separately subscribed.
  • East India Company (English trading company) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Glossary: East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC gotheborg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.uv.es [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book will show the human cost of creating this early ‘global market’ and how the British trading companies’ activities displayed some of the worst aspects of colonialism.
  • Books associated with Trading Places - the East India Company and Asia 1600-1834, an Exhibition. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bl.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the company was soon reaping large profits from its Indian exports (chiefly textiles), it had to deal with serious difficulties both in England and in India.
  • British East India Company Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about British East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • British East India Company - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/history/A0816596.html 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After 1612 the voyages were conducted on the joint stock system for the benefit of the company as a whole.^ This joint stock company was created in 1600.
  • Today in Asian History: September 1                                     EastAsia, China, Japan and Korea 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a joint stock company formed by investors.
  • Dutch East India Company: The Dutch Trading Empire 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC dutch-history.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until 1612 the company conducted separate voyages, separately subscribed.
  • East India Company (English trading company) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Glossary: East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC gotheborg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.uv.es [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These early voyages, whose own narratives may be read in Purchas, pushed as far as Japan, and established friendly relations at the court of the Great Mogul.^ Visits court of Great Mogul.
  • Time-Line 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.billbuxton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early voyages it penetrated as far as Japan, and in 1610 and 1611 its first factories, or trading posts, were established in India in the provinces of Madras and Bombay.
  • EAST INDIA COMPANY, 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]
  • East India Company - Cosmeo 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cosmeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this time the company's ships reached as far as Japan where, in 1612 and with the help of John Adams, friendly relations were established with the Shogun of Japan and favourable trading concessions obtained.
  • red-duster.co.uk Homepage for the red duster merchant navy maritime information archive 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.red-duster.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1610-1611 Captain Hippon planted the first English factories on the mainland of India, at Masulipatam and at Pettapoli in the Bay of Bengal.^ English factories in India, Vols.
  • Dutch east India Company ............. 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.panhwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first English East India Company was formed in 1599 to compete with the Dutch for the trade of the spice islands.
  • Article: 400 YEARS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. - History Today | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The English East India Company established its first factory in the year 1611 at Machilipatnam located in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
  • East India Company- British East India Company, English East India Company, History of East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.iloveindia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The profitable nature of the company's trade had induced James I.^ The unwillingness of the Company to lose their commercial profits, and of the ministry to forego the expected revenue from the sale of tea in America, induced a compromise for their mutual advantage.

^ It is generally known that the commercial existence of the East India Company was terminated in 1834, when its principal remaining source of commercial profits, the monopoly of the China trade, was cut off.
  • THE EAST INDIA COMPANY AS A BUSINESS ORGANISATION 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC pd.cpim.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The East India Company now found it difficult to make a profit from its activities and in 1834 ceased trading and instead acted as a managing agency for the government.

to grant subsidiary licences to private traders; but in .1609 he renewed the company's charter "for ever," though with a proviso that it might be revoked on three years' notice if the trade should not prove profitable to the realm.^ On 31 December 1600 Elizabeth I granted a Royal Charter to the 'Honourable East India Company', sometimes referred to as 'John Company', with the intent to favour trade privileges in India.
  • Royal Engineers Museum - Indian Sappers (1740-1947) - Part 10 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.remuseum.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Company had operated as a monopoly since 1600 on charters granted for fifteen years at a time.
  • Lawson, Philip. A Taste for Empire and Glory, Studies in British Overseas Expansion, 1660-1800. 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.sochistdisc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under a perpetual charter granted in 1609 by King James I, the company began to compete with the Dutch trading monopoly in the Malay Archipelago, but after the massacre of Amboina the company conceded to the Dutch the area that became known as the Netherlands East Indies.
  • EAST INDIA COMPANY, 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]
  • East India Company - Cosmeo 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cosmeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile friction was arising between the English and Dutch East India Companies.^ Dutch East India Company from its trading station ...
  • British East India Company | British East India Company Information | HighBeam Research - FREE Trial 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Screens of East India Company (10) .
  • What They Play - East India Company for PC - Video Game Rating and Review Guide for Parents and Kids 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.whattheyplay.com [Source type: General]

.The Dutch traders considered that they had prior rights in the Far East, and their ascendancy in the Indian Archipelago was indeed firmly established on the basis of territorial dominion and authority.^ They also establish territorial control in Indonesia.
  • Ancestors in the Americas: Timeline 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.cetel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The VOC's territories became the Dutch East Indies and were expanded over the course of the 19th century to include the whole of the Indonesian archipelago, and in the 20th century would form Indonesia .
  • Wiki Mobile by Verkata 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC wiki.verkata.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March 1594 some Dutch merchants founded a "Company of Far Lands" at Amsterdam, their objective was to send two fleets to East Indies.
  • The VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie):the Dutch United East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.colonialvoyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1613 they made advances to the English company with a suggestion for co-operation, but the offer was declined, and the next few years were fertile in disputes between the armed traders of both nations.^ Both sides made overtures to the company.
  • Tonio Andrade | The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War against China, 1621–1662 | Journal of World History, 15.4 | The History Cooperative 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India Company will be published next year.
  • New Statesman - The world's first multinational 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.newstatesman.com [Source type: News]

^ The relations between both the companies were uncertain.
  • The Battle of Wandiwash 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.indhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1619 was ratified a "treaty of defence" to prevent disputes between the English.^ After decades of battles between the Dutch and English over control of East Indian spice trade a formal treaty gave the Dutch control of the Malay Archipelago minus North Borneo.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: The British East India Company 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ Of Mr. Macpherson’s construction of the article in the treaty of Paris respecting the guarantee of his independence by France, he was eager to take advantage, and to interpose that nation between himself and the English.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAP. I. - The History of British India, vol. 5 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Disputes between the Dutch and the English soon arose as to ownership of the island until the English won ownership of the island.
  • :: UK Overseas Territories Association :: 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.ukota.org [Source type: Original source]

and Dutch companies. .When it was proclaimed in the East, hostilities solemnly ceased for the space of an hour, while the Dutch and English fleets, dressed out in all their flags and with yards manned, saluted each other; but the treaty ended in the smoke of that stately salutation, and perpetual and fruitless contentions between the Dutch and English companies went on just as before.^ The East India Company went out of existence in 1873.
  • What was exactly the "East India Company"? - Yahoo!7 Answers 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • The British East India Company — the Company that Owned a Nation (or Two) 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the end, "East India Company" just isn't an enjoyable experience.
  • East India Company Review: Trouble On The High Seas 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.bloggersbase.com [Source type: General]

^ English East India Company established.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001225.html 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1623 these disputes culminated in the "massacre of Amboyna," where the Dutch governor tortured and executed the English residents on a charge of conspiring to seize the fort.^ The fighting reached a peak in 1623 when, protected by a flag of truce, English merchants were tortured and massacred by the Dutch governor at Amboyna.
  • red-duster.co.uk Homepage for the red duster merchant navy maritime information archive 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.red-duster.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dutch virtually excluded company members from the East Indies after the Amboina Massacre in 1623 (an incident in which English, Japanese, and Portuguese traders were executed by Dutch authorities), but the company's defeat of the Portuguese in India (1612) won them trading concessions from the Mughal Empire.
  • What was exactly the "East India Company"? - Yahoo!7 Answers 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Glossary: East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC gotheborg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, after 1623, when the English traders at Amboina were massacred by the Dutch, the company admitted defeat in that endeavor and concentrated its activities in India.
  • British East India Company Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about British East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • British East India Company - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/history/A0816596.html 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Great and lasting indignation was aroused in England, but it was not until the time of Cromwell that some pecuniary reparation was exacted for the heirs of the victims.^ It's feasible, as branding was the punishment for many crimes, and in the British Empire some forms of branding lasted until the late 19th century.
  • Did the East India Trading Company really brand pirates? - Yahoo! Answers 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It was the time when the great feeling of hostility to a standing army was growing up in England, under the mischievous preaching of agitators, which reached its height thirteen years later.

^ It would not be until Knox’s daring escape, some nineteen years later, that he was able to return to England.
  • College of St George Archives Blog » Blog Archive » Death by elephant 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.stgeorges-windsor.org [Source type: General]
  • College of St George Archives Blog » Sri Lanka 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.stgeorges-windsor.org [Source type: General]
  • College of St George Archives Blog » 2009 » November 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.stgeorges-windsor.org [Source type: General]

.The immediate result was that the English company tacitly admitted the Dutch claims to a monopoly of the trade in the Far East, and confined their operations to the mainland of India and the adjoining countries.^ A formal theoretical model of the East India Company's trade; 3.
  • The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company - Cambridge University Press 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The first English East India Company was formed in 1599 to compete with the Dutch for the trade of the spice islands.
  • Article: 400 YEARS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. - History Today | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Trade that the British East India Company was involved in, 1814-35 .

.The necessity of good ships for the East Indian trade had led the company in 1609 to construct their dockyard at Deptford,.^ The East India Company's trade was built on a sophisticated Indian economy.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: The British Presence in India in the 18th Century 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maritime trade , Shipping Company .

^ The company was formed to share in the East Indian spice trade.
  • Glossary: East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC gotheborg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.uv.es [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

from which, as .Monson observes, dates "the increase Courten's rival association, known as" the Assada te rritory. Merchants,"on the ground that the company had neglected English interests.^ Fortunately the situation has changed significantly since then with several new, well-researched publications on various aspects of the English East India Company , , together with an increasing interest in the wreck sites of its ships by many nautical archaeologists.

^ Also known as the John Company, it began as a commercial venture intimately associated with the British government and ended up practically ruling India.
  • Multiple Infusions and the National Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.teamuse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The English East India Company’s origins lay in a charter by Queen Elizabeth I relating to the “...Governor and Company of the Merchants of London, Trading into the East…” This was a long name for the company when it was inaugurated, and it became known simply as the English East India Company, commonly called ‘John Company’.
  • Capitalist Life : A Profile Of The British East India Company, AKA John Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.capitalistlife.com [Source type: News]

.The piratical methods of their rivals disgraced the company with the Mogul officials, and a modus vivendi was only reached in 1649. In 1657 Cromwell renewed the charter of 1609, providing that the Indian trade should be in the hands of a single joint stock company.^ This joint stock company was created in 1600.
  • Today in Asian History: September 1                                     EastAsia, China, Japan and Korea 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MGForex.com Trading Company Stock?
  • Did the East India Trading Company really brand pirates? - Yahoo! Answers 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The trade of a joint stock company is always managed by a court of directors.

.The new company thus formed bought up the factories, forts and privileges of the old one.^ In the following years the East India Company were desperate to consolidate their position in Bengal and thus bought a further 38 bighas (hectares) of property.
  • Kolkata - The City Of Joy 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.indfy.com [Source type: News]

^ Several years later, another church was built further inland and his mortal remains were transferred from the old church to the new one.
  • Taj Hotels - Chennai 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.tajhotels.com [Source type: General]

^ At home, it was restructured several times, notably between 1698 and 1708 when an 'old' and 'new' East India Company co-existed before merging to form the United Company of Merchants Trading to the East Indies.
  • History Bookshop.com: East India Company 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.historybookshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It. was further consolidated by the fostering care of .Charles II., who granted it five important charters.^ A new charter was granted to the Company by Charles II., in April, 1661.
  • The Government of India and the Mutinies 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ George Town was granted municipal charter in 1688 by James II, making it India ’s oldest municipality.
  • History of Chennai (Madras) - Lonely Planet Travel Information 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ The British East India Company held the island under charter from Charles II until 1834 when it was brought under the direct government of the British Crown.
  • :: UK Overseas Territories Association :: 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.ukota.org [Source type: Original source]

.From a simple trading company, it grew under his reign into a great chartered company - to use the modern term - with the right to acquire territory,.^ Instead it grew from chartered companies.
  • British Empire page 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 31 December 1600 Elizabeth I granted a Royal Charter to the 'Honourable East India Company', sometimes referred to as 'John Company', with the intent to favour trade privileges in India.
  • Royal Engineers Museum - Indian Sappers (1740-1947) - Part 10 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.remuseum.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reaching even further into Asia, the company founded Singapore (as a trading post ) and Hong Kong .
  • EAST INDIA COMPANY - Awesome Stories 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.awesomestories.com [Source type: General]
  • THE EAST INDIA COMPANY - Awesome Stories 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.awesomestories.com [Source type: General]

.coin money, command fortresses and troops, form alliances, make war and peace, and exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction.^ He allowed its representatives to purchase territories, mint money, raise and command troops, form alliances, make war and peace, and be in charge of civil and criminal law in the acquired lands.
  • EAST INDIA COMPANY - Awesome Stories 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.awesomestories.com [Source type: General]
  • THE EAST INDIA COMPANY - Awesome Stories 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.awesomestories.com [Source type: General]

^ By a series of five acts around 1670, King Charles II provisioned it with the rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops and form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Honorable East India Company 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.furnitureleader.com [Source type: Original source]
  • British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In purchases it brings luck, it makes its bearer able and lovable in war and in litigations and in peace and grants him superiority and victory.
  • ancient silver rings roman jewellery byzantine medieval and celtic 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.thehonourablecompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is accordingly in 1689, when the three presidencies of Bengal, Madras and Bombay had lately been established, that the ruling career of the East India Company begins, with the passing by its directors of the following resolution for the guidance of the local governments in India: -" The increase of our revenue is the subject of our care, as much as our trade; 'tis that must maintain our force when twenty accidents may interrupt our trade; 'tis that must make us a nation in India; without that we are but a great number of interlopers, united by His Majesty's royal charter, fit only to trade where nobody of power thinks it their interest to prevent us; and upon this account it is that the wise Dutch, in all their general advices that we have seen, write ten paragraphs concerning their government, their civil and military policy, warfare, and the increase of their revenue,.^ East India Trading Company Kids Sweatshirt $23.99 .
  • East India Trading Company T-shirts & Gifts : IveAlwaysWantedOneOfThose.com - Best Tshirts 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: General]

^ East India Company back in business!
  • N3V Games Pty Ltd 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.n3vgames.com [Source type: General]

^ A formal theoretical model of the East India Company's trade; 3.
  • The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company - Cambridge University Press 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Reference]

for one .paragraph they write concerning trade."From this moment the history of the transactions of the East India Company becomes the history of British India (see India: History).. Here we shall only trace the later changes in the constitution and powers of the ruling body itself.^ Then they make a direct connection from Jennings and Rall to the British East India Company.
  • ARE YOU SAYING THE BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY STILL CONTROLS THE USA? 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.rumormillnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British East India Company records, Parthasarathi ...
  • British East India Company | British East India Company Information | HighBeam Research - FREE Trial 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A formal theoretical model of the East India Company's trade; 3.
  • The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company - Cambridge University Press 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Reference]

.The great prosperity of the company under the Restoration, and the immense profits of the Indian trade, attracted a number of private traders, both outside merchants and dismissed or retired servants of the company, who came The inter- to be known as" interlopers."In 1683 the case of Thomas Sandys, an interloper, raised the whole question of the.^ This raises a number of important questions.
  • The truth behind the legend: European doctors in pre-colonial India 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ias.ac.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Private trade by the company's servants continued but within enforceable limits.
  • India: HISTORY: India and European expansion, C. 1500-1858: THE EXTENSION OF BRITISH POWER, 1760-1856: The Company Bahadur. 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.uv.es [Source type: Original source]

^ In case of private companies seven numbers will reduced to two.
  • Company Registration :- Find Company Incorporation, Formation and New Company Registration in India 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

of great ships in England." .Down to the middle of the ,9th century, the famous "East Indiamen" held unquestioned pre-eminence among the merchant vessels of the world.^ From the middle of the 18th century, the English spread their influence through the British East India Company and their agreements with the Sultan of Sulu.
  • Sabah, travel stories and pictures from an island in Malaysia 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.worldcook.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This was followed by a series of powerful empires and kingdoms until the eighth century A.D. Then Muslims from middle east invaded India and began to establish themselves.
  • India: History 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.cs.iupui.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He had received an order, by express, instructing him to stop six outward bound East Indiamen from sailing down the Channel into danger.

.Throughout the 17th century they had to be prepared at any moment to fight not merely Malay pirates, but the armed trading vessels of their Dutch, French and Portuguese rivals.^ The Portuguese and Dutch arrived in the 16th century followed by the British and French.
  • Travel to Chennai - Cheap Flights to Chennai from USA - Best Hotel Deals Travel Packages Chennai India - Make My Trip 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC us.makemytrip.com [Source type: News]

^ The 17th Century was a golden age for the Dutch .
  • Dutch East India Company: The Dutch Trading Empire 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC dutch-history.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus subsequently the Portuguese held control and the Dutch in the 17th century.
  • Singapore history | history of Singapore | History Singapore 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.a1singaporehotels.com [Source type: General]

.Many such battles are recorded in the history of the East India Company, and usually with successful results.^ East India Company back in business!
  • N3V Games Pty Ltd 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.n3vgames.com [Source type: General]

^ British East India Company records, Parthasarathi ...
  • British East India Company | British East India Company Information | HighBeam Research - FREE Trial 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But History records his services to the Company and to his country".
  • The truth behind the legend: European doctors in pre-colonial India 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ias.ac.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was not until it had been in existence for more than a century that the English East India Company obtained a practical monopoly of.^ Screens of East India Company (10) .
  • What They Play - East India Company for PC - Video Game Rating and Review Guide for Parents and Kids 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.whattheyplay.com [Source type: General]

^ East India Company back in business!
  • N3V Games Pty Ltd 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.n3vgames.com [Source type: General]

^ Beta test East India Company .
  • east india company - Gamereactor - Blogs - The Local 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: General]

the Indian trade. .In 1635, a year after The ac= the Great Mogul had granted it the liberty of trading quasi= throughout Bengal, Charles I.^ In response to declining Mughal power, the British East Indian Company is granted the privilege of free trade and free coining in Bengal.
  • Ancestors in the Americas: Timeline 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.cetel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That era of apparent liberty was in reality the era of monopolies not created by Royal grants, as in the times of Elizabeth and Charles I, but authorized and nationalized by the sanction of Parliament.
  • The East India Company - Its History and Results by Karl Marx 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It began to transform from a trading company to a ruling endeavor after it won the battle of Plassey against the ruler of Bengal, Siraj - ud - daullah in the year 1757.
  • East India Company- British East India Company, English East India Company, History of East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.iloveindia.com [Source type: Original source]

issued a licence to tion of English and Dutch disputes. lopers. royal .prerogative to create a monopoly of the Indian trade.^ Until 1813 the Company had a complete monopoly of all trade east of the Cape of Good Hope across to Cape Horn, that is all of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • British India 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.aigs.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The end of the monopoly of China trade came in 1834, and after the Indian Mutiny 1857–58 the crown took complete control of the government of British India.
  • British East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.talktalk.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The John Company finally lost its monopoly of trade with the East in 1813 and after the Indian Mutiny of 1857 the Colonial Office took control of it.
  • Capitalist Life : A Profile Of The British East India Company, AKA John Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.capitalistlife.com [Source type: News]

.The case was tried by Judge Jeffreys, who upheld the royal prerogative; but in spite of his decision the custom of interloping continued and laid the foundation of many great fortunes.^ Great Britain was losing a fortune, he said by allowing colonial smuggling to continue.
  • Red Comet - United States History - A 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.redcomet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who directed its affairs in London could see no case for military or political intervention to try to change the status quo.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: The British Presence in India in the 18th Century 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there were many from other castes who, either by conviction or in order to gain royal favour, embraced Islam.

By 1691 the interlopers had formed themselves into a new society, meeting at Dowgate, and rivalling the old company; the case was carried before the House of Commons, which declared in 1694 that "all the subjects of England have equal right to trade to the East Indies unless prohibited by act of parliament." This decision led up to the act of 1698, which created a new East India Company in consideration of a loan of two millions to the state. .The old company subscribed 315,000 and became the dominant factor in the new body; while at the same time it retained its charter for three years, its factories, forts and assured position in India.^ In a short time this company became dominant there.
  • East India Company — GAMEO 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Release date: available at the same time as East India Company.
  • East India Company: Pirate Bay Download | Buy East India Company: Pirate Bay from D2D 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.direct2drive.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ However, the powerful stockholders of the old company quickly subscribed a sum of 315,000 in the new concern, and dominated the new body.

.The rivalry between the two companies continued both in England and in India, until they were finally amalgamated by a tripartite indenture between the companies and Queen Anne (1702), which was ratified under the Godolphin Award (1708).^ Both companies finally merged in 1702, by a tripartite indenture involving the state and the two companies.

^ The British East India Company's dominance over India continued until 1858.
  • History of India 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.earthyfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The East India Company was involved in carrying Mails between England and India until 1854.
  • The Royal Philatelic Society London - Indian Ship Letters 1814 - 1819,east india company, withdrawn ship letters 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.rpsl.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under this award the company was to lend the nation £3,200,000, and its exclusive privileges were to cease at three years' notice after this amount had been repaid.^ But we must take notice, that the 1,200,000 l.
  • The Avalon Project : An Essay on the East-India Trade 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Under this arrangement, the merged company lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under this arrangement, the merged company lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years—after which the situation was to be reviewed.

.But by this time the need for permanence in the Indian establishment began to be felt, while parliament would not relinquish its privilege of "milking" the company from time to time.^ We realized that is the reason that more companies haven't ventured into this area — because the milk quality in India needs a big improvement.” .
  • India News | Italian Cheese 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.globalpost.com [Source type: News]

^ The French missionary Martin Gaudereau, having heard of the plan, asserted that the capture of Muscat would secure the French company a permanent base in the Indian Ocean and free trade with Persia.
  • EAST INDIA COMPANY 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whilst the East India Company in 1612 established what was then known as the Honourable East India Company’s Marine, it was in 1830 that the British government set up British Indian Navy (IN).
  • Story - SP's Naval Forces 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.spsnavalforces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1712 an act was passed continuing the privileges of the company even after their fund should be redeemed; in 1730 the charter was prolonged until 1766, and in 1742 the term was extended until 1783 in return for the loan of a million.^ The license was prolonged until 1766 by yet another act in 1730.
  • British East India Company (Pepys' Diary) 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Honorable East India Company 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.furnitureleader.com [Source type: Original source]
  • British East India Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 31 December 1600 Elizabeth I granted a Royal Charter to the 'Honourable East India Company', sometimes referred to as 'John Company', with the intent to favour trade privileges in India.
  • Royal Engineers Museum - Indian Sappers (1740-1947) - Part 10 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.remuseum.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The East India Company was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600 , with the intention of favoring trade privileges in India .
  • Friends Of India: History of India - Trade to Colonization 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC blog.friendsofindia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This million was required for the war with France, which extended to India and involved the English and French companies there in long-drawn hostilities, in which the names of Dupleix and Clive became prominent.^ What similarities are there with the operations of the English East India Company?
  • Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.fathom.com [Source type: News]

^ English East India Company established.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001225.html 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The East India Company was there to stay.
  • The Causes Of The Rebellion 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.So long as the company's chief business was that of trade, it was left to manage its own affairs.^ Currently the Company owns and manages 4 vessels.
  • ABDOOLALLY EBRAHIM GROUP 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abdoolally.com [Source type: News]

^ Army: Intervention in the internal affairs of states to protect trading posts as well as rivalry with French and Dutch companies led to the establishment of a standing East India Company army.
  • British India 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.aigs.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even in India, the company’s trading monopoly was abolished in 1813, and by the 1850s it was little more than a managing agency for the British government’s administration of India.
  • EAST INDIA COMPANY 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The original charter of Elizabeth had placed its control in the hands of a governor and a committee of twenty-four, and this arrangement subsisted in essence down to the time of George III.^ Incorporated by royal charter of Queen Elizabeth I in 1600 the company started with 215 shareholders and a share capital of £72,000, a considerable amount at the time.
  • The Merchant Navy - Ship Safe Training Group Ltd 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sstg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English East India Company’s origins lay in a charter by Queen Elizabeth I relating to the “...Governor and Company of the Merchants of London, Trading into the East…” This was a long name for the company when it was inaugurated, and it became known simply as the English East India Company, commonly called ‘John Company’.
  • Capitalist Life : A Profile Of The British East India Company, AKA John Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.capitalistlife.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1600 Queen Elizabeth granted a charter to the governor at a company of merchants to trade freely with the countries of the east.
  • webindia123.com-Indian History-Modern-ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.webindia123.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chairman and court of directors in London exercised unchecked control over their servants in India.^ The servants in India are not appointed by the Directors, but the Directors are chosen by them.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1500 a group of merchants under the Chairman ship of Lord Mayor formed an association in London to trade with India.
  • webindia123.com-Indian History-Modern-ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.webindia123.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Former chairman of Hindustan Lever , director of Unilever Ltd., London and Unilever, NV, Rotterdam.
  • Conglomerates 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.But after Clive's brilliant victory at Plassey (1757) had made the company a ruling power in India, it was felt to be necessary that the British government should have some control over the territories thus acquired.^ The British East India Company refused to accept the Lords' ruling .
  • From the East India Company to Procol Harum: the end of justice in the Lords - Home News, UK - The Independent 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ British East India Company colonial rule on this ...
  • British East India Company | British East India Company Information | HighBeam Research - FREE Trial 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Company rule in India .
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lord North's Regulating Act (1773) raised the governor of Bengal - Warren Hastings - to the rank of governor-general, and provided that his nomination, though made by a court of directors, should in future be subject to the approval of the crown; in conjunction with a council of four, he was entrusted with the power of peace and war; a supreme court of judicature was established, to which the judges were appointed by the crown; and legislative power was conferred on the governor-general and his council.^ Thus, Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General of India.

^ Under this provision, the governor of Bengal Warren Hastings was promoted to the rank of Governor General, having administrative powers over all of British India.

^ The "collegium" of seventeen nominated the governors-general who were appointed after 1608.
  • The Dutch East India Company - LoveToKnow 1911 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Next followed Pitt's India Bill (1784), which created the board of control, as a department of the English government, to exercise political, military and financial superintendence over the British possessions in India.^ In 1784 the India Act created a department of the British government to exercise political, military, and financial control over the Indian affairs of the company, and during the next half century British control was extended over most of the subcontinent.
  • EAST INDIA COMPANY, 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]
  • East India Company - Cosmeo 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cosmeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why is the bureaucracy the British created to control India considered impressive?
  • Colonization | The Story of India - Photo Gallery | PBS 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sketch of the Political history of India from the introduction Mr. Pitt's Bill, 1784 to 1811.
  • The Government of India and the Mutinies 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.victorianweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.This bill first authorized the historic phrase "governor-general in council."^ Only in 1774, when Warren Hastings became first Governor-General of Bengal, with a vague superintendence over Madras and Bombay, did Calcutta begin to be imperial.
  • In India: Chapter 8 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This council advises and assists the Governor General in the general affairs of the alliance and help in guiding the Governor General in a path they feel best for the country on behalf of the membership.
  • East India Company - Cyber Nations Wiki 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC cybernations.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warren Hastings , the first governor-general, laid the administrative foundations for subsequent British consolidation.
  • British East India Company Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about British East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • British East India Company - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.From this date the direction of Indian policy passed definitely from the company to the governor-general in India and the ministry in London.^ London: East India Company, 1807].
  • Seringapatam 1799: Bibliography 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lib.mq.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The economic policies of the East India Company were also resented by the Indians.
  • What is British India? 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1774, the company's governor of Bengal was made the first governor general of India.
  • Polo and pigsticking: feudatory states stamps 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.linns.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1813 Lord Liverpool passed a bill which further gave the board of control authority over the company's commercial transactions, and abolished its monopoly of Indian trade, whilst leaving it the monopoly of the valuable trade with China, chiefly in tea.^ In 1813 Parliament abolished the company's monopoly of Indian trade.

^ Deprived of its trade monopoly in 1813, the company wound up as a trading enterprise.

^ Parliamentary acts of 1813 and 1833 ended the company's trade monopoly.
  • British East India Company Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about British East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • British East India Company - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Finally, under Earl Grey's act of 1833, the company was deprived of this monopoly also.^ Parliamentary acts of 1813 and 1833 ended the company's trade monopoly.
  • British East India Company Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about British East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • British East India Company - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The John Company finally lost its monopoly of trade with the East in 1813 and after the Indian Mutiny of 1857 the Colonial Office took control of it.
  • Capitalist Life : A Profile Of The British East India Company, AKA John Company 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.capitalistlife.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1773 , Parliament passed the Tea Act , granting the financially troubled British East India Company a trade monopoly on the tea exported to the American colonies.
  • SparkNotes: The American Revolution (1754–1781): Summary of Events 10 February 2010 12:40 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its property was then secured on the Indian possessions, and its annual dividends of ten guineas pe 100 stock were made a charge upon the Indian revenue.^ Its annual dividends of 10.5 percent were made a fixed charge on Indian revenues.
  • EAST INDIA COMPANY, 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]
  • East India Company - Cosmeo 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cosmeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Naji-ud-daulah and Munir-ud-daulah agreed to pay to the Abdali, on behalf of the Indian Government, an annual tribute of forty lacs (100,000).
  • Invasions Of Ahmad Shah Abdali 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.afghan-network.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The revenues in this manner failing, they seized upon the estates of every person of eminence in the country, and, under the name of resumption, confiscated their property.
  • Burke: Select Works of Edmund Burke, Vol. 4, Miscellaneous Writings, Speech on Fox's East India Bill | Library of Economics and Liberty 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.Henceforward the East India Company ceased to be a trading concern and exercised only administrative functions.^ East India Trading Company Kids Sweatshirt $23.99 .
  • East India Trading Company T-shirts & Gifts : IveAlwaysWantedOneOfThose.com - Best Tshirts 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: General]

^ East India Company back in business!
  • N3V Games Pty Ltd 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.n3vgames.com [Source type: General]

^ The East India Company was a London-based trading organization.
  • The East India Company - - Port Cities 3 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.portcities.org.uk [Source type: News]

Such a position could not, in the nature of things, be permanent, and the great cataclysm of the Indian Mutiny was followed by the entire transference of Indian administration from the company to the crown, on the 2nd of August 1858.
See Purchas his Pilgrimes (ed. 1905), vols. .2, 3, 4, 5, for the charter of Elizabeth and the early voyages; Sir W. W. Hunter, History of British India (1899); Beckles Willson, Ledger and Sword (1903); Sir George Birdwood, Report on the Old Records of the India Office (1879); The East India Company's First Letter Book (1895); Letters Received by the East India Company from its Servants in the East, ed.^ The image of the Double Mohur of East India Company coin which depicts the Lion and palm tree picture from where the modern emblem is originated, is shown above and below.
  • http://nupam.com/eastindia1.html 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC nupam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 18th century the place was turned into the largest naval base of East India Company.
  • Chennai Under East India Company 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.mapsofworld.com [Source type: News]

^ East India Trading Company Kids Sweatshirt $23.99 .
  • East India Trading Company T-shirts & Gifts : IveAlwaysWantedOneOfThose.com - Best Tshirts 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: General]

Foster, (1896 ff.). .See also the interesting memorial volume Relics of the Honourable East India Company (ed.^ East India Company back in business!
  • N3V Games Pty Ltd 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.n3vgames.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the establishment of the East India Company...
  • An able and skilful artist: The career of Paul Benfield of the English East India Company 22 September 2009 16:45 UTC www.chrononaut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Contacting east india company .
  • east india company on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 1 February 2010 1:51 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Griggs, 1909), letterpress by Sir G. Birdwood and W. Foster.


Simple English

East India Company was a joint-stock company. Its headquarters were in London, England. It was originally made for trading with the East Indies, but traded with India and China. It was given a charter in 1600. It traded many things in India. It even had its military. It went from trading with India to ruling India. It was dissolved in 1874. It was given preference by the British government and made some people jealous.

In its early days, it competed with the Dutch East India Company. It was ruled by one governor and 24 directors. It had some fighting with other companies in that area. It became almost a complete monopoly in India.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

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