East Pakistan: Wikis

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East Pakistan
مشرقی پاکستان
Flag of East Pakistanمشرقی پاکستان
Map of Pakistan with East Pakistanمشرقی پاکستان highlighted
Capital Dhaka
Area 144,000 km²
Languages Bengali
Established  14 October 1955
Abolished 25 March 1971
(Independence declared)
16 December 1971
(Recognized)

Government of Bangladesh

East Pakistan (Bengali: পূর্ব পাকিস্তান Purbo Pakistan, Urdu: مشرقی پاکستان Mashriqī Pākistān) was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1947 and 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal Province based on a plebiscite in what was then British India in 1947. Eastern Bengal chose to join the Dominion of Pakistan and became a province of Pakistan by the name East Bengal. East Bengal, also comprised East Pakistan in 1956 and later became the independent country of Bangladesh after the bloody Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, which took place after General Elections of 1970. Large sections of East Pakistan's people felt that they were colonised and suppressed by the West Pakistanis.

Contents

Independence of East Pakistan (Bangladesh)

The tension between East and West Pakistan reached a climax when in 1970 the Awami League, the largest East Pakistani political party, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, won a landslide victory in the national elections in East Pakistan. The party won 167 of the 169 seats allotted to East Pakistan, and thus a majority of the 300 seats in the National Assembly. This gave the Awami League the constitutional right to form a government. However, Yahya Khan, the leader of the Pakistan, refused to allow Rahman to become the Prime Minister of Pakistan. This increased agitation for greater autonomy in the East.

On 26 March 1971, the day after the military crackdown on civilians in East Pakistan, Sk. Mujibur Rahman declared the independence of Bangladesh just after midnight of March 25, 1971 before he was arrested by Pakistan army. All major Awami League leaders including elected leaders of national Assembly and Provincial Assembly fled to neighboring India and an exile government was formed headed by Sk. Mujibur Rahman. While he was in Pakistan Prison, Syed Nazrul Islam was the acting President with Tazuddin Ahmed as the Prime Minister. The exile government took oath on April 17, 1971 at Mujib Nagar, within East Pakistan territory of Kustia district and formally formed the government. Col (retd) MAG Osmani was appointed the commander in chief of liberation forces and whole East Pakistan was divided into eleven sectors headed by eleven sector commanders. All sector commanders were Bengali officers from Pakistan army. This started the Bangladesh Liberation War in which the freedom fighters, joined in December 1971 by 400,000 Indian soldiers, faced the Pakistani Army of 65,000 including the paramilitary forces. An additional approximately 25,000 ill-equipped civilian volunteers and police forces also sided with the Pakistan army. On 16 December 1971, the Pakistani Army surrendered to the joint liberation forces of Bangladesh freedom fighters and Indian army Headed by Lt. Gen Jagjit Singh Aurora. Air Vice Marshall AK Khondoker represented the Bangladesh freedom fighters. Pakistan General AAK Niazi signed the surrender letter. Bangladesh quickly gained recognition from most countries and with the signing of the Shimla Accord, most of the countries accepted the new state. Bangladesh joined the United Nations in 1974. Sk. Mujib returned to free Bangladesh on January 10, 1972. Upon his request, India withdrew all its army. 40 thousand Pakistan soldiers were transferred to India as prisoners of war as well as 45 thousand civilians.

Government of East Pakistan

On 14 October 1955, the last governor of East Bengal (Amiruddin Ahmad) became the first Governor of East Pakistan. At the same time the last Chief Minister of East Bengal became the first Chief Minister of East Pakistan. This system lasted until the military coup of 1958 when the post of Chief Minister was abolished in both East Pakistan and West Pakistan. From 1958 to 1971 the administration was largely in the hands of the President of Pakistan and the Governor of East Pakistan who at times held the title of Martial Law Administrator.

Tenure Governor of East Pakistan[1]
14 October 1955 – March 1956 Amiruddin Ahmad
March 1956 – 13 April 1958 A. K. Fazlul Huq
13 April 1958 – 3 May 1958 Hamid Ali (acting)
3 May 1958 – 10 October 1958 Sultanuddin Ahmad
10 October 1958 – 11 April 1960 Zakir Husain
11 April 1960 – 11 May 1962 Lt Gen Azam Khan
11 May 1962 – 25 October 1962 Ghulam Faruque
25 October 1962 – 23 March 1969 Abdul Monem Khan
23 March 1969 – 25 March 1969 Mirza Nurul Huda
25 March 1969 – 23 August 1969 Maj Gen Muzaffaruddin (acting martial law administrator and governor as he was the GOC 14th Infantry Division)
23 August 1969 – 1 September 1969 Lt Gen Sahabzada Yaqub Khan (martial law administrator and governor)
1 September 1969 – 7 March 1971 Vice Admiral (R) Syed Mohammad Ahsan (governor)
7 March 1971 – April 1971 Lt Gen Sahabzada Yaqub Khan (martial law administrator and governor)
April 1971 – 31 August 1971 Lt Gen Tikka Khan (martial law administrator and governor)
31 August 1971 – 14 December 1971 Abdul Motaleb Malik (governor)
14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971 Lt Gen Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (martial law administrator and governor)
16 December 1971 Province of East Pakistan dissolved
Tenure Chief Minister of East Pakistan[1] Political Party
August 1955 – September 1956 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
September 1956 – March 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
March 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
March 1958 – 18 June 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
18 June 1958 – 22 June 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
22 June 1958 – 25 August 1958 Governor's Rule
25 August 1958 – 7 October 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
7 October 1958 Post abolished
16 December 1971 Province of East Pakistan dissolved

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Ben Cahoon, WorldStatesmen.org. "Bangladesh". http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Bangladesh.html. Retrieved 2007-10-03.  

External links

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Simple English

East Pakistan (Bengali: পূর্ব পাকিস্তান Purbo Pakistan, Urdu: مشرقی پاکستان Mashriqi Pakistan) was a former province of Pakistan that existed between 1955 and 1971. It had an area of 55,126 mi² or (142,776 km²). It replaced the former province of East Bengal, and is now a country called Bangladesh.

Bengal was divided into East and West parts in 1947 when British India was separated into the countries of Pakistan and India, the eastern parts becoming East Bengal, one of the five provinces of Pakistan (the others being West Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan, and the Afghania Provincial Region).

After independence from British rule, East Bengal was ruled by the Pakistani government, which was ruled over by the Pakistani military, which mostly belonged to West Pakistan. Growing anger led to the "One-Unit Policy", started in 1955, that put an end to the provinces. Under this policy, West Punjab, Balochistan, Sindh, and the Northwest Frontier were joined under the name of West Pakistan and East Bengal became East Pakistan.

==== = Former provincial symbols of East Pakistan (1955-1971) ===== The main (4) ex-provincial icons were the Royal Bengal Tiger, Oriental Magpie Robin, Banyan tree and the Water Lily all have been nationalised by the People's Republic Of Bangladesh since 1972.

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