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Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
Repúblika Demokrátika Timór Lorosa'e
República Democrática de Timor-Leste
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Unidade, Acção, Progresso"  (Portuguese)
("Unity, Action, Progress")
AnthemPátria
Capital
(and largest city)
Dili
8°34′S 125°34′E / 8.567°S 125.567°E / -8.567; 125.567
Official language(s) Tetum and Portuguese1
Working languages Indonesian and English [1]
Demonym East Timorese
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President José Ramos-Horta
 -  Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão
Independence from Portugal, Indonesia² 
 -  Established 1702 
 -  Declared November 28, 1975 
 -  Restored May 20, 2002 
Area
 -  Total 14,874 km2 (159th)
5,743 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2009 estimate 1,134,000[2] (155th)
 -  Density 76.2/km2 (132nd)
197.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $2.522 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $2,368[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $499 million[3] 
 -  Per capita $468[3] 
HDI (2007) 0.489[4] (low) (162nd)
Currency U.S. Dollar³ (USD)
Time zone (UTC+9)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .tl4
Calling code +670
1 15 further "national languages" recognised by the Constitution.
2 Indonesia invaded East Timor on December 7, 1975 and left in 1999.
3 Centavo coins also used.
4 .tp is being phased out.
.East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timor Lorosae; officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a country in Southeast Asia.^ East-Timor is located geographically in Oceania, although it is sometimes assigned to Asia instead.
  • East Timor -- Timor-Leste Photo Gallery by Joel Santos at pbase.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste conventional short form: East Timor local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese] local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese] former: Portuguese Timor .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.travlang.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

.It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor.^ Consists of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, an exclave of East Timor situated on the northwestern side of the island, surrounded by West Timor.
  • East Timor -- Timor-Leste Photo Gallery by Joel Santos at pbase.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ The number of East Timorese in Flores, West Papua, Sulawesi and other Indonesian islands is unknown, but given the lack of international awareness, the conditions of refugees thus displaced are potentially worse than those in West Timor.

.The small country of 15,410 km²[5] (5,400 sq mi) is located about 640 km (400 mi) northwest of Darwin, Australia.^ In January 2006, about 400 soldiers from the western part of the country complained about ethnic discrimination and poor treatment.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It clears the way for a $1.4 billion project in the Bayu-Undan field, which is about 500 kilometres north-west of Darwin, capital of Australia's Northern Territory, and 250 km south of Suai in East Timor.

.East Timor was colonized by Portugal in the 16th century, and was known as Portuguese Timor until Portugal's decolonization of the country.^ East Timor was a colony of Portugal.
  • Full Text of UN Commission of Inquiry on East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.1worldcommunication.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Formerly Portuguese Timor, East Timor was invaded by Indonesia in 1975, which occupied it until 1999.
  • East Timor -- Timor-Leste Photo Gallery by Joel Santos at pbase.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ The Portuguese colony of Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later.
  • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bondtalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC permanent.access.gpo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In late 1975, East Timor declared its independence, but later that year was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was declared Indonesia's 27th province the following year.^ Indonesia invades East Timor which becomes it 27th province in 1976.

^ The following July, East Timor was illegally "integrated" into Indonesia as its "27th province."

^ East Timor, a former Portuguese colony, was seized by Indonesia in 1975.

.In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory and East Timor became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on May 20, 2002. East Timor is one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being the Philippines.^ The presidential election in East Timor was the first since the country won independence in 2002 following a bloody separation from neighbouring Indonesia.

^ On the other hand, democracy may be a component of self-determination.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Only then will the full potential of self-determination be unleashed, in East Timor and beyond.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

.East Timor is a lower-middle-income economy.^ Furthermore, Australia will remain one of the main suppliers of aid for years to come as East Timor slowly builds a viable economy.

^ The Thai government has offered agricultural assistance to East Timor by providing agriculture training under the framework of the King's sustainable economy theory.

^ Darah Merah (Red Blood) – operates in the middle region of East Timor – its ommander- in-chief is Lafaek Saburai.

[6] .It continues to suffer the aftereffects of a decades-long independence struggle against Indonesia, which damaged infrastructure and displaced thousands of civilians.^ East Timor’s independence leaders, most of whom had been educated in Portugal, are trying to remold the country’s identity after over two decades of brutal occupation by Indonesia.

^ After the Second World War, the Japanese government continued to rub salt into the wounds of East Timors struggle for independence.
  • La'o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 3, No. 1: February 2002 Police, Agriculture 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.laohamutuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wiranto is implicated by Indonesia's National Commission on Human Rights, which is investigating abuses against civilians in East Timor, the general will be asked to resign.

.It is placed 158th by Human Development Index (HDI) among the world's states, the second lowest in Asia.^ Finland did not make a concrete promise but stated its commitment to also support East Timor in developing its human resource base.
  • La'o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 3, No. 1: February 2002 Police, Agriculture 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.laohamutuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Etymology and naming issues

."Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Indonesian and Malay (hence the Indonesian Timor Timur) which became Timor in Portuguese and entered English as Portuguese Timor.^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ They have even offered to send staff to conduct trauma counselling for children, ignoring the fact that almost none of the traumatised children in East Timor can communicate in Portuguese.

^ The resistance movement itself welcomed the Indonesian government’s offer and expressed its commitment to peacefully resolving the problem in East Timor.

Lorosa'e is also the word for "east" in Tetum, literally "rising sun".
.The official names under the Constitution are República Democrática de Timor-Leste in Portuguese (pronounced [tiˈmoɾ ˈlɛʃtɨ]), which is almost universally used within the country, and in Tetum, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór Lorosa'e, which is infrequently used and is not standard across the many Tetum dialects[citation needed].^ They have even offered to send staff to conduct trauma counselling for children, ignoring the fact that almost none of the traumatised children in East Timor can communicate in Portuguese.

^ East Timor has many natural resources that we can use in animal husbandry and crop agriculture.
  • La'o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 3, No. 1: February 2002 Police, Agriculture 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.laohamutuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sergio Vieira de Mello made an open invitation to those officials to visit East Timor.

.Following independence, the government requested the official name in all languages be Timor-Leste[citation needed], but this has not been commonly adopted within English-speaking countries worldwide, where "East Timor" is the common usage[citation needed].^ East Timor became an independent country on May 20, 2002.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ ZNet Article Given the ad hoc nature of past UN missions in East Timor, the hybrid character of security operations conducted independent of the UN flag, and the general lack of governance capacity inside the...

^ The Democratic Republic of East Timor shall maintain special ties of friendship and co-operation with its neighbouring countries and the countries of the region.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Indonesian name Timor Timur, abbreviated as Timtim, is now less widely used, with the Indonesian government and media now using Timor Leste.^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ The resistance movement itself welcomed the Indonesian government’s offer and expressed its commitment to peacefully resolving the problem in East Timor.

^ Since much of East Timor is now under seige by the Indonesian army and militias, the location of this event will not be announced until shortly beforehand.

.The official short form names of countries worldwide are set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).^ The country has a labor code based on the International Labor Organization's standards.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNTAET and various international organizations continue to assist us, but we do not know where we will find assistance once we are a fully independent country.
  • La'o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 3, No. 1: February 2002 Police, Agriculture 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.laohamutuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bangladesh is an excellent case study of the effects of humanitarian operations organized by international NGOs and UN agencies on the country’s self-sufficiency.

.The ISO 3166-1 official short name in English and all other languages is Timor-Leste.^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

^ This will ensure that it will be ‘all-systems-go’ by 7am on May 9, when the second act in Timor Leste’s first national elections since independence gets underway.

^ SOMET also regrets that STAE did not make provisions, as required by the Constitution of Timor-Leste, for all citizens 17 years and older to have the opportunity to vote.

.The ISO definition is adopted by the United Nations,[7] the national standards organisations of France (AFNOR), the United States of America (ANSI), Britain (BSI), Germany (DIN) and Sweden (SIS) and is universally used by international NGOs.^ France stated its intention that 25% of its contributions will support womens development and their involvement in the national planning process.
  • La'o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 3, No. 1: February 2002 Police, Agriculture 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.laohamutuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stated that after the United Nations forces left on 7 September 1999, the situation had rapidly deteriorated and there had been random shooting by the militia.
  • Full Text of UN Commission of Inquiry on East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.1worldcommunication.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Nations should establish an independent and international body charged with: .
  • Full Text of UN Commission of Inquiry on East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.1worldcommunication.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] Timor–Leste is used as a matter of protocol by the departments of foreign affairs of almost all countries for example, the USA Department of State[8] and the European Union,[9] notable exceptions being Australia, which uses "East Timor".
.The ISO name gives rise to the standard three letter country code TLS and two letter country code TL as in the country’s internet domain name.^ East Timor is an extremely poor country, with two-thirds to three-fourths of the population of 775,000 persons engaged in subsistence agriculture.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This general's name is written in gold letters in the pages of French history after all he did for his country in the post-Second World War period.

^ Roughly two-thirds to three-quarters of the country's work force is engaged in subsistence agriculture.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The old two letter country code, TP, is gradually being phased out.

History

Early history

.The island of Timor was originally populated as part of the human migrations that have shaped Australasia more generally.^ Since late November of last year when many civilians were killed in Alas and thousands fled to more populated areas from along the West Timor border, human rights conditions in East Timor have severely deteriorated.

^ Asked for more details about the western part of East Timor, Mr. Gusmao said that all efforts would be made to "get our brothers back to East Timor".

^ Da Costa spoke warmly of the Indonesian army now occupying East Timor, an army that has caused the deaths of one-third of the original population.

It is believed that descendants from at least three waves of migration still live in the country. .The first were related to the principal indigenous groups of New Guinea and Australia, and arrived before 40,000 years ago.^ The first five international customs experts arrived yesterday from New Zealand to Dili to serve on the new service and to train future Timorese customs and immigration officers.

^ Not many people know that 40,000 East Timorese were killed during the three year Japanese occupation.
  • La'o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 3, No. 1: February 2002 Police, Agriculture 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.laohamutuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keady: Australia & E Timor Three years ago, I wrote a piece talking about attempts to oust Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri in...

.Around 3000 BC, Austronesians migrated to Timor, and are possibly associated with the development of agriculture there.^ Under the Portuguese, there were no opportunities for the East Timorese people to develop their economy, agriculture, justice and democratic systems, education and health services.
  • La'o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 3, No. 1: February 2002 Police, Agriculture 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.laohamutuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, in just about every stop in the region there has been discussion about East Timor being linked in some way to the Association of South-east Asian Nations.

[citation needed] Thirdly, proto-Malays arrived from south China and north Indochina.[10] .The mountainous terrain kept these groups separated, and this is why there is so much linguistic diversity in East Timor today.^ News has just come from Dili, East Timor, that the already tense situation there has become completely chaotic.

^ (The Indonesian military has been spreading a rumor that people in East Timor are subject to attack, rape, and torture at the hands of the international peacekeeping force there.

^ It is now estimated that there are 120,000 people hiding in the hills of East Timor.

.Timor was incorporated into Chinese and Indian trading networks of the 14th century as an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slaves, honey and wax.^ This Indian Ocean trading complex was also partially linked into the Eurasia trading system of the Silk Road, and the Incense Road (from Arabia).

The earliest historical record about Timor island is 14th century Nagarakretagama, Canto 14, that identify Timur as an island within Majapahit's realm. Early European explorers report that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms in the early 16th century. .One of the most significant is the Wehali (Wehale) kingdom in central Timor, with its capital at Laran, West Timor, to which the Tetum, Bunaq and Kemak ethnic groups were aligned.^ No one knows exactly how many of the refugees being held in the camps in West Timor would choose repatriation or relocation.

^ In West Timor most of the children are living with an extended family.

^ Most of the dead were children, many of whom died in the past four months from diarrhoea and dysentery, said a West Timor government official.

Portuguese colonization

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to colonize the Maritime Southeast Asia when they arrived in the sixteenth century.[11] .They established outposts in the (now Indonesian) Maluku Islands and Timor and surrounding islands.^ Consists of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, an exclave of East Timor situated on the northwestern side of the island, surrounded by West Timor.
  • East Timor -- Timor-Leste Photo Gallery by Joel Santos at pbase.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Since much of East Timor is now under seige by the Indonesian army and militias, the location of this event will not be announced until shortly beforehand.

^ Witnesses say they saw Alex in the detention centre which will house the new Indonesian representative office in East Timor.

.During the House of Habsburg's rule over Portugal (1580-1640), all surrounding outposts were lost and eventually came under Dutch control by the mid-seventeenth century.^ In many ways the East Timor problem is a legacy from the colonial period , when the Portuguese controlled East Timor, whereas most of the rest of Indonesia came to controlled by the Dutch.

^ Here, ironically, the Dutch colonial power (which controlled the region increasingly from the 17th century down to 1942) left an important experience.

.Effective European occupation of a small part of the territory only began after 1769, when the city of Dili, the capital of so-called Portuguese Timor, was founded.^ Nairn was one of the last journalists to remain in East Timor when the Indonesian military and its militias began to sack the territory after the August 30 plebiscite.

^ In August, the Dili police department produced a volume called Operation Remember Lorosae II, after the local word for Timor.

^ When West Timor gained independence from the Netherlands as part of Indonesia in 1949, East Timor remained a Portuguese colony.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

[12] .In the nineteenth century, the Netherlands gained a foothold on the western half of the island West Timor, and formally received it in 1859 through the Treaty of Lisbon.^ The number of refugees in West Timor and neighboring islands as of October 5 is 255,976, according to the NTT provincial government and quoted in the Pos Kupang.

^ Those who had been taken to the concentration camps in West Timor and islands north of East Timor were living in very poor conditions, he continued.

^ When West Timor gained independence from the Netherlands as part of Indonesia in 1949, East Timor remained a Portuguese colony.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The definitive border was established by the Hague Treaty of 1916, and it remains the international boundary between the successor states East Timor and Indonesia.^ He also called on them to support the process of normalization between East Timor and Indonesia.

^ Formerly Portuguese Timor, East Timor was invaded by Indonesia in 1975, which occupied it until 1999.
  • East Timor -- Timor-Leste Photo Gallery by Joel Santos at pbase.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ December 1989-February 1991 Timor Gap Treaty between Australia and Indonesia established (establishes boundary of sea resource usage, i.e.

.For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century.^ Indonesia has more than 20,000 troops in East Timor.

^ Portuguese first to establish trading posts .

^ Antara reports an Indonesian official said more than 50,000 of nearly 110,000 East Timorese refugees in Indonesian West Timor want to become Indonesian citizens.

.Investment in infrastructure, health, and education was minimal.^ Social reconstruction requires the allocation of resources to rehabilitate the social infrastructure and institutions to provide people with health care, education and other services.

.Sandalwood remained the main export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the mid-nineteenth century.^ Coffee remained the territory's only significant export, but falling world prices hindered export earnings.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In places where Portuguese rule was asserted, it tended to be brutal and exploitative.[13] .At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies which met Timorese resistance.^ I met many East Timorese who had recently returned home from refugee camps in the interior of East Timor or in West Timor.

^ Tetun is the lingua franca in East Timor and the language has proven its resistance both in the Portuguese and Indonesian colonial periods," said Araujo.

[13]
.In late 1941, Portuguese Timor was briefly occupied by Dutch and Australian troops in an attempt to preempt a Japanese invasion of the island.^ In many ways the East Timor problem is a legacy from the colonial period , when the Portuguese controlled East Timor, whereas most of the rest of Indonesia came to controlled by the Dutch.

^ The island of Timor was divided into East and West Timor by the Portuguese and Dutch colonists.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Media Images of Australian troops forcefully arresting Indonesians at gun point in East Timor have also fuelled a sense of resentment.

.The Portuguese Governor protested the occupation, and Dutch forces returned to the Dutch side of the island.^ The island of Timor was divided into East and West Timor by the Portuguese and Dutch colonists.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Australian troops as part of allied forces aid return of Dutch control of Netherlands East Indies .

^ When the Dutch were eventually forced to leave Indonesia and then Irian Jaya, this left a small Portuguese, largely Christian community, sitting at the end of the main southern island chain of Indonesia.

[14] .The Japanese landed and drove the small Australian force out of Dili, and the mountainous interior became the scene of a guerrilla campaign, known as the Battle of Timor.^ Over the past two days, the Royal Australian Air Force evacuated 60 of our nonpartisan volunteers to Darwin from Dili and Baucau.

^ A systematic campaign is being carried out to clear inhabitants along the border area of East and West Timor.

^ With the exception of those hiding in the mountains, a large tract of land in East Timor, west of Dili, has also been cleared of people.

.Waged by Allied forces and Timorese volunteers against the Japanese, the struggle resulted in the deaths of between 40,000 and 70,000 Timorese.^ V. SECURITY PROBLEMS FOR REFUGEES NOT IN CAMPS As many as 50,000 East Timorese refugees in Indonesia are not in camps of any sort, either by their own choice or by force of circumstances.

^ The Indonesian government and UNHCR say there may be 170,000 East Timorese refugees still in western Timor, and tens of thousands may be there against their will.

^ There is evidence of threats of violence against persons and actual violence resulting in injuries and deaths in large numbers.
  • Full Text of UN Commission of Inquiry on East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.1worldcommunication.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] Following the end of the war, Portuguese control was reinstated.
.The process of decolonization in Portuguese Timor began in 1974, following the change of government in Portugal in the wake of the Carnation Revolution.^ But as democracy takes hold in Indonesia, as the people there become more aware of the problem of East Timor, the Indonesians will suffer the same pressures as Portugal did in 1974 to get rid of their colonies, as the US government did from its people to get out of Vietnam.

^ The Australian government under Gough Whitlam in 1974 was against the colonialist influence of Portugal, and argued that peaceful union with Indonesia was the only viable path for East Timor.

^ The Portuguese were slow to give up their colonial holdings, and the desire to do so came with the sudden change of government in 1974 after a bloodless overthrow of the fascist Cataeno government there.

.Owing to political instability and more pressing concerns over the decolonisation of Angola and Mozambique, Portugal effectively abandoned East Timor and it unilaterally declared itself independent on November 28, 1975.[citation needed] Nine days later, it was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces before the declaration could be internationally recognized.^ October 19: Indonesian parliament formally recognizes East Timor’s independence.

^ On 28 November 1975, one of the East Timorese political parties, Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (FRETLIN) declared independence from Portugal because Portugal was considering dismantling its colonies.
  • Full Text of UN Commission of Inquiry on East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.1worldcommunication.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portugal claims should belong to an independent East Timor.

Indonesian occupation

.As political parties began to form and emerge inside the country, the Indonesian military headed an operation that backed Apodeti, a pro-Indonesian party that encouraged divisions between the pro-independence parties of East Timor.^ East Timor did have a pro-integrationist party that sought union with Indonesia, the Apodeti party.

^ "The TNI [Indonesian military] are not in East Timor, thankfully, and the situation is different.

^ East Timor became an independent country on May 20, 2002.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

.January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] A brief civil war occurred in 1975. Indonesia alleged that the East Timorese FRETILIN party, which received some vocal support from the People's Republic of China, was communist.^ East Timorese for the new civil service.

^ East Timorese refugees in Indonesia .

^ Formerly Portuguese Timor, East Timor was invaded by Indonesia in 1975, which occupied it until 1999.
  • East Timor -- Timor-Leste Photo Gallery by Joel Santos at pbase.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

.Fearing a Communist domino effect in Southeast Asia—and in the wake of its South Vietnam campaign—the United States,[16] along with its ally Australia,[17] supported the pro-Western Indonesian government's actions.^ It is time for the United States to call the Indonesian government on its lies.

^ Australia was prominent in supporting the pro-independence stance of the United Nations.

^ Blair told Wiranto that the United States would initiate this new riot-control training for the Indonesian armed forces.

.The UN Security Council had a unanimous vote for Indonesia to stop its invasion and to withdraw immediately from East Timor’s borders, and was blocked by the United States from imposing any economic sanctions or other means of enforcing this mandate.^ Its immediate aim was to retain East Timor as part of Indonesia.

^ Formerly Portuguese Timor, East Timor was invaded by Indonesia in 1975, which occupied it until 1999.
  • East Timor -- Timor-Leste Photo Gallery by Joel Santos at pbase.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ I've got so much news that the people at East Timor suffer a lot by unstable political and security situations, where most of the nations are starfing for foods, better economic, and health conditions.
  • East Timor -- Timor-Leste Photo Gallery by Joel Santos at pbase.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

.The territory was declared the 27th province of Indonesia in July 1976. Its nominal status in the UN remained that of a "non-self-governing territory under Portuguese administration."^ Indonesia invades East Timor which becomes it 27th province in 1976.

^ Following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination that year, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory, which achieved full independence on May 20th, 2002.
  • East Timor -- Timor-Leste Photo Gallery by Joel Santos at pbase.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ That assembly would then --if the people of East Timor reject the autonomy proposal in the vote in early August-- would then convene and revoke the July 1976 Indonesian law which annexed East Timor as its 27th province.

Demonstration for independence from Indonesia.
.Indonesian rule in East Timor was often marked by extreme violence and brutality; estimates of the number of East Timorese who died during the occupation vary from 60,000 to 200,000,[18] A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a minimum bound of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 'excess' deaths from hunger and illness.^ War and violence continue in East Timor.

^ East Timor had an estimated population of 829,000 people.

^ Up to 95,000 East Timorese remain in West Timor.

[19]
.The East Timorese guerrilla force, Falintil, fought a campaign against the Indonesian forces from 1975–1999, some members being trained in Portugal by Portuguese special forces.^ The ETHRC urges the Australian government and the international community to call on the Indonesian government to arrest Eurico Guterres and other members of the militia for crimes against humanity.

^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ But some of those returning are former militia members, a situation which brings NGOs into direct conflict with CNRT, the pro-independence East Timorese political party that forms the only local administration.

.July 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Dili Massacre proved a turning point for the East Timorese cause internationally, and a burgeoning East Timor solidarity movement grew in Portugal, Australia, and the United States.^ Don’t depend on everything that comes from Australia, Portugal or the United States.

^ East Timor was a colony of Portugal.
  • Full Text of UN Commission of Inquiry on East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.1worldcommunication.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

Independence

.Following a UN-sponsored agreement between Indonesia, Portugal and the United States and a surprise decision by the Indonesian President B. J. Habibie, a UN-supervised popular referendum was held on August 30, 1999, to choose between Special Autonomy within Indonesia and independence.^ UN-sponsored Aug 30 referendum.

^ Commentary On 30 August it will be a decade since the people of East Timor defied the genocidal occupiers of their country to take part in a United Nations referendum, voting for their freedom and...

^ Pauli M, who had contacts with the Indonesian military (TNI) in East Timor, first travelled to Dili in July before the August 30 United Nations-sponsored referendum, which produced an overwhelming vote for independence.

.78.5% of voters chose independence, but violent clashes, instigated primarily by elements within the Indonesian military and aided by Timorese pro-Indonesia militias led by Eurico Guterres, broke out soon afterwards.^ This arguably also contributed to the pro-Indonesia militias' violent behavior.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The East Timor Human Rights Center (ETHRC) condemns the Indonesian government's recent recruitment of Eurico Guterres and other members from the Indonesian military backed pro- integration militias into a new civilian defense force designed to ensure security for the August 8th ballot in East Timor.

^ Dili - Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid ordered his military Friday to disarm anti-independence East Timorese militias and take other "necessary actions" to keep them from attacking the territory, Foreign Minister Alwi Shihab announced in Jakarta.

.A peacekeeping force (INTERFET led by Australia) intervened to restore order.^ Mr Ramos Horta said the militias were waiting until the handover of security from the Australian-led Interfet force to the United Nations peacekeeping force under the transitional authority before widening their attacks.

^ Unable to contain the extensive violence, the government called in an Australia-led force.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But an inquest into the death of Sander Thoenes, who was killed the day after the first soldiers of a foreign peacekeeping force arrived to restore order, was hampered by a lack of witnesses from the Indonesian military, coroner Greg Cavanagh said.

.The militias fled across the border into Indonesian West Timor, from which sporadic armed raids were attempted.^ Foreign sources here connected with international aid agencies said that over the four months since hundreds of thousands of East Timorese fled or were pushed across the border into camps mainly controlled by the militia, the Indonesian military appear to have been withdrawing their support for the East Timorese militia they once controlled and paid.

^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ He said original reports indicated as many as 30 militia had crossed the border deep into the Atsabe region last year, a notorious militia stronghold.

.As these raids were repelled and international moral opinion forced Indonesia to withdraw tacit support,[citation needed] the militias dispersed.^ Refugee camps must be under international supervision, and all Indonesian militia, military and police presence in these camps must end.

^ But the organisation that armed and supported them, the Indonesian armed forces (TNI), was still present – a few hundred soldiers, preparing for their final withdrawal and burning their headquarters behind them.

^ For this reason, while we support the process of investigation and trials underway in Indonesia we also encourage the international community to push forward with support for a tribunal.

.INTERFET was replaced by a UN force of International Police, the mission became known as UNTAET, and the UNTAET Crime Scene Detachment was formed to investigate alleged atrocities.^ Senior military officers of INTERFET and staff and police officers of UNTAET briefed the Commission extensively.
  • Full Text of UN Commission of Inquiry on East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.1worldcommunication.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But virtually all of the UN troops on the critical western border are the same Australian and New Zealand soldiers who were stationed there as part of the Interfet force.

^ Although rape is a crime, failures to investigate or prosecute, as well as long delays were common in alleged cases of rape and sexual abuse.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.UNTAET was headed by the late Sérgio Vieira de Mello as UN Transitional Administrator from December 1999 to May 2002. On December 2, 1999, De Mello established the National Consultative Council (NCC), a political body consisting of 11 East Timorese and four UNTAET members charged with overseeing the decision-making process during the transition period leading to independence.^ For Immediate Release: May 11, 1999 .

^ East Timor became an independent country on May 20, 2002.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Interfet has handed over responsibility for East Timor to the UN Transitional Administration.

However, UNTAET experienced difficulties initially in establishing its credibility amongst the Timorese leadership, leading to street violence. .An important workshop on March 1, 2000, brought the Timorese and UN leadership group together to tease out a revised strategy, and identify institutional needs.^ In order to make the operation effective, international NGOs and UN agencies need to coordinate with all potential groups within the society, the people in general, and national NGOs.

^ More East Timorese Returning - UN, Refugees Daily ~ January 12, 2000 .

^ In their Jan 9 congress, they votid that the organisation break away from CNRT and instead be a pressure group monitoring both the UN and East Timorese leaders.

.The workshop was organised by Francis Martin O'Donnell [2], and the Timorese delegation was led by José Ramos-Horta, and included Mari Alkatiri.^ Current Prime Minister Dr. José Ramos-Horta was elected the nation’s second president with just over 69% of the vote.

^ More coverage, including Stephen Fitzpatrick's audio report, at www.theaustralian.com.au ----- Ramos-Horta Casts Presidential Vote in Bacau - MediaNet.

^ I am confident that the new President Dr. José Ramos-Horta will energetically tackle the problems facing the country on behalf of all Timorese people,” the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Timor-Leste, Atul Khare said.

.The outcome was an agreed blueprint for a joint administration with executive powers, including leaders of the National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT), led by future president Xanana Gusmão.^ In the same month the U.N. set up the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor ("UNTAET") to administer East Timor during its transition to independence, 45 with a mandate to exercise all legislative and executive powers in East Timor, including the administration of justice.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ramos-Horta, vice president of the National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRT), said East Timorese are welcome to return "including those who collaborated with Indonesia...

^ The two East Timorese leaders brought the same message to the Philippines, where they met President Joseph Estrada on Saturday.

.Further details were worked out in a conference in May 2000. De Mello presented the new blueprint to a donor conference in Lisbon,[20] on June 22, 2000, and to the UN Security Council on June 27, 2000.[21] On July 12, 2000, the NCC adopted a regulation establishing a Transitional Cabinet of four East Timorese and four UNTAET representatives.^ East Timorese for the new civil service.

^ More East Timorese Returning - UN, Refugees Daily ~ January 12, 2000 .

^ Therefore, although UNTAET was "charged with preparing the East Timorese for democratic self-government," 122 it operated "in an autocratic manner itself" 123 or, as its head Special Representative Sergio Vieira de Mello put it, "by means of a style of 'benevolent despotism.'"
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

[22] .The revamped joint administration successfully laid the institutional foundations for independence, and on September 27, 2002, East Timor joined the United Nations.^ United Nations administration."
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ East Timor became an independent country on May 20, 2002.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

Post independence

.In April 2006, riots broke out in Dili following rivalry within the military and police; 40 people were killed and over 20,000 fled their homes.^ Hundreds of people were killed and hundreds of thousands driven from their homes.

^ According to Mr Farid, Soares was involved in eight killings carried out on October 20, 22 and 23 in the villages of Bobocasse, Cunha and Lalisuc.

^ Towns were devastated, 400,000 people—half the population—were forced to flee their homes, and thousands were killed.

.Fighting between pro-government troops and disaffected Falintil troops broke out in May 2006.[23] Upon the invitation of the Prime Minister, Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Portugal sent troops to Timor, attempting to quell the violence.^ Troops from Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Portugal are taking part in the operation, he said.

^ Australia Hands East Timor Peace Mission to Portugal , Australian Broadcasting Corporation ~ February 15, 2000 .

^ We certainly look forward to the date when the people of East Timor finally will be called upon without coercion, without threat, without violence to vote on their future.

[24] .On 26 June, Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri resigned as Prime Minister, following an ultimatum from President Xanana Gusmão that he would resign if Alkatiri did not.^ The President of the Republic accepts the resignation of the Prime Minister; .
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Right up until his resignation on Monday 26 June East Timor's former Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri...

^ Mari Alkatiri became the first prime minister of the country.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .José Ramos-Horta was appointed as Alkatiri's successor on July 8, 2006.[26] In April 2007, Gusmão declined another presidential term.^ The dismissed soldiers staged another demonstration in late April 2006.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ East Timor presidential candidate Jose Ramos-Horta has secured a huge lead over his rival, according to an election commission official.

^ Current Prime Minister Dr. José Ramos-Horta was elected the nation’s second president with just over 69% of the vote.

.In the build-up to the April 2007 presidential elections there were renewed outbreaks of violence in February and March 2007. José Ramos-Horta was inaugurated as President on May 20, 2007, following his election win in the second round.^ The inauguration shall take place on the last day of the term of office of the outgoing President or, in case of election due to vacancy, on the eighth day following the publication of the electoral results.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ramos-Horta, vice president of the National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRT), said East Timorese are welcome to return "including those who collaborated with Indonesia...

^ Where no candidate gets more than half of the votes, a second round shall take place on the 30 th day following the first voting.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] .Gusmão was sworn in as Prime Minister on August 8, 2007. President Ramos-Horta was critically injured in an assassination attempt on February 11, 2008, in a failed coup apparently perpetrated by Alfredo Reinado, a renegade soldier who died in the attack.^ Ramos-Horta, vice president of the National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRT), said East Timorese are welcome to return "including those who collaborated with Indonesia...

^ But virtually all of the UN troops on the critical western border are the same Australian and New Zealand soldiers who were stationed there as part of the Interfet force.

^ Mike ----- FRENTE REVOLUCIONÁRIA DO TIMOR-LESTE INDEPENDENTE FRETILIN Media release 11 May 2007 Message from Lu Olo in respect of the 2007 Presidential Elections in Timor-Leste (Translation from Tetum to English) I would like to congratulate Jose Ramos Horta on winning the election to become President of the Republic of Timor-Leste.

Prime Minister Gusmão also faced gunfire separately but escaped unharmed. .The Australian government immediately sent reinforcements to East Timor to keep order.^ With the collapse of the Suharto government , and widespread efforts at political reform, the opportunity was ripe for self-determinism efforts in East Timor.

^ Ms Perry highlighted the role that Australian local governments and communities have played in supporting East Timorese communities.

^ From its beginning, UNTAET found a fundamental tension between its two mandates—administrating East Timor and preparing it for self-government.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

[28]

Politics

Government Palace in Dili.
.The head of state of East Timor is the President of East Timor, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term.^ To elect five members for the Council of State; .
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ramos-Horta has spent the last 24 years tirelessly battling to secure a safe and secure future for the people of East Timor, and pledges to continue his mission if elected to the office of President.

^ We certainly look forward to the date when the people of East Timor finally will be called upon without coercion, without threat, without violence to vote on their future.

.Although the role is largely symbolic, the president does have veto power over certain types of legislation.^ But the role of president is largely ceremonial, leaving Ramos-Horta with few powers to implement the substantial changes that he says East Timor desperately needs, said Timor expert Damien Kingsbury.

^ "He basically has two roles, one is a symbolic head of state and the other is that he has power of veto over legislation passed in parliament," said Kingsbury from Australia's Deakin University.

.Following elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the Prime Minister of East Timor.^ East Timor’s independence leaders, most of whom had been educated in Portugal, are trying to remold the country’s identity after over two decades of brutal occupation by Indonesia.

^ The two East Timorese leaders brought the same message to the Philippines, where they met President Joseph Estrada on Saturday.

^ The presidential election in East Timor was the first since the country won independence in 2002 following a bloody separation from neighbouring Indonesia.

.As head of government, the prime minister presides over the Council of State or cabinet.^ The new president Gus Dur has appointed six military officers to his cabinet of thirty five ministers.

^ Current Prime Minister Dr. José Ramos-Horta was elected the nation’s second president with just over 69% of the vote.

^ The Council of Ministers shall be convened and chaired by the Prime Minister.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The unicameral Timorese parliament is the National Parliament or Parlamento Nacional, whose members are elected by popular vote to a five-year term.^ Members of the National Parliament shall have a term of office of five years.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To elect five members for the Council of State; .
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One elected by the National Parliament; .
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The number of seats can vary from a minimum of fifty-two to a maximum of sixty-five, though it exceptionally has eighty-eight members at present, due to this being its first term of office.^ For this he was rewarded by being appointed Bupati of the Bobonaro district for two terms.

.The East Timorese constitution was modelled on that of Portugal.^ While Bupati he took over many landholdings vacated by East Timorese who fled to Australia and Portugal and is now an important landowner.

.The country is still in the process of building its administration and governmental institutions.^ Second, the leaders relied on their personalities, rather than institution-building, to solve the problems their country faced.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

Government departments

Districts, subdistricts, and sucos

Map of the districts of East Timor.
East Timor is divided into thirteen administrative districts:
.The districts are subdivided into 65 subdistricts, 443 sucos and 2,336 towns, villages and hamlets.^ The material already delivered or currently on its way to the polling centres and stations will therefore enable up to 524,073 registered voters to choose Timor Leste’s new President, across 13 districts, 65 sub-districts and 442 sucos (towns/villages).

[29]

Geography

Map of East Timor shows cities and main roads.
Tasitolu in Dili.
.Located in southeast Asia,[30] the island of Timor is part of the Maritime Southeast Asia, and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands.^ Furthermore, the East Timor experience, as well shall see, has forced a serious reappraisal of Australia's defence policies and her engagement in Southeast Asia.

^ They were taken either to Indonesian West Timor or off Timor island to other parts of Indonesia.

^ Indonesian government sources also reported that 20,000 displaced are on the East Timor side of the border, attempting to flee to the Western part of the island.

.To the north of the mountainous island are the Ombai Strait, Wetar Strait and the greater Banda Sea, to the south the Timor Sea separates the island from Australia, while to the west lies the Indonesian Province of East Nusa Tenggara.^ They claim East Timor to be an Indonesian province.

^ Timor island is divided between U.N.-administered East Timor and Indonesian-held West Timor.

^ KUPANG - People in West Timor (East Nusa Tenggara) are urging the Indonesian government to invite Australia to review the Timor Gap treaty in Jakarta in March, an informal leader said here Monday.

.The highest mountain of East Timor is Tatamailau (also known as Mount Ramelau) at 2,963 meters (9,721 ft).^ With the exception of those hiding in the mountains, a large tract of land in East Timor, west of Dili, has also been cleared of people.

^ The East Timorese who lived in Oecussi (the East Timorese enclave in West Timor): UNHCR estimates that over 40,000 people were forced by violence into the mountains around Oecussi.

^ "These incursions are part of a wider strategy by the highest level in the Indonesian military to destabilise East Timor," he said.

The local climate is tropical and generally hot and humid, characterised by distinct rainy and dry seasons. .The capital, largest city and main port is Dili, and the second-largest city is the eastern town of Baucau.^ Its towns and cities, including the capital, Dili, were in ruins.

^ It was in this sinister atmosphere that a small team of human-rights workers sneaked into a one-storey building off Dili's main port road.

^ The international force in East Timor (INTERFET) had begun to move to Baucau, the second largest town.

The easternmost area of Timor-Leste consists of the Paitchau Range and Iralalaro area. .This area has been proposed as the first conservation area in Timor-Leste as it contains the last remaining tropical dry forested area within the country.^ Nairn was one of the last journalists to remain in East Timor when the Indonesian military and its militias began to sack the territory after the August 30 plebiscite.

^ The presidential election in East Timor was the first since the country won independence in 2002 following a bloody separation from neighbouring Indonesia.

^ This will ensure that it will be ‘all-systems-go’ by 7am on May 9, when the second act in Timor Leste’s first national elections since independence gets underway.

It hosts a number of unique plant and animal species and is sparsely populated.[31] The northern coast is characterised by a number of coral reef systems that have been determined to be at risk.[32]

Economy

Prior to and during colonization, Timor was best known for its sandalwood.
.In late 1999, about 70% of the economic infrastructure of East Timor was destroyed by Indonesian troops[citation needed] and anti-independence militias, and 260,000 people fled westward.^ East Timor had an estimated population of 829,000 people.

^ [Q] What about the social tension in East Timor?

^ About 260,000 people were either deported to West Timor or fled there to escape the militia violence in East Timor which erupted after the announcement, on Sept.

.From 2002 to 2005, an international program led by the United Nations, manned by civilian advisers, 5,000 peacekeepers (8,000 at peak) and 1,300 police officers, substantially reconstructed the infrastructure.^ The Indonesian military, police and military-backed militia continue to flaunt their disregard for the United Nations.

^ "The confiscated weapons were handed over to U.N. peacekeeping personnel and four other individuals were detained for questioning by civpol (civilian police)," he said.

^ East Timorese returned back to Dili by land in two convoys organized by UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees - and IOM - International Organization for Migration .

.By mid-2002, all but about 50,000 of the refugees had returned.^ V. SECURITY PROBLEMS FOR REFUGEES NOT IN CAMPS As many as 50,000 East Timorese refugees in Indonesia are not in camps of any sort, either by their own choice or by force of circumstances.

^ But for this to happen, all those in refugee camps in West Timor and elsewhere who want to return to East Timor must be allowed to do so.

^ Mr Soren Jessen-Petersen, Assistant High Commissioner for UNHCR, said on Monday that 50,000 or more refugees would probably like to return home "if they had a free choice".

.One promising long-term project is the joint development with Australia of petroleum and natural gas resources in the waters southeast of Timor.^ Much has altered since 1989, but one thing has not—the central pillar of Australian policy has remained the siphoning off of the lion's share of the resources under the sea between Timor and Australia.

^ Furthermore, the East Timor experience, as well shall see, has forced a serious reappraisal of Australia's defence policies and her engagement in Southeast Asia.

^ The two leaders said the need of foreign investments in East Timor is one of the country's development priorities, but also stressed the types of investments that come with technology transfers and human resource development.

.The Portuguese colonial administration granted concessions to Oceanic Exploration Corporation to develop the deposits.^ The signatory for East Timor was the UN Administrator, who currently holds complete power over the former Portuguese colony.

.However, this was curtailed by the Indonesian invasion in 1976. The resources were divided between Indonesia and Australia with the Timor Gap Treaty in 1989.[33] The treaty established guidelines for joint exploitation of seabed resources in the area of the "gap" left by then-Portuguese Timor in the maritime boundary agreed between the two countries in 1972.[34] Revenues from the "joint" area were to be divided 50%-50%.^ December 1989-February 1991 Timor Gap Treaty between Australia and Indonesia established (establishes boundary of sea resource usage, i.e.

^ According to Ferdi, Indonesia was then pressured by Australia to sign the Timor Gap treaty.

^ The reversal of Australian and Indonesian policies in relation to East Timor , however, has opened up another area whether tensions can arise between the two countries.

Woodside Petroleum and ConocoPhillips began development of some resources in the Timor Gap on behalf of the two governments in 1992.
.East Timor inherited no permanent maritime boundaries when it attained independence, repudiating the Timor Gap Treaty as illegal.^ East Timor’s independence leaders, most of whom had been educated in Portugal, are trying to remold the country’s identity after over two decades of brutal occupation by Indonesia.

^ Ferdi said the government and legislative assembly of West Timor (East Nusa Tenggara) would continue to demand a review on the ratification of the existing Timor Gap treaty which, he said, was mostly in Australia's favour.

^ There shall be no death penalty in the Democratic Republic of East Timor.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.A provisional agreement (the Timor Sea Treaty, signed when East Timor became independent on 20 May 2002) defined a Joint Petroleum Development Area (JPDA), and awarded 90% of revenues from existing projects in that area to East Timor and 10% to Australia.^ International Federation for East Timor Observer Project (IFET-OP) Media Statement Contact details: Charlie Scheiner info@easttimor.com or tel 61-8-898 55529 Darwin, Australia.

^ The scant mention of the treaties was in stark contrast to 1989 when members of Hawke's cabinet signed the Timor Gap Treaty with their Indonesian counterparts in a champagne ceremony on board a VIP jet flying above the Timor Sea.

^ Australia Hands East Timor Peace Mission to Portugal , Australian Broadcasting Corporation ~ February 15, 2000 .

[35] .The first significant new development in the JPDA since Timorese independence is the largest petroleum resource in the Timor Sea, the Greater Sunrise gas field.^ Much has altered since 1989, but one thing has not—the central pillar of Australian policy has remained the siphoning off of the lion's share of the resources under the sea between Timor and Australia.

^ The first five international customs experts arrived yesterday from New Zealand to Dili to serve on the new service and to train future Timorese customs and immigration officers.

^ The presidential election in East Timor was the first since the country won independence in 2002 following a bloody separation from neighbouring Indonesia.

Its exploitation was the subject of separate agreements in 2003 and 2005. Only 20% of the field lies within the JPDA and the rest in waters not subject to the treaty (though claimed by both countries). .The initial, temporary agreement gave 82% of revenues to Australia and only 18% to East Timor.^ The East Timor Human Rights Centre is the only organisation outside East Timor established to protect and promote the human rights of the East Timorese people.

^ Australia Hands East Timor Peace Mission to Portugal , Australian Broadcasting Corporation ~ February 15, 2000 .

^ This is important not only for the future of East Timor, but to ensure that such crimes are not repeated by anyone anywhere.

[36]
.The Government of East Timor has sought to negotiate a definite boundary with Australia at the halfway line between the countries, in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.^ The Democratic Republic of East Timor shall maintain special ties of friendship and co-operation with its neighbouring countries and the countries of the region.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

^ Much has altered since 1989, but one thing has not—the central pillar of Australian policy has remained the siphoning off of the lion's share of the resources under the sea between Timor and Australia.

.The Government of Australia preferred to establish the boundary at the end of the wide Australian continental shelf, as agreed with Indonesia in 1972 and 1991. Normally a dispute such as this would be referred to the International Court of Justice or the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea for an impartial decision,[37] but the Australian government had withdrawn itself from these international jurisdictions (solely on matters relating to maritime boundaries) shortly before Timorese independence.^ The Supreme Court of Justice and other courts of law; .
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "This should preferably be done with the consent of the government (Indonesia), but such consent should not be a prerequisite.

^ This has led to disputes before the International Court of Justice) .

[38] .Nevertheless, under public and diplomatic pressure, the Australian government offered instead a last-minute concession on Greater Sunrise gas field royalties alone.^ Under intense pressure from the East Timorese, UNTAET gradually switched gears to focus more on preparation for East Timorese self-government.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "The U.S. State Department has urged the Indonesian government 'to bring the pro-integration militia groups under control,' but stronger pressure is really needed," said Miller.

^ Because the scramble for oil and gas undermines the government's claims to have sent thousands of troops to East Timor last September for purely humanitarian purposes.

[39] .On July 7, 2005, an agreement was signed under which both countries would set aside the dispute over the maritime boundary, and East Timor would receive 50% of the revenues (estimated at A$26 billion or about US$20 billion over the lifetime of the project)[40] from the Greater Sunrise development.^ East Timor became an independent country on May 20, 2002.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ [Q] What about the social tension in East Timor?

^ East Timor is done in US dollars."

.Other developments within waters claimed by East Timor but outside the JPDA (Laminaria-Corallina and Buffalo) continue to be exploited unilaterally by Australia, however.^ War and violence continue in East Timor.

^ The publication also claims that East Timor’s Aug.

^ The East Timor Human Rights Centre is the only organisation outside East Timor established to protect and promote the human rights of the East Timorese people.

[41]
Subdistricts suffering from hunger in November 2007
.In 2007 a bad harvest led to deaths in several parts of Timor-Leste.^ Railos was dismissed from the Timor-Leste army (F-FDTL) in 2004 for misappropriation of funds, and was recommended for prosecution by the United Nations Independent Special Commission of Inquiry in October 2006 in connection with the shooting deaths of several people in May 2006.

.In November 2007, eleven subdistricts still needed food supplied by international aid.^ Just because some families have a supply of rice, the CNRT, international NGOs, and UN agencies assume that everybody has a sufficient supply of food.

[42]
.East Timor also has a large and potentially lucrative coffee industry, which sells organic coffee to numerous Fair Trade retailers and on the open market.^ A day later, suspected militia members opened fire at U.N. troops on the border between West and East Timor.

^ Sergio Vieira de Mello made an open invitation to those officials to visit East Timor.

^ Trade between two countries reaches $A3 billion (Indonesia 10th larges export market for Australia) .

[citation needed]
Currently three foreign banks have a branch in Dili: Australia's ANZ, Portugal's Banco Nacional Ultramarino, and Indonesia's Bank Mandiri.
.There are no patent laws in East Timor.^ However there is no law...

^ There were no reports during the year that this law had been applied to prevent academic research or to punish researchers.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were unconfirmed reports that children as young as 10 were being used to smuggle goods across the border between Indonesia and East Timor.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]

Demographics

Man in traditional dress, East Timor.jpg
.The population of East Timor is about one million.^ [Q] What about the social tension in East Timor?

^ East Timor had an estimated population of 829,000 people.

^ Marzuki to Meet UN Officials about East Timor Tribunal , Jakarta Post ~ January 20, 2000 .

.It has grown considerably recently, because of a high birth rate, but also because of the return of refugees.^ East Timorese returned back to Dili by land in two convoys organized by UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees - and IOM - International Organization for Migration .

^ The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Indonesian government estimate that 60-80% of the refugees in the camps wish to return to East Timor.

^ I met many East Timorese who had recently returned home from refugee camps in the interior of East Timor or in West Timor.

[citation needed] The population is especially concentrated in the area around Dili.
.The Timorese are called Maubere collectively by some of their political organizations, an originally derogatory name turned into a name of pride by Fretilin.^ But some of those returning are former militia members, a situation which brings NGOs into direct conflict with CNRT, the pro-independence East Timorese political party that forms the only local administration.

^ Evidence has emerged that Timorese militias, imported Javanese militias, and evacuating Timorese men forced to turn militias, have been co-opted into a force which is now spreading out into the hills.

^ Although the Habibie Government denies it, the military, turns Timorese camp followers into militias.

They consist of a number of distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are of mixed Malayo-Polynesian and Melanesian/Papuan descent. .The largest Malayo-Polynesian ethnic groups are the Tetum[44] (or Tetun) (100,000), primarily in the north coast and around Dili; the Mambae (80,000), in the central mountains; the Tukudede (63,170), in the area around Maubara and Liquiçá; the Galoli (50,000), between the tribes of Mambae and Makasae; the Kemak (50,000) in north-central Timor island; and the Baikeno (20,000), in the area around Pante Macassar.^ Those who had been taken to the concentration camps in West Timor and islands north of East Timor were living in very poor conditions, he continued.

^ The Indonesian government and UNHCR say there may be 170,000 East Timorese refugees still in western Timor, and tens of thousands may be there against their will.

^ At this time, Mahidi has about 1,000 “members” and 37 automatic weapons obtained from ABRI. This group operates in the area of Ainaro and Suai.

.The main tribes of predominantly Papuan origin include the Bunak (50,000), in the central interior of Timor island; the Fataluku (30,000), at the eastern tip of the island near Lospalos; and the Makasae, toward the eastern end of the island.^ On August 30, over 98% of some 450,000 registered voters cast their ballots in East Timor's referendum.

^ UNHCR, according to del Mundo, expects that of the reported over 100,000 people in West Timor about 50,000 want to go back to East Timor.

^ The Soeharto landholdings stretch from the western border to the eastern tip of East Timor and include 50,000 hectares of timber plantations allocated to Bob Hasan, one of the Soeharto family's business operators, and tens of thousands of hectares of sugarcane plantations on the southern coast controlled by Soeharto's children.

.In addition, like other former Portuguese colonies where interracial marriage was common, there is a smaller population of people of mixed Timorese and Portuguese origin, known in Portuguese as mestiços.^ We were told that there were four sheets like this in the vicinity where facilities for the local inhabitants have had to cater for an additional one hundred people for more than a month.

^ Both my parents are originally from Manutasi, and just like the majority of East Timorese, they are peasants and they live quite poorly.

^ I know that the East Timorese people will suffer another bloodbath, but I also know that we have no other alternative because it is our homeland and the right to it is ours.

.The East Timorese mestiço best-known internationally is José Ramos-Horta, the spokesman for the resistance movement in exile, and now President of East Timor.^ We now have Ramos Horta on the line from Dili.

^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ Ramos-Horta has spent the last 24 years tirelessly battling to secure a safe and secure future for the people of East Timor, and pledges to continue his mission if elected to the office of President.

Mário Viegas Carrascalão, Indonesia's appointed governor between 1987 and 1992, is also a mestiço. .East Timor also has a small Chinese minority, most of whom are Hakka.^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

^ East Timor’s independence leaders, most of whom had been educated in Portugal, are trying to remold the country’s identity after over two decades of brutal occupation by Indonesia.

^ The international community finally did intervene in this most recent chapter of East Timor’s history.

.Most left after the Indonesian invasion, with most moving to Australia although many Sino-Timorese have returned, including Pedro Lay, the Minister for Infrastructure.^ Ramos-Horta, vice president of the National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRT), said East Timorese are welcome to return "including those who collaborated with Indonesia...

^ The Indonesian minister told the paper East Timorese were streaming back to refugee camps in Indonesia because of uncertainties at home, including food shortages.

^ This is dissuading many East Timorese from returning.’ Until this issue can be comprehensively addressed the refugee crisis will persist.

Religion

.Upon independence, East Timor became one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia (along with the Philippines), although nearby parts of Indonesia also have Catholic majorities, including West Timor and Flores.^ Its immediate aim was to retain East Timor as part of Indonesia.

^ West Timor or transmigrated elsewhere in Indonesia."

^ One major unresolved problem relates to the return of refugees from West Timor and other parts of Indonesia.

.The population predominantly identifies as Roman Catholic (97%), though local animist traditions have a persistent and strong influence on the culture.^ More than 90 percent of the population was Roman Catholic, and there were small Protestant and Muslim minorities.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Religious minorities include Muslims (1%) (including former Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri) and Protestants (1%) (including Taur Matan Ruak, Commander of the Falintil-FDTL).^ Mari Alkatiri became the first prime minister of the country.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their governance was mandated to indifference within diplomacy and a "right to rule" mentality under the deceptive totalitarianism of disgraced former Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri, who continues to kingpin the Fretilin party.

^ More than 90 percent of the population was Roman Catholic, and there were small Protestant and Muslim minorities.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Smaller Hindu (0.5%), Buddhist (0.1%) and traditional animist minorities make up the remainder.[45][46][47] .Church membership grew considerably under Indonesian rule, as Indonesia's state ideology Pancasila does not recognize traditional beliefs and requires all citizens to believe in God.^ Refugee camps must be under international supervision, and all Indonesian militia, military and police presence in these camps must end.

^ "The U.S. State Department has urged the Indonesian government 'to bring the pro-integration militia groups under control,' but stronger pressure is really needed," said Miller.

^ The Indonesian Army (TNI): Indonesia has been a militarized state since Suharto took power in a military coup in 1965.

.Although the struggle was not about religion, as a deep-rooted local institution the Church not only symbolized East Timor's distinction from predominantly Muslim Indonesia, but also played a significant role in the resistance movement, as personified by Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.^ Nobel Peace Prize co-Laureate .

^ He has long played strongly on his status, along with former Dili Bishop Carlos Ximines Belo, as a Nobel Peace Prize laureate for the part he played in East Timor's arduous road to independence.

^ Bishop Belo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1996 for being an unflinching defender of his martyred people.

[48] .The constitution acknowledges the Church's role among the East Timorese people although it also stipulates a secular state that guarantees freedom of religion to everyone.^ It is clear that the East Timorese people live in a state in which they fear for their lives."

^ The East Timor Human Rights Centre is the only organisation outside East Timor established to protect and promote the human rights of the East Timorese people.

^ This week's action by the Indonesian MPR actualizes, at long last, what the Security Council called for so long ago in Resolution 384(1975): respect by all States of the inalienable right of the East Timorese people to self- determination.

Languages

.East Timor's two official languages are Portuguese and Tetum, which belongs to the Austronesian family of languages spoken throughout Southeast Asia.^ They have even offered to send staff to conduct trauma counselling for children, ignoring the fact that almost none of the traumatised children in East Timor can communicate in Portuguese.

^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

^ Recent information tells us of the theft of roofing iron from buildings throughout East Timor, and of the felling of a teak forest in Oecusse.

[49] .The predominant form of Tetum, known as Tetun-Dili, grew out of the dialect favored by the colonizers at Dili, and thus has considerable Portuguese influence, but other dialects of Tetum are also widely used in the country, including Tetun-Terik which is spoken along the southwestern coast.^ Indonesia’s policy of moving populations from one part of the country to the other has long been used as a way to subdue ethnic groups.

^ The UN regulations, many of which are in force, were available in English, Portuguese, and Indonesian, as well as in Tetum, the language most widely spoken in the country.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distribution of Portuguese text-books to primary schools in Dili has upset teachers, most of whom do not understand Portuguese to any useful degree.

.Indonesian and English are defined as working languages under the Constitution in the Final and Transitional Provisions, without setting a final date.^ We certainly look forward to the date when the people of East Timor finally will be called upon without coercion, without threat, without violence to vote on their future.

^ The international community should press for this international tribunal to be set up, with or without the consent of the Indonesian government.

^ The UN regulations, many of which are in force, were available in English, Portuguese, and Indonesian, as well as in Tetum, the language most widely spoken in the country.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another fifteen indigenous languages are spoken: Bekais, Bunak, Dawan, Fataluku, Galoli, Habun, Idalaka, Kawaimina, Kemak, Lovaia, Makalero, Makasai, Mambai, Tokodede, and Wetarese.
.Under Indonesian rule, the use of Portuguese was banned, but it was used by the clandestine resistance, especially in communicating with the outside world.^ Many Renetil activists played an important role during their years of study at Indonesian universities, promoting the issue of East Timor to the outside world.

^ Because I survived the massacre and denounced the crime to the outside world, the TNI/ABRI and the Suharto government banned me as "threat to national security."

^ Because I survived the massacre and denounced the crime the outside world, the TNI/ABRI and the Suharto government banned me as a "threat to national security."

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The language, along with Tetum, gained importance as a symbol of resistance and freedom and was adopted as one of the two official languages for this reason, and as a link to nations in other parts of the world.^ (Official languages and national languages) .
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Official languages and national languages .
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tetum and the other national languages shall be valued and developed by the State.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is now being taught and promoted widely with the help of Brazil, Portugal, and the Latin Union, although its prominence in official and public spheres has been met with some hostility from younger Indonesian-educated Timorese.^ Officially, Australian policy has shifted from being the West's most ardent defender of the Indonesian regime and its annexation of East Timor, to championing the right of the Timorese people to self-determination.

^ Lopez and other East Timorese living in the former Indonesian province now scramble for food, shelter and jobs.

^ The decision to adopt Portuguese as the official language hasn’t helped to bridge the gap; this is not the language of the younger generation of East Timorese who speak Indonesian fluently but mostly struggle with Portuguese.

.According to the 2006 UN Development Report (using data from official census), under 5%[50] of the Timorese population is proficient in Portuguese.^ Antara reports an Indonesian official said more than 50,000 of nearly 110,000 East Timorese refugees in Indonesian West Timor want to become Indonesian citizens.

^ The UN estimates that more than 80% of Timorese under the age of 25 speak Bahasa.

^ Men have been forcibly recruited into the militias, and observers report the use of rape as a means of control of the refugee population.

.However, the validity of this report has been questioned by members of the Timorese National Institute of Linguistics,[51] which maintains that Portuguese is spoken by up to 25% of Timorese, with the number of speakers more than doubling in the last five years.^ Members of the National Parliament shall have a term of office of five years.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No member of the Government may be detained or imprisoned without the permission of the National Parliament, except for a felonious crime punishable with a maximum sentence of imprisonment for more than two years and in flagrante delicto .
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 524,000 people were eligible to vote in Wednesday's election in a nation of one million.

.February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Along with other local languages, Tetum remains the most common means of communication between ordinary Timorese, while Indonesian is still widely used in the media and school from high school to university.^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

^ Presently, Indonesian cadets are still being trained at Norwich University, in Northfield, Vermont.

.A large proportion of words in Tetum are derived from Portuguese, but it also shares many Malay-derived words with Indonesian.^ Many Timorese, especially the younger generation which has grown up learning Bahasa Indonesian at school and absorbing the Indonesian idea of history, do not fully accept the Portuguese or their president.

^ However, Bahasa is not politically acceptable to many of the Timorese who spent 24 years resisting the Indonesians, despite attempts to relabel the language Bahasa Malaiu, or Malay.

^ Although many words of Tetum, the main language of East Timor, are descended from Portuguese, less than 10% of Timorese speak Portuguese with confidence.

.Many Indonesian words are still in common use in Tetum and other Timorese languages, particularly numbers.^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ The number of East Timorese in Flores, West Papua, Sulawesi and other Indonesian islands is unknown, but given the lack of international awareness, the conditions of refugees thus displaced are potentially worse than those in West Timor.

^ The Indonesian government and UNHCR say there may be 170,000 East Timorese refugees still in western Timor, and tens of thousands may be there against their will.

.East Timor is a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, and a member of the Latin Union.^ They have even offered to send staff to conduct trauma counselling for children, ignoring the fact that almost none of the traumatised children in East Timor can communicate in Portuguese.

^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

^ Some want East Timor to observe this July's meeting of ASEAN ministers and eventually become a member of South-east Asia's main diplomatic grouping of 10 countries.

.It is the only independent state in Asia with Portuguese as an official language, although this is also one of the official languages of China's Special Administrative Region of Macau.^ The statement was misinterpreted as a call to arms by the media, although no one in the US State Department, who I am regularly in touch with, misinterpreted Xanana's statement.

^ "Almost 95 percent of Timorese including the professional class speak in Tetun and Bahasa Indonesia, and it will only make sense if one of these languages be made the official language," said Araujo.

^ Tetum and Portuguese shall be the official languages in the Democratic Republic of East Timor.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

Culture

.The culture of East Timor reflects numerous influences, including Portuguese, Roman Catholic, and Malaysia, on the indigenous Austronesian and Melanesian cultures of Timor.^ In its cultural and humane perspective, the Catholic Church in East Timor has always been able to take on the suffering of all the People with dignity, placing itself on their side in the defence of their most fundamental rights .
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tetum and Portuguese shall be the official languages in the Democratic Republic of East Timor.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But it was unclear whether he could resolve East Timor's many domestic problems, including restoring security, she said.

.Legend has it that a giant crocodile was transformed into the island of Timor, or Crocodile Island, as it is often called.^ A new political map is already beginning to emerge, reflecting the transformation of East Timor into a pluralist society.

^ Indeed, after focusing on and achieving self-determination, East Timor is faced with the tough task of transforming a war-torn, poor island into a growing economy.

.East Timorese culture is heavily influenced by Austronesian legends, although the Catholic influence is also strong.^ The aim was to promote East Timorese culture and promote gender equity, and women would play a role in the entire process.

^ Without the influence and solidarity efforts of American Catholics, it is unlikely that Indonesian troops would have withdrawn from East Timor at all.

^ The attitude of the local Flores people towards the East Timorese has become more sympathetic since the killings of the Catholic priests and nuns.

There is a strong tradition of poetry. .Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, for example, is a distinguished poet.^ But if Xanana is elected prime minister then there shouldn't be any conflict," said Cason, an East Timor analyst based in the capital Dili.

As for architecture, some Portuguese-style buildings can be found, along with the traditional totem houses of the eastern region. These are known as uma lulik (sacred houses) in Tetum, and lee teinu (houses with legs) in Fataluku. Craftsmanship is also widespread, as is the weaving of traditional scarves or tais.

Education

About half the adult population are illiterate. [52] Illiteracy is higher among women. [53] Illiteracy was at 90 % at the end of Portuguese rule[citation needed]. .In 2006, 10-30 % of primary-school age children did not attend school.^ "We have 11 teachers," commented Mario Soares, the head-master of Primary School 10 in Dili, who had been given the books.

^ They are small problems which start - in this particular case in the Pite [phonetic] neighbourhood yesterday - with a scene of violence between children, primary school or secondary school age.

.[54] The country has the National University of East Timor.^ The Democratic Republic of East Timor shall maintain special ties of friendship and co-operation with its neighbouring countries and the countries of the region.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

^ East Timor’s independence leaders, most of whom had been educated in Portugal, are trying to remold the country’s identity after over two decades of brutal occupation by Indonesia.

.Indonesian plays a considerable role within education[citation needed].^ Since then the Indonesian army has played a key role in all areas of government.

^ Many Renetil activists played an important role during their years of study at Indonesian universities, promoting the issue of East Timor to the outside world.

^ In the difficult days of the Indonesian occupation, the Catholic Church played a critically important role in protecting and organising the people but now, things have changed.

Health

Life expectancy at birth was at 60.7 in 2007. [55] The Fertility rate is at six births per woman. .[56] Healthy life expectancy at birth was at 55 years in 2007. [57] Government expenditure on health was at US$ 150 (PPP) per person in 2006. [58] Many people in East Timor lack safe drinking water.^ For many years, tuberculosis and malaria have been major killers in East Timor.

^ East Timor is done in US dollars."

^ Ramos-Horta has spent the last 24 years tirelessly battling to secure a safe and secure future for the people of East Timor, and pledges to continue his mission if elected to the office of President.

[59]

Sports

.East Timor has joined many international sport associations, including the International Olympic Committee (IOC).^ (The Indonesian military has been spreading a rumor that people in East Timor are subject to attack, rape, and torture at the hands of the international peacekeeping force there.

^ The international community finally did intervene in this most recent chapter of East Timor’s history.

^ Admiral Blair reminded Wiranto that fairly or unfairly the international community looks at East Timor as a barometer of progress for Indonesian reform.

.The IOC board has granted full recognition to the East Timorese Olympic Committee (COTL).^ In a well-coordinated manner, the Indonesian military and its militias forced hundreds of thousands of East Timorese at gun-point to board trucks, boats, and even airplanes.

^ A correspondent then asked about recognition of the claims of companies and families controlling East Timorese resources.

^ We urge you to give the CNRT and other East Timorese leaders full participation in the transitional administration, not just as advisors but in decision-making and leadership roles.

.The IOC had allowed a mainly symbolic four-member team to take part in the 2000 Sydney Games under the Olympic flag as "Independent Olympic Athletes."^ The people of East Timor had voted for independence under the flag of CNRT. The CNRT had earned the right to participate actively in the transition.

.The Federação de Timor-Leste de Atletismo has joined the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).^ We are speaking for the International Federation for East Timor Observer Project, which brought more than 120 volunteer observers to East Timor from all over the world to observe the U.N. popular consultation process.

^ At the end of the media course, the participants announced the establishment of a Timor Loro Sae Journalists’ Association, with mainstream and activist journalists joining forces in the new association.

^ Testimony of the International Federation for East Timor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights September 24, 1999 .

.The Federação de Badminton de Timor-Leste joined the International Badminton Federation (IBF) in April 2003. The East Timor Cycling Federation has joined the Union Cycliste Internationale.^ International Federation for East Timor Observer Project (IFET-OP) Media Statement Contact details: Charlie Scheiner info@easttimor.com or tel 61-8-898 55529 Darwin, Australia.

^ A Grassroots International Report ~ Refugees: The Other Side of the Crisis in East Timor by Martha Thompson .

^ (The Indonesian military has been spreading a rumor that people in East Timor are subject to attack, rape, and torture at the hands of the international peacekeeping force there.

.The Confederação do Desporto de Timor Leste has joined the International Weightlifting Federation.^ We are speaking for the International Federation for East Timor Observer Project, which brought more than 120 volunteer observers to East Timor from all over the world to observe the U.N. popular consultation process.

^ Testimony of the International Federation for East Timor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights September 24, 1999 .

^ Report from International Federation for East Timor Observer Project (IFET-OP) East Timor field office, 3:30 am Monday September 6 .

.East Timor is also a full member of the International Table-Tennis Federation (ITTF).^ International Federation for East Timor Observer Project (IFET-OP) Media Statement Contact details: Charlie Scheiner info@easttimor.com or tel 61-8-898 55529 Darwin, Australia.

^ (The Indonesian military has been spreading a rumor that people in East Timor are subject to attack, rape, and torture at the hands of the international peacekeeping force there.

^ The international community finally did intervene in this most recent chapter of East Timor’s history.

.In September 2005, East Timor's national football team joined FIFA.^ Source: East Timor National Electoral Commission 18 April 2007 .

^ The national symbols of the Democratic Republic of East Timor shall be the flag, the emblem and the national anthem.
  • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ East Timor held a peaceful presidential election on Wednesday, with voter turnout high in this impoverished nation of one million people.

.East Timor has taken part in several sporting events.^ Since much of East Timor is now under seige by the Indonesian army and militias, the location of this event will not be announced until shortly beforehand.

^ Those who had been taken to the concentration camps in West Timor and islands north of East Timor were living in very poor conditions, he continued.

^ Further promote the return of East Timorese refugees who were forcibly taken to West Timor and other parts of Indonesia and are still exposed to grave human rights violations.

.Although the athletes came back with no medals, East Timorese athletes had the opportunity to compete with other Southeast Asian athletes in the 2003 Southeast Asian Games held in Vietnam in 2003. In the 2003 ASEAN Paralympics Games, also held in Vietnam, East Timor won a bronze medal.^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ No one knows exactly how many of the refugees being held in the camps in West Timor would choose repatriation or relocation.

^ The number of East Timorese in Flores, West Papua, Sulawesi and other Indonesian islands is unknown, but given the lack of international awareness, the conditions of refugees thus displaced are potentially worse than those in West Timor.

In the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, six athletes participated in three sports: athletics, weightlifting and boxing). .East Timor won three medals in Arnis at the 2005 Southeast Asian Games.^ The presidential election in East Timor was the first since the country won independence in 2002 following a bloody separation from neighbouring Indonesia.

^ IFET called "the massive bloodshed and displacement inflicted on the people of East Timor over the last three weeks ...

^ His group's arsenal includes three M-16s and 16 World War II-vintage G-3 rifles left when the Portuguese fled East Timor.

.East Timor was also one of the competing nations in the first Lusophony Games, winning a bronze medal in the women's volleyball competition (finishing third out of three teams), despite the fact the team had lost all its three games.^ They have even offered to send staff to conduct trauma counselling for children, ignoring the fact that almost none of the traumatised children in East Timor can communicate in Portuguese.

^ The issue of which language East Timor will use has become the most explosive national question since the decision in January that the US dollar would become the official currency.

^ "What role would women play in the government being formed in East Timor?", a correspondent asked.

.On October 30, 2008, East Timor earned their first international points in a FIFA match with a 2-2 draw against Cambodia.^ (The Indonesian military has been spreading a rumor that people in East Timor are subject to attack, rape, and torture at the hands of the international peacekeeping force there.

^ The international community finally did intervene in this most recent chapter of East Timor’s history.

^ Admiral Blair reminded Wiranto that fairly or unfairly the international community looks at East Timor as a barometer of progress for Indonesian reform.

[60]

Public holidays

.East Timor now has public holidays that commemorate historic events in the liberation struggle, as well as those associated with Catholicism and Islam.^ The publication also claims that East Timor’s Aug.

^ It is now estimated that there are 120,000 people hiding in the hills of East Timor.

^ Since much of East Timor is now under seige by the Indonesian army and militias, the location of this event will not be announced until shortly beforehand.

.They are defined in Timor-Leste Law no.^ No doubt they would be eager to be involved in a similar trade between the Timor Gap and those same Asian customers.

^ There are also 180,000 people in camps in West Timor, where they receive no food rations from the Indonesian authorities.

^ "There is no law in the world that can deprive the people of West Timor of their right to lay claim to the Timor Gap.

10/2005PDF (16.7 KiB).
Date Name Notes
January 1 New Year's Day
date varies Eid al-Adha
March-April Good Friday
May 1 Labour Day
May 20 Independence Restoration Day Anniversary of transfer of sovereignty from the United Nations transitional government, 2002
May-June Corpus Christi
August 30 Popular Consultation Day Anniversary of the Popular Consultation, 1999
November 1 All Saints' Day
November 2 All Souls' Day
November 12 National Youth Day Anniversary of the Santa Cruz massacre, 1991
November 28 Proclamation of Independence Day 1975
date varies Idul Fitri
December 7 National Heroes' Day Anniversary of Indonesian invasion of East Timor, 1975
December 8 Immaculate Conception
December 25 Christmas Day
In addition, the law defines "official commemorative dates" which are not considered holidays but could be subject to time off from work:
Date Name
February-March Ash Wednesday
March-April Holy Thursday
May-June Ascension Day
June 1 International Children's Day
August 20 Day of the Armed Forces for the National Liberation of Timor-Leste (FALINTIL)
November 3 National Women's Day
December 10 International Human Rights Day

See also

Lists

Notes and references

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1508119.stm
  2. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d "East Timor". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=537&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=29&pr.y=0. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  5. ^ mne.gov.tl
  6. ^ World Bank Country Groups, 2007
  7. ^ United Nations Member States
  8. ^ USA Department of State: Timor Leste Country Page
  9. ^ European Union deploys Election Observation Mission to Timor Leste
  10. ^ "Brief History of Timor-Leste". Official Web Gateway to the Government of Timor-Leste. Government of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. 2006. http://www.timor-leste.gov.tl/AboutTimorleste/history.htm. ; A. Barbedo de Magalhães (24 October 1994). "Population Settlements in East Timor and Indonesia". University of Coimbra website. University of Coimbra. http://www.uc.pt/timor/CURSO1A.HTM. 
  11. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Timor-Leste
  12. ^ http://www.lusotopie.sciencespobordeaux.fr/carneiroSousa.rtf
  13. ^ a b Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press. pp. page 198. ISBN 1-86373-635-2. 
  14. ^ http://www.awm.gov.au/cms_images/histories/20/chapters/21.pdf
  15. ^ Department of Defence (Australia), 2002, "A Short History of East Timor" Access date: January 3, 2007.
  16. ^ Two days before the invasion of Dili, U.S. President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger met President Suharto in Jakarta where Ford said "We will understand and will not press you on the issue. We understand the problem and the intentions you have." Kissinger added: "It is important that whatever you do succeeds quickly [because] the use of US-made arms could create problems." (William Burr and Michael L. Evans (eds.),"East Timor Revisited", National Security Archive, December 6, 2001) Jimmy Carter, during his first year in office, authorized 112 million dollars worth of military arms to Indonesia.(Shelton)
  17. ^ Fernandes, Clinton (2004) Reluctant Saviour: Australia, Indonesia and East Timor
  18. ^ Nunes, Joe (1996). "East Timor: Acceptable Slaughters". The architecture of modern political power. http://www.mega.nu/ampp/nunestimor.html. ; Amnesty International estimated deaths at 200,000 (""POWER AND IMPUNITY" Human rights under the new order". Amnesty International. September 1994. Archived from the original on 2006-10-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20061014150002/http://www.amnesty.org/ailib/intcam/indopub/indoint.htm. ); Ben Kiernan has written in War, Genocide, and Resistance in East Timor, 1975–99: Comparative Reflections on Cambodia that "the crimes committed... in East Timor, with a toll of 150,000 in a population of 650,000, clearly meet a range of sociological definitions of genocide used by most scholars of the phenomenon, who see both political and ethnic groups as possible victims of genocide." From the beginning of the invasion in 1975, the widespread amount of killing that occurred was staggering, with hundreds being executed on docks in Dili and being thrown into the sea (Charny,Israel W. Encyclopedia of Genocide Volume I. Denver: Abc Clio), as many as 60,000 being slaughtered within the first few months of the invasion. From 1975 until 1993, attacks on civilian populations were only nominally reported in the Western press. Since each data source used under-reports actual deaths, this is considered a minimum.
  19. ^ Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). "The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974-1999". A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG). http://www.hrdag.org/resources/timor_chapter_graphs/timor_chapter_page_02.shtml. 
  20. ^ Dili, 21 June 2000
  21. ^ [27 Jun 2000] SC/6882 : SECURITY COUNCIL BRIEFED BY SERGIO VIEIRA DE MELLO, SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR EAST TIMOR
  22. ^ http://www.unmit.org/UNMISETWebSite.nsf/TimeLineofUNMISET.htm?OpenPage
  23. ^ BBC News
  24. ^ www.iol.co.za;RTE News;The Sydney Morning Herald,RTE News
  25. ^ Herald Sun
  26. ^ ABC News Online
  27. ^ guardian.co.uk
  28. ^ BBC News
  29. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20070604232701/http://www.unmiset.org/legal/RDTL-Law/RDTL-Minist-Orders/Decree-Order-2003-6.pdf
  30. ^ United Nations
  31. ^ Norwegian energy and Water Resources Directorate (NVE) (2004), Iralalaro Hydropower Project Environmental Assessment
  32. ^ ReefGIS - Reefs At Risk - Global 1998
  33. ^ atns.net.au
  34. ^ "Radio Australia". Archived from the original on 2007-01-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20070102054153/http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/news/timelines/s1408008_to.htm. 
  35. ^ aph.gov.au
  36. ^ transparency.gov.tl
  37. ^ etan.org East Timor and Indonesia Action Network
  38. ^ austlii.edu.au; http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_declarations.htm#Australia%20after%20ratification United Nations]
  39. ^ "Downer's spin and the East Timor talks". Archived from the original on 2005-12-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20051201131559/http://www.crikey.com.au/articles/2005/05/09-1204-7954.html. 
  40. ^ canb.auug.org.au
  41. ^ pm.gov.tp
  42. ^ Voice of America, 24.06.07, East Timor Facing Food Crisis and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Timor-Leste
  43. ^ Gazetteer - Patents
  44. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. page 378. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  45. ^ Timor-Leste (03/08)
  46. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Timor-Leste
  47. ^ Timor-Leste
  48. ^ See also Liquiçá Church Massacre.
  49. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. page 378. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  50. ^ JSMP ReportPDF (295 KiB)
  51. ^ Dr. Geoffrey Hull's reply to the article "The article by Alfred Deakin and the reply from Geoffrey Hull deserve comment", by Sean Foley
  52. ^ http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  53. ^ http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/march-2006/timor-leste-hdr20060309.en?g11n.enc=ISO-8859-1
  54. ^ http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/march-2006/timor-leste-hdr20060309.en?g11n.enc=ISO-8859-1
  55. ^ http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  56. ^ http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  57. ^ http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  58. ^ http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TMP.html
  59. ^ http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/march-2006/timor-leste-hdr20060309.en?g11n.enc=ISO-8859-1
  60. ^ [1]

Bibliography

  • Cashmore, Ellis (1988). Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations. New York: Routledge. ASIN B000NPHGX6
  • Charny, Israel W. Encyclopedia of Genocide Volume I. Denver: Abc Clio.
  • Dunn, James (1996). .East Timor: A People Betrayed.^ The East Timor Human Rights Centre is the only organisation outside East Timor established to protect and promote the human rights of the East Timorese people.

    ^ We certainly look forward to the date when the people of East Timor finally will be called upon without coercion, without threat, without violence to vote on their future.

    ^ Elements of the Indonesian army should be convinced to stop supporting the militias and allow people to freely return to East Timor.

    Sydney: ABC Books.
  • Levinson, David. Ethnic Relations. Denver: Abc Clio.
  • Rudolph, Joseph R. Encyclopedia of Modern Ethnic Conflicts. Westport: Greenwood P, 2003. 101-106.
  • Shelton, Dinah. .Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity.^ The ETHRC urges the Australian government and the international community to call on the Indonesian government to arrest Eurico Guterres and other members of the militia for crimes against humanity.

    ^ Every time their chosen reformist commits crimes against humanity he turns into a bad egg hardliner; then a new reformist is found and the culture of impunity continues.

    ^ The suspects are tried for ordinary crimes, not for crimes against humanity as defined under international humanitarian law.

    Thompson Gale.
  • Taylor, John G. (1999). .East Timor: The Price of Freedom.^ East Timor: Report on violations of press freedom.

    ^ Promote permanent solutions for these people through their voluntary return to East Timor, local settlement, or relocation elsewhere in Indonesia, based on their freedom of choice; .

    Australia: Pluto Press. ISBN 1856498409.

External links

Government
General information

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Southeast Asia : East Timor
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:tt-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Dili
Government Republic
Currency US dollar (USD)
Area 15,007 km2
Population 924,642 (2004 Census)
Language Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English, 37 indigenous languages
Religion Roman Catholic 90%, Muslim 4%, Protestant 3%, Hindu 0.5%, Buddhist, Animist (1992 est.)
Calling Code 670
Internet TLD .tl
Time Zone UTC+9
Travel Warning
.WARNING: East Timor is not safe for independent travel or individual sightseeing.^ Ready or not, East Timor is set for independence.
  • CNN.com - East Timor begins countdown - May 17, 2002 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC archives.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Will East Timor gain full independence?
  • East Timor and Indonesia's Political Explosion | Solidarity 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.solidarity-us.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ East Timor declared its independence in 1975.
  • East Timor or Timor-Leste - Facts and History 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC asianhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those visiting for business, research, or international aid purposes should consult with their organization and seek expert guidance before planning a trip.^ Check current advice before you plan a trip.
  • East Timor tailor-made holiday information, information on East Timor tailor-made holidays from WEXAS 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.wexas.com [Source type: News]

^ Those interested in U.S. policy should consult the Government Publications Index which cites Congressional hearings as well as State Department publications.
  • East Timor: Print Resources. Southeast Asia Guide. Memorial Library, UW-Madison. 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.library.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ PeaceWomen.org distributes this material without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.
  • Women, Peace and Security News: Timor-Leste 19 September 2009 20:40 UTC www.peacewomen.org [Source type: News]

.The U.S., U.K., Canada and Australia have renewed their annual travel advisories for East Timor, and continue to recommend against all non-essential travel to the country.^ War and violence continue in East Timor.

^ All places in East Timor .
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.43places.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gang violence continues in East Timor .
  • Gang violence continues in East Timor - Wikinews, the free news source 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC en.wikinews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you must go, see War zone safety.^ Whaling collision - new angle BASE jump world record set Police are going to search you Whale war: who's to blame?

^ X.G.: You must remember that in 1975 it was the Cold War.
  • Xanana Gusmao - East Timor - Worldpress.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.worldpress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

See also the Stay safe section of this article.
.East Timor (Portuguese: Timor Leste, Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e, Indonesian: Timor Timur) [1] is a country in Southeast Asia.^ After 450 years of Portuguese colonisation and 25 years of brutal Indonesian occupation, East Timor today looks exactly what it is - a place that the world forgot.
  • Life | Letter from East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.verveonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Army trucks and vehicles brought over from West Timor were used to transport East Timorese to Indonesian West Timor.

^ On 20 September 1999 the Australian-led peacekeeping troops of the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) deployed to the country and brought the violence to an end.
  • EAST TIMOR NEWS TIMOR LESTE NEWS | HavenWorks.com/world/east-timor capital: Dili, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese], Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum], Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese], Timor Timur, Timor L�este 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC havenworks.com [Source type: News]
  • Geography and Map of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NationMaster - Statistics on East Timor. facts and figures, stats and information on Timorese economy, crime, people, government, health and education. 4 maps and 73 flags 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.nationmaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • East Timor Travel Information - Google Maps East Timor - East Timor News - Google Earth Maps East Timor - East Timor Weather- East Timor Weather Forecast - Interesting East Timor Facts & Figures - World Countries Information 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.worldcountries.info [Source type: News]

.It lies northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago.^ It lies northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago.
  • East Timor Guide: List of Things to Do in East Timor - Timor-Leste - Hotels in East Timor, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: General]

^ East Timor forms the eastern half of the island of Timor, an eastern island of the Indonesian archipelago.

^ This island, part of the Indonesian archipelago, lies 500km from the Australian Continent.

.East Timor includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the small islands of Atauro and Jaco.^ It contains within it the eastern half of the island of Timor.

^ Comprising of the eastern half of the island of Timor, East Timor also includes the Oecussi (Ambeno) region in the northwest of the Timor Island, as well as the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco.
  • Tourist map of East Timor: DiscoverAsia.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.discoverasia.org [Source type: News]

^ It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor.
  • East Timor News - The Sacramento Bee 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.sacbee.com [Source type: News]

Understand

.The eastern half of the island of Timor, East Timor, is a former Portuguese colony that declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975. Nine days later, Indonesian forces invaded and occupied the former colony, without incurring the disapproval of the United States and Australia.^ East Timor was then invaded by Indonesia shortly after Portugal abruptly left, in 1975.
  • Crisis in East Timor — Global Issues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: News]

^ During the colonial period, part of the East Indian island of Timor was a Portuguese territory.
  • Timor-Leste Districts 19 September 2009 20:40 UTC www.statoids.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It contains within it the eastern half of the island of Timor.

.By July 1976 the colony had been annexed as the province of Timor Timur.^ The territory was declared the 27th province of Indonesia in July 1976 as Timor Timur .

^ The territory of Timor was declared the 27th province of Indonesia in July 1976.

^ By July 1976 the colony had been annexed as the province of Timor Timur .
  • East Timor Guide: List of Things to Do in East Timor - Timor-Leste - Hotels in East Timor, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: General]

.Over the next two decades, Indonesia integrated the colony, with many significant positions of authority being occupied by Indonesians rather than the Timorese.^ Over the next two decades, Indonesia integrated the colony, with many significant positions of authority being occupied by Indonesians, rather than the Timorese.
  • East Timor Guide: List of Things to Do in East Timor - Timor-Leste - Hotels in East Timor, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: General]

^ East Timor, a former Portuguese colony with almost one million people, became independent in 2002, ending more than two decades of Indonesian occupation.
  • EAST TIMOR: Involve Indonesia In Stabilisation Efforts? - IPS ipsnews.net 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ The new treaty comes on the heels of full resumption of military ties between the US and Indonesia, which had been frozen since the November 1991 massacre of more than 200 Timorese youth by the Indonesian military at the Santa Cruz cemetery.
  • Focus on the Global South - STANDING BY EAST TIMOR 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC focusweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Focus on the Global South - STANDING BY EAST TIMOR 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC focusweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An estimated 100,000 to 250,000 individuals are believed to have lost their lives during a campaign of pacification during this time.^ Estimates of the number of Timorese who lost their lives to violence and hunger during the Indonesian occupation range from 100,000 to 250,000.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • East Timor Hotels and Turismo 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.hobohideout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 individuals lost their lives.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.travlang.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A so-called campaign of pacification followed, during which time an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 individuals lost their lives.
  • 1-language.com - The ESL Site: The World Factbook 2002 Online -- East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.1-language.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United Nations supervised a popular referendum on 30 August 1999, in which the people of East Timor voted for independence from Indonesia.^ The suffering of the people of East Timor has been going on since August 1976!

^ East Timor: Birth of a nation .
  • CNN.com - East Timor pins hope on energy deal - May 20, 2002 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ On 30 August 1999, with the help of the United Nations, a popular referendum vote was held.

.After the results were announced, gangs of independence opponents, supported by the Indonesian military, terrorised the population in a civil war that destroyed much of the country's infrastructure.^ The majority of the country's infrastructure was destroyed.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

^ After the results were announced, gangs of independence opponents, supported by the Indonesian military, terrorised the population in a civil war that destroyed much of the country's infrastructure.
  • East Timor Guide: List of Things to Do in East Timor - Timor-Leste - Hotels in East Timor, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: General]

^ After the result of the Independence vote in East Timor was announced on the 5 th of September 1999, the country and people were systematically destroyed by a combination of Indonesian military and local militia groups.
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ictpd.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A United Nations peacekeeping force led by Australian forces was sent in to re-establish a civil society and reconstruct the nation.^ A United Nations peacekeeping force, led by Australian forces was sent in to re-establish a civil society and reconstruct the nation.
  • East Timor Guide: List of Things to Do in East Timor - Timor-Leste - Hotels in East Timor, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: General]

^ An Australian-led peacekeeping force arrived on Sept.
  • Records of East Timor, 1999, UCLA International Institute 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.international.ucla.edu [Source type: News]

^ On 20 September 1999 the Australian-led peacekeeping troops of the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) deployed to the country and brought the violence to an end.
  • EAST TIMOR NEWS TIMOR LESTE NEWS | HavenWorks.com/world/east-timor capital: Dili, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese], Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum], Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese], Timor Timur, Timor L�este 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC havenworks.com [Source type: News]
  • NationMaster - Statistics on East Timor. facts and figures, stats and information on Timorese economy, crime, people, government, health and education. 4 maps and 73 flags 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.nationmaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • East Timor Travel Information - Google Maps East Timor - East Timor News - Google Earth Maps East Timor - East Timor Weather- East Timor Weather Forecast - Interesting East Timor Facts & Figures - World Countries Information 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.worldcountries.info [Source type: News]

.On 20 May 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state under the official name of the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste.^ East Timor’s constitution took effect when the territory officially became independent in May 2002.

^ East Timor is now an independent nation, officially.
  • Crisis in East Timor — Global Issues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: News]

^ The Portuguese name Timor-Leste ( pron.

.East Timor consists of 13 administrative districts.^ East Timor is 13,500 sq.
  • Timeline East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Districts of East Timor (Borders after 2003) .
  • Atlas of East Timor - Wikimedia Commons 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Timor-Leste is divided into 13 administrative districts.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

  • Aileu
  • Ainaro
  • Baucau
  • Bobonaro (Maliana)
  • Cova-Lima (Suai)
  • Dili
  • Ermera
  • Lautem (Los Palos)
  • Liquisa
  • Manatuto
  • Manufahi (Same)
  • Oecussi (Ambeno)
  • Viqueque
  • Dili
  • Baucau
  • Ermera
  • Liquica
  • Manatuto
  • Suai
  • Tutuala
  • Viqueque
  • Maliana
  • Ainaro
  • Maubisse

Get in

Visas

.Check out the Immigration Department of Timor Leste [2] for specific details on visa requirements for your country.^ WHO Timor-Leste Timor-Leste country office.

^ Check the Immigration Department of East Timor for more details.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

^ BirdLife has worked with the Timor-Leste government (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, MAFF) since shortly after the country's formal independence.
  • Timor-Leste (formerly East Timor) declares first national park 19 September 2009 20:40 UTC www.birdlife.org [Source type: News]

.A 30 day travel permit is available to foreign nationals for US$30 on arrival.^ Percentage of population living on less than US$1 a day No data available percent GNI per capita, Atlas method .
  • http://www.alertnet.org/db/cp/east_timor.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.alertnet.org/db/cp/east_timor.htm?v=facts 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Travel - State.gov "Violence erupted throughout East Timor after the August 30, 1999, United Nations-sponsored ballot in that province."
  • EAST TIMOR NEWS TIMOR LESTE NEWS | HavenWorks.com/world/east-timor capital: Dili, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese], Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum], Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese], Timor Timur, Timor L�este 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ Japan promised to continue its assistance by providing US$30 million for economic development, security, and for Independence Day celebrations on 20 May 2002.
  • La'o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 3, No. 1: February 2002 Police, Agriculture 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.laohamutuk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This permit can be extended after arrival allowing a total stay of 90 days.
.Portuguese passport holders do not need a visa for short stay entry (max 30 days).^ An entry visa (of up to 30 days duration) will be issued to valid passport holders on arrival based on the purpose and period of stay stated by the applicant at the time of entry and provided entry into East Timor is regarded by local authorities as being for a legitimate purpose.
  • Travel Advice for East Timor - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ If travellers can demonstrate that they have a valid reason for extending their stay beyond 30 days in East Timor, an application to extend a visa may be submitted to the Immigration Department of Timor Leste located at Vila Verde.
  • Travel Advice for East Timor - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ There is a charge of US$30 on arrival at Nicolau Lobato International Airport for an entry visa.
  • Travel Advice for East Timor - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

By plane

.Presidente Nicolau Lobato International Airport' (IATA: DIL ICAO: WPDL), formerly known as Comoro Airport, is the main international airport of Dili.^ Situated in the centre of Dili, close to the city's main buildings, and 10 minutes away from the Nicolau Lobato International Airport, Hotel Timor is the ideal place for those who arrive in Dili for a meeting or just looking for somewhere to start their adventure in the world's newest nation.
  • Timor Leste (East Timor) Hotels Accommodation - Timor Leste (East Timor) Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with timorleste-hotels.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.timorleste-hotels.com [Source type: General]
  • Timor Leste (East Timor) Hotels Accommodation - Timor Leste (East Timor) Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with timorleste-hotels.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.timorleste-hotels.com [Source type: General]

^ Presidente Nicolau Lobato (DIL) 5 km west of the city, Baucau-Cakung (NCH), 5 km from the town in the Baucau province.
  • East Timor tailor-made holiday information, information on East Timor tailor-made holidays from WEXAS 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.wexas.com [Source type: News]

^ Other large cities include Dare, outside Dili, and Baucau, the site of the main airport, on the northeast coast.
  • East Timor Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • East Timor News - Breaking World East Timor News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • East Timor News - Breaking World East Timor News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.The airport is served by flights from Darwin, Australia on AirNorth [3] and Bali (Denpasar), Indonesia on Merpati Nusantara Airlines [4].^ Flights from Darwin in Australia are operated by Airnorth .
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

^ Building workers took the initiative to block the Garuda (Indonesian Airlines) flights from Australia in local airports.
  • East Timor: Can we trust the United Nations? 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most remaining IFET observers (from an August 30 total of more than 120) were evacuated yesterday and today to Denpassar, Bali and Darwin, Australia.

AustAsia Airlines [5] also offers weekly charters on Silkair aircrafts from Singapore. .Flights are not scheduled every day so check out the schedules when making travel plans.^ "I have been going out every day to check with the UNTAET (United Nations) if there were vacancies.

^ As a temporary partial solution, UNTAET allowed a few East Timorese to travel on UN flights to the enclave, but these flights will cease on Independence Day.
  • Topica Email List Directory 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: Original source]

.Flights occasionally fill weeks in advance so plan accordingly.^ Flights can be booked out weeks in advance, so plans need to be made accordingly.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

By land

.The main land border crossing with Indonesia is at Mota'ain (or Motain), 115km west of Dili.^ The U.N. could encourage Indonesia to create a demilitarized zone on the west side of the border, and not allow any armed troops or militias in that region.

^ Indonesia extended right up to the border of East Timor, being sovereign as it was over the west part of the island.
  • East Timor@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there can be no tolerance for militia leadership that continues to oversee terror campaigns in West Timor, or cross-border and against Oecussi in East Timor.

.The nearest East Timorese town is Batugade, 3km to 4km away.^ The nearest East Timorese town is Batugade, 3 to 4 kilometres away.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

^ Barely a couple of hours away, Hato Builico is the town closest to the base from which you can hike up Mount Ramelau , East Timor 's highest mountain.
  • East Timor, the Next Big Thing? 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: News]

^ The nearest Indonesian town of is the West Timorese town of Atambua.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

.The nearest Indonesian town of consequence is the West Timorese town of Atambua.^ The nearest Indonesian town of is the West Timorese town of Atambua.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

^ Ethnic groups : East Timorese 80%, other (mainly Malayo- Polynesian, Indonesian, and West Timorese) 20%, small Chinese minority (1999) .

^ Under Suharto's rule nearly 400,000 West Papuans and East Timorese died during lengthy Indonesian invasion.
  • Ad-Hoc Court for East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.globalpolicy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For those arriving from Indonesia, East Timorese visas are issued on arrival.^ East Timorese refugees in Indonesia .

^ A tourist visa can normally be issued on arrival to the holder of a valid British passport, provided entry into East Timor is regarded by the local authorities as being for a legitimate purpose.
  • East Timor (Timor-Leste) travel advice 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ With East Timorese having gone through so much to gain independence from Indonesia, some regions within Indonesia have been somewhat ignored in comparison.
  • What Happened in East Timor? — Global Issues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, for those going the other direction, Indonesian visas must be obtained beforehand as they are not issued at the border.^ However, Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam decided that he could get into Suharto's good books and said it should go Indonesian.
  • East Timor - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s quite possible that when the final Indonesian soldier leaves, there will be a big blast as they go.

^ You can also do the trip in stages by taking minibuses to the border, cross on foot and go to the nearest town on the other side of the border.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

.Getting a visa at the Indonesian Embassy in Dili is possible; it takes one week to issue a 60 day tourist visa (return flight not needed!^ Within three weeks every key building in Dili had been destroyed and the Indonesian military weren't prepared to restore order.
  • East Timor - Atlapedia Online 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.atlapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 90-day entry permit is issued by the East Timor Border Control Unit at Dili airport.
  • Visiting East Timor - For Australian exporters - Austrade - Austrade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.austrade.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ Job creation is one such issue in a country where 40 percent of the people are unemployed, where many more live on less than a dollar a day, and where much of the infrastructure was destroyed by the Indonesians when they withdrew in 1999.
  • In East Timor, Tension over Violence Continues : NPR 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

) and it costs US$35.
  • Cross-border buses
.There is a direct bus service daily between Dili and Kupang in West Timor, Indonesia.^ West Timor or transmigrated elsewhere in Indonesia."

^ Aug 1661 Portugal and Netherlands formally divide Timor between them into Dutch West Timor (part of Dutch East Indies and later Indonesia) and Portuguese East Timor.

^ East Timor is in Asia; it occupies the eastern half of the island of Timor, which lies between Indonesia and Australia.

.Operated by Timor Travels and Leste Oeste Travel.^ To start this transition, in 2005 the agency has established a country office in Timor Leste; two sub-offices in Suai and Oecusse will run its operations."
  • East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC vision.ucsd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still a developing country, Timor-Leste may not offer many traveller comforts but there are many memorable experiences, and its raw charm is hard to ignore.
  • Timor Leste (East Timor) Hotels Accommodation - Timor Leste (East Timor) Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with timorleste-hotels.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.timorleste-hotels.com [Source type: General]
  • Timor Leste (East Timor) Hotels Accommodation - Timor Leste (East Timor) Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with timorleste-hotels.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.timorleste-hotels.com [Source type: General]

^ Travellers to Timor-Leste are advised to exercise caution , take adequate precautions and follow suggestions offered by the locals.
  • Timor Leste (East Timor) Hotels Accommodation - Timor Leste (East Timor) Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with timorleste-hotels.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.timorleste-hotels.com [Source type: General]
  • Timor Leste (East Timor) Hotels Accommodation - Timor Leste (East Timor) Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with timorleste-hotels.com 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.timorleste-hotels.com [Source type: General]

.Journey takes 12 hours.^ There is a direct bus daily between Dili and Kupang in West Timor , Indonesia and the journey takes 12 hours.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

  • Non-direct buses
.From Dili, catch a bus to the border (US$3, three hours).^ Maubisse is approximately three hours south east of Dili.
  • East Timor, the Next Big Thing? 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: News]

^ There is a direct bus daily between Dili and Kupang in West Timor , Indonesia and the journey takes 12 hours.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

.Once you get off the bus, go through East Timorese customs and immigration, walk across the border into Indonesia, go through Indonesian immigration and catch another bus for your onward journey to Atambua or Kupang.^ East Timorese refugees in Indonesia .

^ A recent AP story noted that an "estimated 2,000 Indonesian troops have died fighting separatist guerrillas since Indonesia invaded East Timor in 1975," but failed to note the massive numbers of Timorese who have perished.

^ With all the coups, machete-wielding militias and general lawlessness going on you'd be better off taking your chances with the bombs in Bali or the landmines in Cambodia .
  • East Timor - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From Atambua, regular mikrolets (vans) or ojeks (motorcycle taxis) run to the border at Mota'ain.

By boat

.Indonesia's Pelni ships no longer serve Dili.^ "Indonesia is no longer showing enthusiasm in supporting them.

^ On 20 September the Indonesian parliament formally acknowledges that integration of East Timor with Indonesia is no longer applicable (Martin 2001:139).
  • East Timor - Indonesian Occupation 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.seasite.niu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Indonesia invaded later that year, PetroTimors agreement became meaningless as Portugal no longer controlled the territory.
  • Topica Email List Directory 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC lists.topica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is a weekly barge service from Darwin for vehicles and goods.

Get around

By plane

.Although there are airports in Baucau and Suai, there are no domestic flights within East Timor.^ There are no domestic flights within East Timor at the moment.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

^ There are Australian troops in Darwin, Australia within an hour's flight of East Timor.
  • What next for East Timor? - Salon.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no British representation in East Timor.
  • East Timor (Timor-Leste) travel advice 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.Oecussi airstrip is restricted to medical evacuation flights only.^ Dili has the only functioning international airport, though there are airstrips in Baucau and Oecusse used for domestic flights.

^ In the event of a medical emergency in East Timor, evacuation to Australia or Singapore is likely to be the only option for treatment.
  • East Timor (Timor-Leste) travel advice 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

By bus

.Buses, mostly of the small variety found on remote Indonesian islands, run to most parts of the country and main cities like Dili, Baucau, Maliana, Los Palos and Suai are quite well linked.^ Dili , on the north coast, is the capital and largest city, as well as the country's main port.
  • East Timor News - Breaking World East Timor News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • East Timor News - Breaking World East Timor News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Is it likely that in the heyday of Indonesian nationalism people ran around the country telling fellow Indonesians whom they were enlisting to the nationalist cause that they should be 'grateful'.
  • Imagining East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.ci.uc.pt [Source type: Original source]

^ It was in September 1999 that United Nations peacekeeping troops first arrived in Dili, the capital city of what was then the Indonesian-occupied state of East Timor.
  • Xanana Gusmao - East Timor - Worldpress.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.worldpress.org [Source type: Original source]

.Indonesian-style bemos (vans) and mikrolets (minibuses) - legacies from its 24-year rule - run from these cities to nearby villages.^ All these, and the fact that he was educated and spent 24 years in exile in Marxist Mozambique have been cited by opponents in Australia as hallmarks of a communist leader.
  • EAST TIMOR: Australia - Peacekeeper or Petroleum Predator? - IPS ipsnews.net 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ Buses, mikrolets and vans run to many parts of the country, and at $2/3 per trip are an economical means of getting around.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

^ After four centuries of Portuguese rule, 24 years of Indonesian occupation, and two years of United Nations administration, East Timor gained independence on May 20, 2002.
  • International Peacemaking and Human Rights Programs - East Timor - CarterCenter.org 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cartercenter.org [Source type: News]

.Most departures take place very early in the morning and drivers have a tendency of doing keliling (Indonesian for "going round") where they spend considerable time combing the streets and scouting for passengers before actually departing.^ They go round looking.

^ I asked them what they are doing here at three o'clock in the morning, "You should be at home", I say.
  • The curse of commodities | openDemocracy 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One consideration would be to stop the training of the Indonesian military, which would break the connection between the military and Pentagon and would also send a very strong signal that even the U.S. military itself is unhappy with what the Indonesian military is doing.
  • What next for East Timor? - Salon.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

Fares are about US$2 or US$3 for journeys over 100km. For example, Dili-Baucau (123km) costs US$2 while Dili-Mota'ain (115km) costs US$3.

Talk

.Tetum and Portuguese are the official languages, but Indonesian which is widely spoken and English which is very limited are working languages according to the constitution.^ The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, while English and Indonesian are working languages.
  • East Timor Country Brief 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dfat.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English and Indonesian are recognised by the Constitution as " working languages".

^ This linguistic diversity is enshrined in the country’s constitution, which designates Portuguese and Tetum as official languages and English and Bahasa Indonesia as working languages.

.There are also about 37 indigenous languages, of which Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people.^ There are several dozen indigenous languages, including Tetum, Galole, Mambae and Kemak.
  • East Timor - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: News]

^ Mambae, Kemak, and Fataluku are also widely spoken.

^ There is information that about 5-7 people got shot.

A person who is proficient in Indonesian and Portuguese can get around quite easily. .Don't expect to understand locals' conversations though.^ They don’t speak the language, and do not interact with the locals, according to a conversation Tom had with one of them.

Buy

.The US Dollar is the legal tender currency in East Timor and all transactions are in dollars.^ This is the only currency accepted as legal tender.
  • Travel Advice for East Timor - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ US dollar is the legal tender .
  • Geography and Map of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The official currency is the US dollar.
  • Visiting East Timor - For Australian exporters - Austrade - Austrade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.austrade.gov.au [Source type: News]

Banks and a few ATMs can be found in Dili. .East Timor issued coins denominated in centavos and are not the same size as U.S coinage, although U.S. coins are widely accepted.^ East Timor is very poor with relatively few economic resources (although the coffee and potential natural gas and oil reserves in the Timor Gap are large).
  • East Timor and Indonesia's Political Explosion | Solidarity 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.solidarity-us.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Timorese coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 centavos were introduced in November 2003 to enable small denomination transactions and partially assist with monetisation of the economy.
  • East Timor Country Brief 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dfat.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ East Timor Land Size (Area): East Timor has 14,604 sq km - Population Density is 66 persons per sq km.

Traditional East Timorese silver jewelry
Traditional East Timorese silver jewelry
.The two main things to bring home from East Timor are coffee and traditional hand-woven cloths called Tais.^ East Timor skip to main .

^ If looking to take a home a piece of East Timor, you can check out local markets offering for coffee and traditional hand-woven cloths called Tais.
  • East Timor Flights, Cheap Flights to East Timor, Cheap East Timor Flights & Deals (TP) - CheapOair 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.cheapoair.com [Source type: News]

^ In 2005 East Timor exported $10 million worth of coffee, sandalwood, marble to the US, Germany, Portugal, Australia and Indonesia.

.The design of the Tais vary distinctively from region to region, and an expert can even tell which family they are made from.^ There are regionally distinct groups made up of people of Malayo-Polynesian and Papuan background and also a small Chinese minority.

^ Women weave tais using distinctive designs and techniques, to represent their stories, records and beliefs.

^ When the family of the victim reported the incident to the police, they were threatened with death if they made a case about it.

.Much like Scottish kilts, Tais for a given family should only be worn by that family.^ Finally, I would like to thank my supporters and my family for the fervent support that they have given to me.

.In Dili, the best place to find Tais is the Tais market, where you also can buy local silver jewelry.^ If looking to take a home a piece of East Timor, you can check out local markets offering for coffee and traditional hand-woven cloths called Tais.
  • East Timor Flights, Cheap Flights to East Timor, Cheap East Timor Flights & Deals (TP) - CheapOair 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.cheapoair.com [Source type: News]

^ You will find only UN vehicles on the streets, except for occasional local mini-vans and motorcycles.

^ Western tourists may be a bit of a spectacle for the locals anywhere outside Dili, and much entertainment can be gained on both sides if you try to engage with the people.
  • East Timor, the Next Big Thing? 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: News]

Many street sellers also deal in Tais.
.There are also some wood carvings in a style similar to what you might see brought from trips to Africa sold here and there, but these are less easy to find.^ Many people return from a holiday with their photos and wonderful memories, and think "if only there was some easy way I could contribute something back to where I've been."
  • East Timor, the Next Big Thing? 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: News]

^ There I could see that people were crowding the street and started to form a barricade with stones, some began to burn car tyres.

^ So much hate and anymosity will never bring the 2 (two) nation closer together, it’s sad to see there is so much hate between people of these two nations.

.Closer to the eastern tip of East Timor, you might find turtle shell bracelets on sale.^ The best tips for East Timor sightseeing.
  • East Timor Things To Do - East Timor Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Most World Bank and ADB tender opportunities are advertised internationally but smaller value contracts might only be advertised in East Timor.
  • East Timor profile - For Australian exporters - Austrade - Austrade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.austrade.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ If you are travelling to East Timor, whatever the reason and however long you’ll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
  • Travel Advice for East Timor - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

.While it might be slightly less unethical to buy them in a place where they kill turtles both for food and shell, your more ethically inclined peers and the customs officer may differ.^ They can and might be killed if the following occur: .

^ Casualty figures may include both civilians and military personnel injured or killed by landmines and unexploded ordnance.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/db/cp/east_timor.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.alertnet.org/db/cp/east_timor.htm?v=facts 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They say because we have been in East Timor so long and too many Indonesian soldiers have been killed, they are prepared to have more Indonesian soldiers, more East Timorese, killed than lose their face.

.The coffee of East Timor is dark and excellent and can be found at reasonable prices in any convenience store or some roadside stalls.^ It is possible that some will return to East Timor: .

^ In 2005 East Timor exported $10 million worth of coffee, sandalwood, marble to the US, Germany, Portugal, Australia and Indonesia.

^ East Timor is very poor with relatively few economic resources (although the coffee and potential natural gas and oil reserves in the Timor Gap are large).
  • East Timor and Indonesia's Political Explosion | Solidarity 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.solidarity-us.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sandal wood used to be one of the most important exports of East Timor, but it might take an expert to buy it now.^ Term used is "East Timor."

^ "They will use the trouble in East Timor as a pretext to take over the country."
  • East Timor and Indonesia's Political Explosion | Solidarity 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.solidarity-us.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A most important use of Timor’s oil revenue is to develop its people.
  • Green Left - East Timor: The struggle for full independence — 10 years on 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.greenleft.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sleep

.Dili has a number of decent hotels, and prices have come down since the heady days of independence and huge crowds of UN workers.^ The huge expatriate community of the reconstruction industry created a bubble economy which collapsed when the UN mission started to wind down.
  • Focus on the Global South - STANDING BY EAST TIMOR 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC focusweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Focus on the Global South - STANDING BY EAST TIMOR 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC focusweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "While I was running towards the UN compound a pro-independence supporter was being hunted down like an animal.
  • Gendercide Watch: East Timor, 1975-99 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 20, 2002 : East Timor Declares Independence; UN Secretary General Hands Over Power to Xanana Gusmao Today is East Timor’s independence day.

Accommodation elsewhere in the country is very limited.

Stay safe

.East Timor continues to face sporadic internal ethnic & political tension and related violence may occur.^ War and violence continue in East Timor.

^ East Timor Archives May 2003 .
  • Roger East: Timor Reports 1975 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political books about East Timor .

This may not be targeted at foreigners or tourists, but follow the guidelines below. During periods where this is not an issue, remember you are travelling in a poor country, and crimes such as assault and theft do occur:
  • Avoid large gatherings.
  • Don't go around Dili at night on foot, especially alone.
  • Be careful around the refugee camps
  • Be careful getting into taxis at night or those with darkened windows - they may already have someone in them in addition to the driver
Travel advisories
  • Australian Government Travel Advisory [6]
  • Canadian Government Travel Advice [7]
  • US Consular Information on Timor Leste [8]
  • UK Government Travel Advice [9]

Stay healthy

Hospitals and Doctors
.There are hospitals in main centres, and clinics in many sub-districts elsewhere but medical care is not up to dealng with sustained or complex medical emergencies.^ Primary Teacher Training began on 10 January in Dili and follow-up training will continue throughout the year, moving to cluster schools at district and sub-district level.
  • Travel Tips - East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the refugee area of Oepoli there are pro-independence people and militias, commanded by the local Sub-District Officer.

^ "In Ermera district a number of our members have been injured and one of them was brought to hospital in Dili for medical treatment'" Dr Alkatiri said.

.Medical evacuation is often the only option in the case of complex surgery, trauma, or major illness.^ They have a 7 member trauma/ general surgery team but so far have received only 4 patients from Port-Au-Prince.

^ Medical facilities are limited and evacuation may be required in cases of serious illness or accident.
  • Travel Advice for East Timor - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ If illness occurs while abroad, medical expenses including evacuation may run to tens of thousands of dollars.
  • Travel Tips - East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Travellers are strongly advised not to enter East Timor without some form of medical insurance which will cover medivac by air ambulance, be this travellers insurance from your travel agent or an employer if you are entering for professional reasons.^ Make sure your health insurance covers you for medical expenses abroad.
  • Travel Tips - East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is possible that some will return to East Timor: .

^ Before departure, determine whether your insurance plan will make payments directly to providers or reimburse you later for overseas health expenditures.
  • Travel Tips - East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dili - Dili National Hospital, located in Bidau Santana.^ Victims number 5-7 are being treated in the Bidau general hospital, Toko Baru, Dili.

^ Generally, expatriates attend Dili National Hospital for treatment.
  • Travel Advice for East Timor - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

Pante Makassar, Oecussi - located in town near the port

Contact

By phone

.Timor Telecom [10] has a monopoly on landline and mobile phone services in East Timor, and charges accordingly — expect to pay up to US$3/minute for international calls.^ East Timor ( Timor Leste) 10.
  • East Timor Health News - Healthcare Industry Today 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC health.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Timor Telecom Information on phone, mobile and Internet services in East Timor.

^ Standing up for East Timor .
  • Focus on the Global South - STANDING BY EAST TIMOR 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC focusweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Focus on the Global South - STANDING BY EAST TIMOR 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC focusweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Local prepaid SIM cards can be picked up for around US$3.

By Internet

.Internet in East Timor is slow and limited.^ Foreign peacekeepers returned to East Timor in late May, but stability was slow to be restored to the country, and some 150,000 were displaced as a result of the violence.
  • East Timor Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about East Timor 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the U.N.'s enforcement of the 1999 Agreements, it limited its role in the resolution of the East Timor question to that of a mediator and almost entirely delegated that task to Portugal.
  • The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.law.northwestern.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The income tax, which adapts the Indonesian income tax law to the limited administrative capacities in East Timor, would apply to all other taxable income .
  • East Timor -- Recent Developments and Macroeconomic Assessment 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.imf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Timor Telecom holds the monopoly for this as well, and tries to block voice-over-IP services like Skype.^ Timor Telecom Information on phone, mobile and Internet services in East Timor.

^ Japan said that it trusts that people and the government of Timor-Leste will hold its parliamentary election well.

This is a usable article. .It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels.^ Finally, although there is no information on employment provided by the emerging private sector, indications are that a large number of temporary positions have been created by construction and transport companies, as well as by restaurants and hotels.
  • East Timor -- Recent Developments and Macroeconomic Assessment 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.imf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases these international NGOs have more complete information about the society than the local groups, even the government of the country where they work.

An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

location of East Timor

Proper noun

Singular
East Timor
Plural
-
.
  1. A country in Oceania on the eastern half of the island of Timor.^ It contains within it the eastern half of the island of Timor.

    ^ It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of ...
    • http://topics.newsweek.com/politics/east-timor.htm 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC topics.newsweek.com [Source type: News]

    ^ It is located on the eastern half of the island of Timor, in the Indonesian archipelago.
    • Timor Lorosa'e (East Timor) 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.oikoumene.org [Source type: General]

    .National language: Tetum.^ The Indonesians, ignorant of the fact that Tetum is a highly latinized language and a natural stepping-stone to Portuguese, granted permission, and liturgical Tetum become a cornerstone of national resistance.
    • SSPXAsia.com: East Timor News Archive 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sspxasia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tetum and the other national languages shall be valued and developed by the State.
    • Constitution of East Timor (English) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ BELUN means “friend” or “partner” in the national language, Tetum.
    • East Timor Directory - Miscellaneous internet sites about Timor Leste 3 February 2010 15:17 UTC www.easttimordirectory.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Official name: Democratic Republic of East Timor.

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Simple English

[[File:|right|250px]]

File:Flag of East
The flag of East Timor

The Democratic Republic of East Timor or Timor Leste is a country in Southeast Asia. It is on the eastern side of the island of Timor, and also the smaller islands of Atauro and Jaco, and a small area, named Oecussi-Ambeno, inside the west side of Timor. That area is an exclave, which means it is separated from the main part of the country by part of another country. That other country is Indonesia.

The capital and largest city, Dili, is home to one hundred and fifty thousand people.

The next largest city is Baucau.

East Timor gets its name from the Malay word for "east", timur.

For a long time, a European country called Portugal controlled the East Timor and called it The Colony of Portuguese Timor. In 1975, the Portuguese army left, and East Timor was invaded (taken over) by the Indonesian army in 1975. The invasion was very violent. The army stayed there until 1999, when they gave up control of the territory with the help of the United Nations.

At the time, the United States government said it did not know Indonesia was going to invade East Timor. But secret documents, released from 2002 to 2005, show that Henry Kissinger, the Secretary of State of the United States, did know, and supported the invasion.

When it got its independence on May 20, 2002, it became the first country to become independent in the twenty-first century (since the year 2001). In 2006, when Montenegro became independent, East Timor was no longer the newest one.

Since then, East Timor has not been given much attention in the news. Recently, the Colombian music artist Shakira made a song named "Timor", which talks about the country. The attention is because there has been fighting in East Timor between gangs (groups of criminals with guns), security forces (the country's army). Australia, a large nearby country, sent troops in to make peace.

HISTORY

East Timor is a small country located between Australia and Indonesia, Before Christ, 3.000 years ago, East Timor was a mountainous island composed of migrant indigenous people from New Guinea, Australia and Melanesia.

There were some migrants from Austronesia searching for a new life on this island on developed their skills in areas like Agriculture to develop. Some of the people arrived from South China and North Indochina looking for trade because East Timor had enough resources to explore and export like sandalwood, honey, slaves and wax.

During the Second War World, the Japanese occupied the region, encountered strong resistance to their attempts to force the population to grow foods for their troops and export. At the time 30 % of the population died.

On April, 25th 1974, the Portuguese Armed Forces headed by General António de Spínola organized a Military Coup against SALAZAR’s Regime called the Revolution of Carnations. Since this Revolution, Portugal decided to give freedom to the colonized countries.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on East Timor, which are similar to those in the above article.








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