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East of England
Eastern
Eastern region shown within England
Geography
Status Region
Area
— Total
Ranked 2nd
19,120 km²
7,382 sq mi
NUTS 1 UKH
Demographics
Population
— Total
— Density
Ranked 4th
5,388,140 (2001)
282/km² (2001)
GDP per capita £20,524 (3rd)
Government
HQ Cambridge
Assembly
— Type
East of England
not directly elected
Regional development EEDA
European parliament East of England
Website

The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Essex, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Norfolk and Suffolk. Essex has the higest population in the region.

Its population as of the 2001 census was 5,388,140. The area is mostly low-lying, and the highest place is an unnamed point near the hill of Ivinghoe Beacon, Buckinghamshire in the South East region, reaching 249 m (817 ft). Peterborough, Luton and Southend-on-Sea are the region's most populous urban areas. The southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt.

Contents

Geography

The area is one of the flattest in the UK. Cambridgeshire is part of The Fens. The lowest point in the UK is Holme Fen, which is 3 metres below sea level.

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Historical use

England
Coat of Arms of the UK Government.

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Before the creation of the East of England region there had been a smaller standard statistical region of East Anglia which did not include Essex, Hertfordshire or Bedfordshire. They had previously been included in the South East region. The East of England civil defence region shared the boundaries of the current region.

Common use

In common usage the easterly parts of this area have long been, and continue to be known as East Anglia. The areas closer to London are more commonly called part of the South East with Hertfordshire and Essex included in the "Home Counties".

Demographics

For regions in England, the East of England has the lowest overall teenage pregnancy rate. Inside the East of England, the top-tier authority with the highest rate is Peterborough. The council district with the highest rate is Norwich closely followed by Great Yarmouth. For top-tier authorities, Hertfordshire has the lowest rate of teenage pregnancy. For council districts, Uttlesford in north-west Essex has the lowest rate.

Governance

Regional government

EERA logo

An East of England Regional Assembly exists to co-ordinate the work of the local councils in the area and provides other functions; it is not an elected body. It is based in Flempton on the A1101 north-west of Bury St Edmunds. The powers held by the regional assembly will pass to the East of England Development Agency in 2010. The Government maintains the Government office for the East of England. The East of England also elects MEPs for the East of England (European Parliament constituency).

East of England Plan

The current version of the East of England Plan, a Revision of the Regional Spatial Strategy for the East of England, was published on 12th May 2008.[1]

Local government

The official region consists of the following subdivisions:

Map Ceremonial county Shire county / unitary Districts
EnglandEastNumbered.png Essex 1. Thurrock U.A.
2. Southend-on-Sea U.A.
3. Essex a.) Harlow, b.) Epping Forest, c.) Brentwood, d.) Basildon, e.) Castle Point, f.) Rochford, g.) Maldon, h.) Chelmsford, i.) Uttlesford, j.) Braintree, k.) Colchester, l.) Tendring
4. Hertfordshire a.) Three Rivers, b.) Watford, c.) Hertsmere, d.) Welwyn Hatfield, e.) Broxbourne, f.) East Hertfordshire, g.) Stevenage, h.) North Hertfordshire, i.) St Albans, j.) Dacorum
Bedfordshire 5. Luton U.A.
6. Bedford U.A.
6. Central Bedfordshire U.A.
Cambridgeshire 7. Cambridgeshire a.) Cambridge, b.) South Cambridgeshire, c.) Huntingdonshire, d.) Fenland, e.) East Cambridgeshire
8. Peterborough U.A.
9. Norfolk a.) Norwich, b.) South Norfolk, c.) Great Yarmouth, d.) Broadland, e.) North Norfolk, f.) King's Lynn and West Norfolk, g.) Breckland
10. Suffolk a.) Ipswich, b.) Suffolk Coastal, c.) Waveney, d.) Mid Suffolk, e.) Babergh, f.) St. Edmundsbury, g.) Forest Heath

Economy

The former electricity company for the area, Eastern Electricity, has the area's distribution now looked after by EDF Energy Networks at Fore Hamlet in Ipswich. EDF also look after London and most of the South-East.

Hertfordshire

Wetherspoons is based in Watford near Watford Junction railway station

The Greater Watford area is home to British Waterways, Taylor Woodrow Construction, the UK headquarters the international firm Total Oil, retailers TK Maxx, Bathstore, Majestic Wine, Mothercare, Costco UK, and Smiths Detection, Iveco UK Leavesden Film Studios, Sanyo UK, Europcar UK, Olympus UK, Kenwood and Beko electronic goods manufacturers, Wetherspoons pub chains, the European HQ of the Hilton hotel group and Nestlé Waters; in Garston is the UK headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, on the A412, and the Building Research Establishment. Comet Group plc and Camelot Group (owners of the National Lottery), on the A4145, are in Rickmansworth. Ferrero UK (maker of Nutella and Kinder Chocolate) is in Croxley Green. Renault UK and Skanska UK (construction) are in Maple Cross.

In Elstree and Borehamwood (close to the A1 motorway) are the Elstree Studios, where the Star Wars films were made and more recently Big Brother, and Hasselblad UK is based in Elstree. Borehamwood is also home to BBC Elstree and Pizza Hut UK. The Boy's Brigade, DSG International (owners of Currys) and PC World), Sir Robert McAlpine, Bourne Leisure are based in Hemel Hempstead; where 3Com, Epson UK, Steria (formerly Bull and Honeywell), Alcon UK, and Kodak have their UK bases. Pure Digital (DAB radios) are in Kings Langley, the former home of Ovaltine until 2002.

T-Mobile UK HQ in Hatfield next to the A1 on the site of the former factory of de Havilland

In Welwyn Garden City are PayPoint, the headquarters of First Quench Retailing (formerly the Thresher Group) and Hostelling International, and the UK headquarters of Xerox, Cereal Partners, and Hoffmann–La Roche. Shredded Wheat and Shreddies were manufactured in the town by Nestlé (Cereal Partners) until April 2008. DuPont UK, EADS Astrium UK and MBDA UK (former BAe Dynamics), and a plant of GSK are in Stevenage. Tesco is based in Cheshunt. Computacenter, Denso UK, and T-Mobile UK are in Hatfield; Veolia Water Central Limited and the HQ of Ocado are next to each other on the A1001. Polaroid UK, Premier Foods and Viglen are in St Albans; also Murphy Oil Corp's USA, UK subsidiary, Murco Petroleum Ltd.

Johnson Matthey (materials for catalytic converters) has its main operations in Royston. Cash Converters UK is in Thundridge near Ware. Harlow has Pearson Education, the main research division of GlaxoSmithKline, the European headquarters of Pitney Bowes, and the main manufacturing plant of Raytheon UK.

Bedfordshire

Samuel Whitbread began his brewery in Bedfordshire in 1742

Moto Hospitality have their headquarters at Toddington in Bedfordshire (at the service station). Luton is home to EasyJet, InBev, Vauxhall, the Bay Restaurant Group (owner of Slug and Lettuce), Hain Celestial Group UK (who make Linda McCartney Foods), Thomson UK and the UK headquarters of Electrolux (owner of AEG and Zanussi), Chevrolet UK, and Saab Great Britain. Its neighbour in Dunstable is home to Whitbread.

Bedford is home to Fujifilm UK and Wells & Young's Brewery (former Charles Wells). Autoglass is in nearby Cardington. Kier Group and the RSPB are in Sandy. Connells is in Leighton Buzzard. Jordans (cereal) and Liebherr Group UK are in Biggleswade. Trafficmaster Europe is at Cranfield University. Unilever have their main food research site (where low fat spreads were invented) at Colworth Science Park near Sharnbrook.

East Anglia

ARM CPU designed in Cambridge

The economy in Norfolk, Cambridgeshire and Suffolk is traditionally mostly agricultural. Nationally known companies include Bernard Matthews, the RAC, Virgin Money and Aviva (formerly Norwich Union) in Norwich. In Carrow, to the east of the city, Colman's make a wide range of mustards, and Britvic make Robinsons squash, which was owned by Colman's until 1995. Greene King and Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds, and British Sugar make all their icing sugar and caster sugar there. Campbell Soup is made in Kings Lynn. Lotus Cars are at Hethel. In Newmarket is the base of the British horse racing industry and the National Horseracing Museum. The main water company for the area, AWG plc and International Audio Group are based in Huntingdon.

Around Cambridge on numerous science parks, are high technology (electronics and biochemistry) companies, such as ARM Holdings, Adder Technology, NEC Philips UK, Monsanto UK, and Play.com, which form the so-called Silicon Fen. Cambridgeshire has a few RAF bases. Marshall Aerospace is at Cambridge Airport. Syngenta UK is to the east of Cambridge, at Fulbourn. Premier Foods have a large plant in Histon and Impington making Robertson's and Hartley's jam, Smash instant potato, and Rose's marmalade. Addenbrooke's Hospital is a pioneering hospital in the UK, based at Cambridge Bio-Medical Campus.

Gate guard at RAF Lakenheath

Subway UK (restaurants) is in Great Shelford. Unwins Seeds is in Alconbury Weston next to the A1. British Sugar, Silver Spoon and the Billington Food Group are based in Peterborough, as is Perkins Engines. News International have a main office there and Indesit (owner of Hotpoint) have their UK headquarters in Woodston. Bauer Consumer Media (former EMAP) and the N&P Building Society are in Orton Northgate. BGL Group (Compare The Market) is in Orton Southgate.

The USAF still have bases in Suffolk. CLAAS UK, is based on the side of the A14 just west of Bury St Edmunds at The Saxhams, and New Holland UK (and also the UK base of Fiat-owned CNH Global) is in Basildon where there is a large tractor factory. BOCM Pauls is in Wherstead just south of Ipswich. The Port of Felixstowe is the UK's busiest container terminal and the 28th busiest in the world. Birds Eye, now no longer part of Unilever, now has its main factories in Lowestoft.

Ford of Europe's Dunton Technical Centre

The Scout Association is headquartered in Gilwell Park in south Essex. Konica Minolta Business Solutions (UK) and SELEX Galileo (avionics) are in Basildon. Britvic is in Chelmsford, which is the historic home of the Marconi Company now run by BAE Systems at Great Baddow. Radar was developed in this area in the late 1930s. Federal Express Europe Inc is at Stansted Airport. Clinton Cards is in Loughton, where De La Rue has a banknote printing factory next to junction 5 of the M11, printing notes for the Bank of England and other countries. Countrywide plc is in Witham, Essex. In Thurrock are Harveys Furniture and Carpetright in Purfleet, and Unilever have a large margarine works there. P & G make soap (detergents) in West Thurrock. The army have a large base in Colchester, which is the home of the Parachute Regiment and 16th Air Assault Brigade. JobServe is in Tiptree. Martin McColl, the newsagents group, and Amstrad are in Brentwood, home to Ford of Europe at Warley, and the Dunton Technical Centre at Dunton Wayletts next to the A127.

Transport

Transport policy

M11 near Cambridge

As part of the transport planning system the Regional Assembly is under statutory requirement to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency and Network Rail.[2]

Within the region the local transport authorities carry out transport planning through the use of a Local Transport Plan (LTP) which outlines their strategies, policies and implementation programme.[3] The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006-11. In the East of England region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: Bedfordshire,[4] Cambridgeshire,[5] Essex,[6] Hertfordshire,[7] Luton U.A.,[8] Norfolk,[9] Peterborough U.A.,[10] Southend-on-Sea U.A.,[11] Suffolk,[12] Thurrock U.A..[13] Since 1 April 2009, when the county of Bedfordshire was split into two unitary councils,[14] the Bedfordshire transport authority has ceased to exist, however it is the most recent LTP for the area.

Road

The East of England region is covered by the Highways Agency operational area 6 and part of area 8. Major roads servicing these areas include the M1 Luton to Milton Keynes, M11 London to Cambridge, M25 through Essex, A1 London to Peterborough, A5 St. Albans to Milton Keynes , A11 London to Norwich, A12 London to Great Yarmouth, A14 Felixstowe to Rugby via Cambridge, A47 Great Yarmouth to Nuneaton and the A120 Harwich to Stansted. There are a number of proposed road developments throughout the region.

Rail

The region is serviced by Network Rail Route 5 West Anglia and Route 7 Great Eastern as well as parts of Route 6 North London Line and Thameside, Route 8 East Coast Main Line and Route 18 West Coast Main Line. Major rail lines run London to Norwich, London to Cambridge and King's Lynn, and London to Southend with a number of rural branch lines servicing the wider region. A major freight route also runs between the Port of Felixstowe and London.

Sea

The East of England has one international ferry port, Harwich International Port, which together with the Port of Felixstowe, the UK's largest container port, and the Port of Ipswich forms the Haven ports group. The East of England coast also holds a number of traditional fishing ports including the King's Lynn Docks, the Port of Lowestoft and Wells Harbour. There are also a number of ports on the Essex side of the Thames Estuary and river including Shell Haven and the Port of Tilbury.

In 2007 construction started on the Great Yarmouth Outer Harbour, a new container port for the east coast. There are also plans under consideration to run a ferry service to IJmuiden, west of Amsterdam from the new port.

Air

Stansted is Ryanair's biggest hub with 108 routes

The region has three public international airports, London Stansted Airport (former RAF Stansted Mountfitchet), London Luton Airport and Norwich International Airport (former RAF Horsham St Faith). It also includes a number of smaller local airfields that are licensed for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction these include Beccles Airport, Clacton Airport, Duxford Aerodrome and Peterborough/Sibson Airport.

There is a current proposal to expand the capacity of Stansted Airport. In March 2008 BAA Limited submitted a planning application for the construction of a second runway and terminal at the site. This has faced opposition from the Stop Stansted Expansion pressure group whose members believe the development is unsustainable. Stansted Airport has the unenvious position of being the UK's airport of choice for hijacked planes entering the UK's airspace, and as a result has seen some high profile hijackings in recent years.

Education

Essex and Southend-on-Sea LEAs have selective schools. The others do not. Nine out of the top ten schools in the region (by A level results) are either in Essex or Southend-on-Sea. However, at GCSE, the best performing LEA is Hertfordshire, followed by Cambridgeshire and Southend-on-Sea. Suffolk also performs better than the England average of 45.8% attaining 5 grades A-C including Maths and English.

In general, the region performs well at GCSE, with only Luton and Ipswich being low performing. Thurrock and Peterborough are next lowest, but are not underperforming areas. At A level, the best performing area is Southend-on-Sea, followed by Cambridgeshire and Essex. No other areas are above the England average. Thurrock is the least performing area, followed closely by Luton. At A level, Norfolk does not perform well for a rural county. Ipswich also underperforms at A Level.

Cambridge has an eponymous very well known university as well as a second, much less well-known one. There are also other towns and cities in the region which have universities including Norwich (University of East Anglia) and Hatfield (University of Hertfordshire).

Top twenty state schools in the East of England (2008 A level results)

Climate

East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom with average rainfall ranging from 450mm to 750mm. This is usually because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land (and therefore are usually a lot weaker) by the time they reach Eastern England. However The Fens in Cambridgeshire is prone to flooding should a strong system affect the area.

Winter (mid November - mid March) is mostly cool but cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring occasionally heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system from the Atlantic or the Mediterranean. Northerly winds can also be cold but are not usually as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds usually bring milder but wetter weather. Southerly winds can also be mild (esp if they come from the Mediterranean or North Africa) but can also be chilly if coming from mainland Europe.

Spring (mid March - May) is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is usually warm by late-April/May. The weather at this time can be changeable and occasionally showery.

Summer (June - mid September) is usually warm & pleasant but continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High can occasionally lead to hot and muggy weather. Westerly winds from the Atlantic can make the area cool and unsettled.

Autumn (mid September - mid November) is usually mild but can be changeable with some days being very unsettled and rainy and others being relatively warm & pleasant. An Indian summer can occasionally take place with September and early October having warm and settled weather.

Local media

BBC Essex in Chelmsford

See also

Lists:

References

  1. ^ "The East of England Plan, the Revision to the Regional Spatial Strategy for the East of England, has been published today (12 May 2008)". Go East. http://www.gos.gov.uk/goeast/planning/regional_planning. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  2. ^ "Regional Transport Strategy: the National Picture". Government Office for the East of England. http://www.gos.gov.uk/goeast/transport/transport_nat/regional_transport_strategy_nat/. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  3. ^ "The LTP Process". Department for Transport. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/regional/ltp/theltpprocess. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  4. ^ "Bedfordshire 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Bedfordshire County Council. http://www.bedfordshire.gov.uk/ltp/index.html. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  5. ^ "Cambridgeshire 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Cambridgeshire County Council. http://www.cambridgeshire.gov.uk/transport/strategies/local/ltp_2006.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  6. ^ "Essex 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Essex County Council. http://www.essexcc.gov.uk/vip8/ecc/ECCWebsite/dis/guc.jsp?channelOid=16819&guideOid=39939&guideContentOid=44746. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  7. ^ "Hertfordshire 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Hertfordshire County Council. http://www.hertsdirect.org/envroads/roadstrans/transplan/ltp/. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  8. ^ "Luton 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Luton Borough Council. http://www.luton.gov.uk/internet/transport_and_streets/transport_planning/local%20transport%20plan. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  9. ^ "Norfolk 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Norfolk County Council. http://www.norfolk.gov.uk/consumption/idcplg?IdcService=SS_GET_PAGE&nodeId=3536. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  10. ^ "Peterborough 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Peterborough City Council. http://www.peterborough.gov.uk/page-4536. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  11. ^ "Southend-on-Sea 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Southend-on-Sea_UA. http://www.southend.gov.uk/content.asp?section=511&content=6282. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  12. ^ "Suffolk 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Suffolk County Council. http://www.suffolk.gov.uk/TransportAndStreets/Policies/SuffolkLocalTransportPlan2006-2011.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  13. ^ "Thurrock 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Thurrock Council. http://www.thurrock.gov.uk/travel/transport/content.php?page=ltp_2011. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  14. ^ "Bedfordshire Goes Unitary". Bedfordshire County Council. http://www.bedfordshire.gov.uk/. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 

External links


Simple English


The East of England is a region in England. There are nine regions of England. It was made in 1994 and was used as a category for statistics in 1991. The counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Suffolk are in the region. Also Peterborough is in the region.

In 2001 the census in England found that 5,388,140 persons lived in the region. The land is mostly low. The highest place is the hill of Ivinghoe Beacon, near Tring in the county of Hertfordshire. The top of the hill is 249 metres above the level of the sea.


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