Eating: Wikis

  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Eating

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eating is often a social occasion.
Marines having lunch with Iraqi soldiers during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
High school students eating Ramen

Eating is the process of ingesting food to provide for an animal's nutritional needs, particularly for energy and growth. All animals must eat organisms in order to survive: carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, and omnivores consume a mixture of both.

Contents

Eating practices

Many homes have a kitchen room or outside (in the tropics) kitchen area devoted to preparation of meals and food, and may have a dining room or another designated area for eating. Dishware, silverware, drinkware and cookware come in a wide array of forms and sizes. Most societies also have restaurants and food vendors, so that people may eat when away from home, when lacking time to prepare food, or as a social occasion.[1] At their highest level of sophistication, these places become "theatrical spectacles of global cosmopolitanism and myth."[2] Occasionally, such as at picnics, potlucks, and food festivals, eating is in fact the primary purpose of the social gathering. However, this is not always true, such as in religious gatherings.

People commonly have two or three meals a day at regular times. Snacks of smaller amounts may be consumed between meals. Some propose not snacking, yet advocate three meals a day (of 600 kcal per meal) with four to six hours between.[3] Having three well-balanced meals (thus 1/2 of the plate with vegetables[4], 1/4 protein food as meat, ... and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice, ...) will then account to some 1800–2000 kcal; which is the average requirement for a regular person.[5]

The issue of healthy eating has long been an important concern to individuals and cultures. Among other practices, fasting, dieting, and vegetarianism are all techniques employed by individuals and encouraged by societies to increase longevity and health. Some religions promote vegetarianism, considering it wrong to consume animals. Leading nutritionists believe that instead of indulging oneself in three large meals each day, it is much healthier and easier on the metabolism to eat five smaller meals each day (e.g. better digestion, easier on the lower intestine to deposit wastes; whereas larger meals are tougher on the digestive tract and may call for the use of laxatives). However, psychiatrists with Yale Medical School have found that people who suffer from Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and consume three meals per day weigh less than those who have more frequent meals. Eating can also be a way of making money (see competitive eating).

Emotional Eating

A man eating.

Emotional eating is “the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions”.[6] Empirical studies have indicated that anxiety leads to decreased food consumption in people with normal weight and increased food consumption in the obese.[7]

Many laboratory studies showed that overweight individuals are more emotionally reactive and are more likely to overeat when distressed than people of normal weight. Furthermore, it was consistently found that obese individuals experience negative emotions more frequently and more intensively than do normal weight persons.[8]

The naturalistic study of Lowe and Fisher compared the emotional reactivity and emotional eating of normal and overweight female college students. The study confirmed the tendency of obese individuals to overeat, but these findings applied only to snacks, not to meals. That means that obese individuals did not tend to eat more while having meals – rather, the amount of snacks they ate between meals was greater. One possible explanation that Lowe and Fisher suggest is that obese individuals often eat their meals with others and do not eat more than average due to the reduction of distress because of the presence of other people. Another possible explanation would be that obese individuals do not eat more than the others while having meals due to social desirability. Conversely, snacks are usually eaten alone.[8]

Satiety and Human Metabolism

The control of food intake is a physiologically complex, motivated behavioral system. Hormones such as cholecystokinin, bombesin, neurotensin, anorectin, calcitonin, enterostatin, leptin and corticotropin-releasing hormone have all been shown to suppress food intake.[9][10]

Disorders

Physiologically, eating is generally triggered by hunger, but there are numerous physical and psychological conditions that can affect appetite and disrupt normal eating patterns. These include depression, food allergies, ingestion of certain chemicals, bulimia, anorexia nervosa, pituitary gland misfunction and other endocrine problems, and numerous other illnesses and eating disorders.

A chronic lack of nutritious food can cause various illnesses, and will eventually lead to starvation. When this happens in a locality on a massive scale it is considered a famine.

If eating and drinking is not possible, as is often the case when recovering from surgery, alternatives are enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition.

See also

References

  1. ^ John Raulston Saul (1995), "The Doubter's Companion", 155
  2. ^ David Grazian (2008), "On the Make: The Hustle of Urban Nightlife", 32
  3. ^ Eating recommendations by BCM
  4. ^ Half of plate to be filled with vegetables, according to Harvard School of Public Health
  5. ^ Calorie requirements for regular person estimated at 2000 kcal
  6. ^ Eldredge, K. L., & Agras, W. S. (1994). Weight and Shape Overconcern and Emotional Eating in Binge Eating Disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 19 (1), 73-82.
  7. ^ McKenna, R. J. (1972). Some Effects of Anxiety Level and Food Cues on the Eating Behavior of Obese and Normal Subjects: A Comparison of Schachterian and Psychosomatic Conceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22 (3), 311-319.
  8. ^ a b Lowe, M. R., & Fisher, E. B. Jr. (1983). Emotional Reactivity, Emotional Eating, and Obesity: A Naturalistic Study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6 (2), 135-149.
  9. ^ Geiselman, P.J. (1996). Control of food intake. A physiologically complex, motivated behavioral system. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996 Dec;25(4):815-29.
  10. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=164160&rn=1

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


The ancient Hebrews would not eat with the Egyptians (Gen. 43:32). In the time of our Lord they would not eat with Samaritans (John 4:9), and were astonished that he ate with publicans and sinners (Matt. 9:11). The Hebrews originally sat at table, but afterwards adopted the Persian and Chaldean practice of reclining (Luke 7:36-50). Their principal meal was at noon (Gen. 43:16; 1 Kings 20:16; Ruth 2:14; Luke 14:12). The word "eat" is used metaphorically in Jer. 15:16; Ezek. 3:1; Rev. 10:9. In John 6:53-58, "eating and drinking" means believing in Christ. Women were never present as guests at meals (q.v.).

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Eating games are games where you have to eat as much as you possibly can.



Stub
This article is a stub. You can help by adding to it.

Stubs are articles that writers have begun work on, but are not yet complete enough to be considered finished articles.


This article uses material from the "Eating" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Eating is when a person, animal, or other living thing takes in food, in order to get energy and nutrients. People and animals need to eat because they cannot make their own food inside their bodies like plants. All plants' energy comes from the Sun. Plants take the Sun's energy, and they are eaten by other animals as food. The animals then eat each other for the energy. However, many people are eating when they do not feel hungry and they end up fat. You can get fat by eating the wrong unhealthy types of food and by eating too much. The process through which plants get their food through their leaves is called photosynthesis. If a plant gets too much food it can simply store it until later, which is what they do during the winter. When you are proven through your body mass index (BMI) it means you are too heavy than the average for your height. The taller you are the more heavier you should be, theoretically. This is not always true. If you too heavy to be categorized as fat, you become obese.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message