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Echinacea purpurea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Echinacea
Species: E. purpurea
Binomial name
Echinacea purpurea
(L.) Moench
Synonyms

Brauneria purpurea (L.) Britt.
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench var. arkansana Steyerm.
Rudbeckia purpurea L.

Echinacea purpurea (Eastern purple coneflower or Purple coneflower) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Echinacea.[1] Its cone-shaped flowering heads are usually, but not always purple.[2] It is native to eastern North America[1] and present to some extent in the wild in much of the eastern, southeastern and midwest United States.[3] It is also grown as an ornamental plant, and numerous cultivars have been developed for flower quality and plant form.[2]

Contents

Physical characteristics

This perennial flowering plant is 1.2 m tall and 0.5 m wide at maturity. Depending on the climate, it begins to bloom in late May or early July. Its individual flowers (florets) within the flower head are hermaphroditic, having both male and female organs on each flower. It is pollinated by butterflies and bees. Its habitats include dry open woods, prairies and barrens, as well as cultivated beds. Although the plant prefers loamy or sandy, well-drained soils, it is little affected by the soil's pH. Unable to grow in the shade, E. purpurea thrives in either dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought, once established.

Propagation

E. purpurea can be propagated either vegetatively or from seeds.[1] Useful vegetative techniques include division, root cuttings, and basal cuttings. Clumps can be divided, or broken into smaller bunches, which is normally done in the spring or autumn. Cuttings made from roots that are "pencil-sized" will develop into plants when started in late autumn or early winter.[2] Cuttings of basal shoots in the spring may be rooted when treated with rooting hormones.

Plants raised outdoors

Seed germination occurs best with daily temperature fluctuations[1] or after stratification,[4] which help to end dormancy. Seeds may be started indoors in advance of the growing season or outdoors after the growing season has started.

Predators

Slugs eat this plant.[1]

Medicinal properties

One study shows E. purpurea has antidepressant properties in white rats as it increased the stimulating action of L-DOPA.[5] Echinacea is commonly believed to stimulate the immune system.[6]

Gallery

References

Further reading

  • Amira M. K. Abouelella, Yasser E. Shahein, Sameh S. ‎Tawfik,‎ Ahmed M. Zahran. Phytotherapeutic effects of Echinacea purpurea in gamma-irradiated mice. [J. Vet. Sci., 8(4): 341-‎‎351‎‏ ‏‎(2007)‎].
  • Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. 
  • FE Koen, "The Influence of Echinacea Purpurea On The Hypophyseal-Adrenal System;" Arzneimittel-Forschung 3 (1953): 133-137. 8.

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Echinacea purpurea

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids II
Ordo: Asterales
Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: Unassigned
Genus: Echinacea
Suggenus: Echinacea subg. Echinacea
Species: Echinacea purpurea

Name

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, Methodus. 591. 1794.

Synonyms

Basionym
  • Rudbeckia purpurea L., Sp. Pl. 2: 907. 1753.
Homotypic
  • Brauneria purpurea (L.) Britton, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 5: 334. 1894.
  • Helichroa purpurea (L.) Raf., Neogenyt. 3. 1825.
Heterotypic
  • Brauneria serotina (Nutt.) Bergmans, Vaste Pl. Rotsheesters, 107. 1924.
  • Echinacea intermedia Lindl. ex Paxt.,Mag. Bot. 15. 79. 1849.
  • Echinacea purpurea f. liggettii Steyerm., Rhodora 44: 150. 1942.
  • Echinacea purpurea var. arkansana Steyerm., Rhodora 40: 71. 1938.
  • Echinacea purpurea var. serotina (Nutt.) L.H.Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2: 1088. 1914.
  • Echinacea serotina (Nutt.) D.Don ex G.Don f., Hort. Brit. [Loudon], ed. 2. 587. 1832.
  • Echinacea serotina (Nutt.) DC., Prodr. (de Candolle) 5: 554. 1836, comb. superfl.
  • Echinacea speciosa (Wender.) Paxton, Paxton's Mag. Bot. 15: 79. 1849.
  • Helichroa alba Raf., Neogenyt. 3. 1825.
  • Helichroa amoena Raf., Neogenyt. 3. 1825.
  • Helichroa crocea Raf., Neogenyt. 3. 1825.
  • Helichroa elatior Raf., Neogenyt. 3. 1825.
  • Helichroa fusca Raf., Neogenyt. 3. 1825.
  • Helichroa fuscata Raf., Atlantic J. 150. 1832.
  • Helichroa linnaeana Raf., Neogenyt. 3. 1825.
  • Helichroa uniflora Raf., Neogenyt. 3. 1825.
  • Rudbeckia hispida Hoffmgg., Verz. Pfl.-Kult. 223. 1824.
  • Rudbeckia intermedia Lindl. ex Paxt.? (Echinacea intermedia?)
  • Rudbeckia purpurea var. serotina Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. (Nuttall]. 2: 178. 1818.
  • Rudbeckia serotina (Nutt.) Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. [Sweet] 1: t. 4. 1823.
  • Rudbeckia speciosa Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 353. 1822, nom. inval.
  • Rudbeckia speciosa Wender. Flora 12(1, Ergänzungsbl.): 30. 1829.

References

  • Binns, S.E., Baum, B.R. & Arnason, J.T. (2002). A taxonomic revision of Echinacea (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). Systematic botany 27 (3): 610-632.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Data from 07-Oct-06]. [1]

Vernacular names

Dansk: Have-Purpusolhat
English: Eastern purple coneflower
Español: Equinácea purpúrea
日本語: ムラサキバレンギク
Suomi: Auringonhattu, punahattu, kaunopunahattu
Svenska: Röd rudbeckia
Türkçe: Ekinezya - Koni Çiçeği
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Echinacea purpurea on Wikimedia Commons.







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