Ecliptic: Wikis

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Perspective of Earth and celestial sphere, showing the ecliptic (plane), the celestial equator (overhead the Earth's equator) and the Earth's polar axis (which also points to the celestial poles). The intersection shown between the equator and the ecliptic (the vernal equinox point) is not associated with any particular location on the Earth (despite the diagram), because the Earth rotates daily, while the celestial sphere does not. The angle between the equatorial plane and the ecliptic plane is called the obliquity of the ecliptic (ε).

The ecliptic is the apparent path that the Sun traces out in the sky during the year, appearing to move eastwards on an imaginary spherical surface, the celestial sphere, relative to the (almost) fixed stars. In more accurate terms, it is the intersection of the celestial sphere with the ecliptic plane, which is the geometric plane containing the mean orbit of the Earth around the Sun. (The ecliptic plane should be distinguished from the invariable plane of the solar system, which is perpendicular to the vector sum of the angular momenta of all planetary orbital planes, to which Jupiter is the main contributor. The present ecliptic plane is inclined to the invariable plane by about 1.5°.)

The name ecliptic arises because eclipses occur when the full or new Moon is very close to this path of the Sun.

Contents

Ecliptic and equator

As the rotation axis of the Earth is not perpendicular to its orbital plane, the equatorial plane is not parallel to the ecliptic plane, but makes an angle of about 23°26', which is known as the obliquity of the ecliptic.

The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. Clementine's camera reveals (from right to left) the Moon lit by Earthshine, the Sun's glare rising over the Moon's dark limb, and the planets Saturn, Mars and Mercury (the three dots at lower left).

The intersections of the equatorial and ecliptic planes with the celestial dome are great circles known as the celestial equator and the ecliptic respectively. The intersection line of the two planes results in two diametrically opposite intersection points, known as the equinoxes. The equinox that the Sun passes from south to north is known as the vernal equinox or first point of Aries. Ecliptic longitude, usually indicated with the letter λ, is measured from this point on 0° to 360° towards the east. Ecliptic latitude, usually indicated with the letter β is measured +90° to the north or -90° to the south. The same intersection point also defines the origin of the equatorial coordinate system, named right ascension measured from 0 to 24 hours also to the east and usually indicated with α or R.A., and declination, usually indicated with δ also measured +90° to the north or -90° to the south. Simple rotation formulas allow a conversion from α,δ to λ,β and back (see: ecliptic coordinate system).

Ecliptic and stars

The ecliptic serves as the center of a region called the zodiac, which constitutes a band of 9° on either side. Traditionally, this region is divided into 12 signs of 30° longitude each. By tradition, these signs are named after 12 of the 13 constellations straddling the ecliptic. The zodiac signs are very important to many astrologers. Modern astronomers typically use other coordinate systems today (see below).

The position of the vernal equinox is not fixed among the stars but due to the lunisolar precession slowly shifting westwards over the ecliptic with a speed of 1° per 72 years. A much smaller north/southwards shift can also be discerned, (the planetary precession, along the instantaneous equator, which results in a rotation of the ecliptic plane). Said otherwise, the stars shift eastwards (increase their longitude) measured with respect to the equinoxes — in other words, as measured in ecliptic coordinates and (often) also in equatorial coordinates.

Using the current official IAU constellation boundaries — and taking into account the variable precession speed and the rotation of the ecliptic — the equinoxes shift through the constellations in the Astronomical Julian calendar years (in which the year 0 = 1 BC, -1 = 2 BC, etc.) as follows:[1]

  • The March equinox passed from Taurus into Aries in year -1865, passed into Pisces in year -67, will pass into Aquarius in year 2597, will pass into Capricornus in year 4312. It passed along (but not into) a 'corner' of Cetus on 0°10' distance in year 1489.
  • The June solstice passed from Leo into Cancer in year -1458, passed into Gemini in year -10, passed into Taurus in December year 1989, will pass into Aries in year 4609.
  • The September equinox passed from Libra into Virgo in year -729, will pass into Leo in year 2439.
  • The December solstice passed from Capricornus into Sagittarius in year -130, will pass into Ophiuchus in year 2269, and will pass into Scorpius in year 3597.

Ecliptic and Sun

UTC date and time of solstices and equinoxes[2]
year Equinox
Mar
Solstice
June
Equinox
Sept
Solstice
Dec
day time day time day time day time
2004 20 06:49 21 00:57 22 16:30 21 12:42
2005 20 12:33 21 06:46 22 22:23 21 18:35
2006 20 18:26 21 12:26 23 04:03 22 00:22
2007 21 00:07 21 18:06 23 09:51 22 06:08
2008 20 05:48 20 23:59 22 15:44 21 12:04
2009 20 11:44 21 05:45 22 21:18 21 17:47
2010 20 17:32 21 11:28 23 03:09 21 23:38
2011 20 23:21 21 17:16 23 09:04 22 05:30
2012 20 05:14 20 23:09 22 14:49 21 11:11
2013 20 11:02 21 05:04 22 20:44 21 17:11
2014 20 16:57 21 10:51 23 02:29 21 23:03
2015 20 22:45 21 16:38 23 08:20 22 04:48
2016 20 04:30 20 22:34 22 14:21 21 10:44
2017 20 10:28 21 04:24 22 20:02 21 16:28

Due to perturbing influences on the Earth's orbit by the other planets, the true Sun is not always exactly on the ecliptic, but may be some arcseconds north or south of it. It is therefore the centre of the mean Sun that outlines its path. As the Earth takes one year to make one complete revolution around the Sun, the apparent position of the Sun also takes the same length of time to make a complete circuit of the whole ecliptic. With slightly more than 365 days in the year, the Sun moves almost 1° eastwards every day (direction of increasing longitude). This annual motion should not be confused with the daily motion of the Sun (and the stars, the whole celestial sphere for that matter) towards the west along the equator every 24 hours. In fact, where the stars need about 23h56m for one such rotation to complete the sidereal day, the Sun, which has shifted 1° eastwards during that time needs 4 minutes extra to complete its circle, making the solar day just 24 hours.

Because the distance between Sun and Earth varies slightly around the year, the speed with which the Sun moves around the ecliptic is also variable. For example, within one year, the Sun is north of the equator for about 186.40 days and south of the equator for about 178.24 days.

The mean Sun crosses the equator around 20 March at the time of the vernal equinox when its declination, right ascension, and ecliptic longitude are all zero. (The ecliptic latitude is always zero.) The March equinox marks the onset of spring in the northern hemisphere and autumn in the southern. The actual date and time varies from year to year because of the occurrence of leap years. It also shifts slowly over the centuries due to imperfections in the Gregorian calendar.

Ecliptic longitude 90°, at right ascension 6 hours and a northern declination equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic (23.44°), is reached around 21 June. This is the June solstice or summer solstice in the northern hemisphere and winter solstice in the southern hemisphere. It is also the first point of Cancer and directly overhead on Earth on the tropic of Cancer so named because the Sun turns around in declination. Ecliptic longitude 180°, right ascension 12 hours is reached around 22 September and marks the second equinox or first point of Libra. Due to perturbations to the Earth orbit, the moment the real Sun passes the equator might be several minutes earlier or later. The southern most declination of the sun is reached at ecliptic longitude 270°, right ascension 18 hours at the first point of the sign of Capricorn around 21 December.

In any case it must be stressed that although these traditional signs (in western tropical astrology) have given their names to the solstices and equinoxes, in reality, (as from the list in the previous chapter) the cardinal points are currently situated in the constellations of Pisces, Taurus, Virgo and Sagittarius respectively, due to the precession of the equinoxes.

Ecliptic and planets

Most planets go in orbits around the sun, which are almost in the same plane as the Earth's orbital plane, differing by a few degrees at most. As such they always appear close to the ecliptic when seen in the sky. Mercury with an orbital inclination of 7° is an exception. Pluto, at 17°, was previously the exception until it was reclassified a dwarf planet, but other bodies in the Solar System have even greater orbital inclinations (e.g. Eris at 44° and Pallas at 34°). Interestingly, the Earth has the most inclined orbit of all eight major planets relative to the Sun's equator, with the giant planets close behind.

Inclination
Name Inclination
to ecliptic (°)
Inclination
to Sun's equator
(°)
Inclination
to Invariable plane[3] (°)
Terrestrials Mercury 7.01 3.38 6.34
Venus 3.39 3.86 2.19
Earth N/A 7.155 1.57
Mars 1.85 5.65 1.67
Gas giants Jupiter 1.31 6.09 0.32
Saturn 2.49 5.51 0.93
Uranus 0.77 6.48 1.02
Neptune 1.77 6.43 0.72

The intersection line of the ecliptical plane and another planet's orbital plane is called the nodal line of that planet, and the nodal line's intersection points on the celestial sphere are the ascending node (where the planet crosses the ecliptic from south to north) and the diametrically opposite descending node. Only when an inferior planet passes through one of its nodes can a transit over the Sun take place. Transits, especially for Venus, are quite rare, because the Earth's orbit is more inclined than those of the inner two planets.

Inclination and nodal lines, as almost all other orbital elements, change slowly over the centuries due to perturbations from the other planets.

Ecliptic and Moon

The orbit of the Moon is inclined by about 5° on the ecliptic. Its nodal line is not fixed either, but regresses (moves towards the west) over a full circle every 18.6 years. This is the cause of nutation and lunar standstill. The moon crosses the ecliptic about twice per month. If this happens during new moon a solar eclipse occurs, during full moon a lunar eclipse. This was the way the ancients could trace the ecliptic along the sky; they marked the places where eclipses could occur.

Ecliptic and star coordinates

Up to the 17th century in Europe, star maps and positions in star catalogues were always given in ecliptical coordinates, though in China, astronomers employed an equatorial system in their catalogues. It was not until astronomers started to use telescopes and mechanical clocks to measure star positions that equatorial coordinates came into use, which occurred so exclusively that nowadays ecliptical coordinates are no longer used. Nonetheless, this change is not always desirable, as a planetary conjunction would be much more illustratively described by ecliptic coordinates rather than equatorial.

Also see zodiacal coordinates.

References

  1. ^ J. Meeus; Mathematical Astronomical Morsels; ISBN 0-943396-51-4
  2. ^ United States Naval Observatory (01/28/07). "Earth's Seasons: Equinoxes, Solstices, Perihelion, and Aphelion, 2000-2020". http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/EarthSeasons.php.  
  3. ^ "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. http://home.comcast.net/~kpheider/MeanPlane.gif. Retrieved 2009-04-10.   (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano)

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ECLIPTIC, in astronomy. The plane of the ecliptic is that plane in or near which the centre of gravity of the earth and moon. revolves round the sun. The ecliptic itself is the great circle in which this plane meets the celestial sphere. It is also defined, but not with absolute rigour, as the apparent path described by the sun around the celestial sphere as the earth performs its. annual revolution. Owing to the action of the moon on the earth, as it performs its monthly revolution in an orbit slightly inclined to the ecliptic, the centre of the earth itself deviates from the plane of the ecliptic in a period equal to that of the nodal revolution of the moon. The deviation is extremely slight, its maximum amount ranging between o 5" and o 6". Owing to the action of the planets, especially Venus and Jupiter, on the earth, the centre of gravity of the earth and moon deviates by a yet minuter amount, generally one or two tenths of a second, from the plane of the ecliptic proper. Owing to the action of the planets, the position of the ecliptic is subject to a slow secular variation amounting, during our time, to nearly 47" per century. The rate of this motion is slowly diminishing.

The obliquity of the ecliptic is the angle which its plane makes with that of the equator. Its mean value is now about 23° 27'. The motion of the ecliptic produces a secular variation in the obliquity which is now diminishing by an amount nearly equal to the entire motion of the ecliptic itself. The laws of motion of the ecliptic and equator are stated in the article Precession Of The Equinoxes.

Attempts have been made by Laplace and his successors to fix certain limits within which the obliquity of the ecliptic shall always be confined. The results thus derived are, however, based on imperfect formulae. When the problem is considered in a rigorous form, it is found that no absolute limits can be set. It can, however, be shown that the obliquity cannot vary more than two or three degrees within a million of years of our epoch.

The formula for the obliquity of the ecliptic, as derived from the laws of motion of it and of the equator, may be developed in a series. proceeding according to the ascending powers of the time as follows we put T, the time from 1900, reckoned in solar centuries as a unit. Then, Obliquity=23° 27' 31.68"-46.837" T - o o085" T 2 -1-o 0017" T3. From this expression is derived the value of the obliquity at various epochs given in the following table. The left-hand portion of this. table gives the values for intervals of 500 years from 2000 B.C. to A.D. 2500 as computed from modern data. For dates more than three or four centuries before or after 1850 the result is necessarily uncertain by one or more tenths of a minute, and is therefore only given to o = 23° 28' 41.91" A.D. 1700; obl.

(S. N.)


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Simple English

The ecliptic is the apparent path that the Sun traces out in the sky during the year. As it appears to move in the sky in relation to the stars, the apparent path aligns with the planets throughout the course of the year. More accurately, it is the intersection of a spherical surface, the celestial sphere, with the ecliptic plane, which is the geometric plane containing the mean orbit of the Earth around the Sun. The ecliptic plane should be distinguished from the invariable ecliptic plane, which is perpendicular to the vector sum of the angular momenta of all planetary orbital planes, to which Jupiter is the main contributor. The present ecliptic plane is inclined to the invariable ecliptic plane by about 1.5°.

The name ecliptic is derived from being the place where eclipses occur.


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