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The known Economic history of India begins with the Indus Valley civilization. The Indus civilization's economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. These advances included bullock-driven carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today, as well as boats. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of sea-going craft. Archaeologists have discovered a massive, dredged canal and docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal.[1]

Around 600 BC, the Mahajanapadas minted punch-marked silver coins. The period was marked by intensive trade activity and urban development. By 300 BC the Maurya Empire united most of the Indian subcontinent. Trade routes became more secure and the road system was expanded. The political unity and military security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and commerce, with increased agricultural productivity. Farmers were freed of tax and crop collection burdens from regional kings, paying instead to a nationally-administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the principles in the Arthashastra. Chandragupta Maurya established a single currency across India, and a network of regional governors and administrators and a civil service provided justice and security for merchants, farmers and traders.

For the next 1500 years, India produced its classical civilizations such as the Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas and Western Gangas. During this period India is estimated to have had the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world between the 1st and 15th centuries AD, controlling between one third and one fourth of the world's wealth up to the time of the Marathas, from whence it rapidly declined during European rule.

India has followed central planning for most of its independent history, which have included extensive public ownership, regulation, red tape, and trade barriers.[2][3] India slipped behind many other Asian countries. After the 1991 economic crisis, the central government launched economic liberalization. India has turned towards a more capitalist system and has emerged as one of the fastest growing large economies of the world.[2][4]

Contents

Indus Valley civilization

The Indus Valley civilization, the first known permanent and predominantly urban settlement that flourished between 2800 BC to 1800 BC boasted of an advanced and thriving economic system. Its citizens practiced agriculture, domesticated animals, made sharp tools and weapons from copper, bronze and tin and traded with other cities. Evidence of well laid streets, layouts, drainage system and water supply in the valley's major cities, Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro and Rakhigarhi reveals their knowledge of urban planning. One of the theories about their end is that they eventually overused their resources, and slowly died out. There have been few weapons found in the Indus Valley, showing that they were peaceful people, and they did not get slaughtered by the Aryans[citation needed].

Ancient and medieval characteristics

Though ancient India had a significant urban population, much of India's population resided in villages, whose economy was largely isolated and self-sustaining. Agriculture was the predominant occupation of the populace and satisfied a village's food requirements besides providing raw materials for hand based industries like textile, food processing and crafts. Besides farmers, other classes of people were barbers, carpenters, doctors (Ayurvedic practitioners), goldsmiths, weavers etc.

Religion

Religion, especially Hinduism, played an influential role in shaping economic activities. The Indian caste system castes and sub-castes functioned much like medieval European guilds, ensuring division of labour and provided for training of apprentices. The caste system restricted people from changing one's occupation and aspiring to an upper caste's lifestyle. Thus, a barber could not become a goldsmith and even a highly skilled carpenter could not aspire to the lifestyle or privileges enjoyed by a Kshatriya (person of a warrior class). This barrier to mobility on labour restricted economic prosperity to a few castes.

Pilgrimage towns like Allahabad, Benares, Nasik and Puri, mostly centred around rivers, developed into centres of trade and commerce. Religious functions, festivals and the practice of taking a pilgrimage resulted in a flourishing pilgrimage economy.

Family business

In the joint family system, members of a family pooled their resources to maintain the family and invest in business ventures. The system ensured younger members were trained and employed in the family business and the older and disabled persons would be supported by the family. The system, by preventing the agricultural land from being split ensured higher yield because of the benefits of scale. The system curbed members from taking initiative because of the support system and family or work.

Organizational entities

Along with the family-run business and individually owned business enterprises, ancient India possessed a number of other forms of engaging in business or collective activity, including the gana, pani, puga, vrata, sangha, nigama and sreni. Nigama, pani and sreni refer most often to economic organizations of merchants, craftspeople and artisans, and perhaps even para-military entities. In particular, the sreni was a complex organizational entity that shares many similarities with modern corporations, which were being used in India from around the 8th century BC until around the 10th century AD. The use of such entities in ancient India was widespread including virtually every kind of business, political and municipal activity.[5]

The sreni was a separate legal entity which had the ability to hold property separately from its owners, construct its own rules for governing the behavior of its members, and for it to contract, sue and be sued in its own name. Some ancient sources such as Laws of Manu VIII and Chanakya's Arthashastra have rules for lawsuits between two or more sreni and some sources make reference to a government official (Bhandagarika) who worked as an arbitrator for disputes amongst sreni from at least the 6th century BC onwards.[6] There were between 18 to 150 sreni at various times in ancient India covering both trading and craft activities. This level of specialization of occupations is indicative of a developed economy in which the sreni played a critical role. Some sreni could have over 1000 members as there were apparently no upper limits on the number of members.

The sreni had a considerable degree of centralized management. The headman of the sreni represented the interests of the sreni in the king’s court and in many official business matters. The headman could also bind the sreni in contracts, set the conditions of work within the sreni, often received a higher salary, and was the administrative authority within the sreni. The headman was often selected via an election by the members of the sreni, who could also be removed from power by the general assembly. The headman often ran the enterprise with two to five executive officers, who were also elected by the assembly.

Coinage

Punch marked silver ingots, in circulation around the fifth century BC and the first metallic coins were minted around sixth century BC by the Mahajanapadas of the Gangetic plains were the earliest traces of coinage in India. While India's many kingdoms and rulers issued coins, barter was still widely prevalent.[7] Villages paid a portion of their agricultural produce as revenue while its craftsmen received a stipend out of the crops at harvest time for their services. Each village, as an economic unit, was mostly self-sufficient.

Exports

Surplus of Indian manufactures, like the muslin of Dacca, calicos of Bengal, shawls of Kashmir, steel and iron works, silk, and other textiles and handicrafts, agricultural products like pepper, cinnamon, opium and indigo were exported to Europe, the Middle East and South East Asia in return for gold and silver.

GDP estimate

According to economic historian Angus Maddison in his book The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, India had the world's largest economy from the first to eleventh century, and in the eighteenth century, with a (32.9%) share of world GDP in the first century to (28.9%) in 1000 AD, and in 1700 AD with (24.4%)[8].

Maurya Empire

During the Maurya Empire (c. 321-185 BC), there were a number of important changes and developments to the Indian economy. It was the first time most of India was unified under one ruler. With an empire in place, the trade routes throughout India became more secure thereby reducing the risk associated with the transportation of goods. The empire spent considerable resources building roads and maintaining them throughout India. The improved infrastructure combined with increased security, greater uniformity in measurements, and increasing usage of coins as currency enhanced trade. During this time, the Arthasastra ("science of the state") was written by the Chanakya, an adviser to Chandragupta Maurya. The Arthasastra is one of the most important ancient texts on economics, politics and administration. It was a treatise on how to maintain and expand power, obtain material gain, and administer an empire. It covers both theory and implementation and contains many clear and detailed rules regarding the governing of an empire. The exhaustive account of the economic ideas embedded in the Arthasastra has been given by Ratan Lal Basu in his famous work "Ancient Indian Economic Thought, Relevance For Today".[9] In course of an International Conference held in 1902 at Oriental Research Institute, Myore, India to celebrate the Centenary of discovery of the manuscript of the Arthasastra by R. Shamasastry, eminent Chanakya experts from all over the world had discussed various aspects of Chanakya's thought in the light of present day scenario. Most of the papers presented in the Conference have been compiled in an edited volume by Raj Kumar Sen and Ratan Lal Basu.[10]

The economic situation in the Maurya Empire is comparable to the Roman Empire several centuries later, which both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to corporations. While Rome had organizational entities which were largely used for public state-driven projects, Maurya India had numerous private commercial entities which existed purely for private commerce. This was due to the Mauryas having to contend with pre-existing sreni hence they were more concerned about keeping the support of these pre-existing private commercial entities. The Romans did not have such pre-existing entities to contend with; hence, they were able to prevent such entities from developing.

Mughal Empire

1526

During this period, Mughal India was the second largest economy in the world. The gross domestic product of India in the 16th century was estimated at about 24.5% of the world economy, in comparison to Ming China's 25% share.[11][12]

1600

An estimate of India's pre-colonial economy puts the annual revenue of Emperor Akbar's treasury in 1600 at £17.5 million, in contrast to the entire treasury of Great Britain in 1800, which totalled £16 million. The gross domestic product of Mughal India in 1600 was estimated at about 22.6% the world economy, in comparison to Ming China's 29.2% share.[11][12]

1700

By this time, the Mughal Empire expanded to almost 1,000 million acres (4,000,000 km2), or 90 per cent of South Asia, and a uniform customs and tax administration system was enforced. Annual revenue reported by the Emperor Aurangzeb's exchequer exceeded £100 million in 1700 (twice that of Europe then). Thus, India emerged as the world's largest economy, followed by Manchu China and Western Europe.[11][12]

Nawabs, Marathas and Nizams

1725 - 1750

During this period, Mughals were replaced by the Nawabs in north India, the Marathas in central India and the Nizams in south India. However, the Mughal tax administration system was left largely intact. China was the world's largest economy followed by India and France. The gross domestic product of India in 1750 was estimated at about 80 per cent that of China.

1750 - 1775

During this period, about two-thirds of the civil service in India was still dominated by Muslim officers though the Maratha empire expanded to almost 250 million acres (1,000,000 km2), or 34 per cent of Indian landscape, while the Nizam's dominion expanded to almost 125 million acres (510,000 km2), or 17 per cent of Indian landscape. China was the world's largest economy followed by India and France. The gross domestic product of India in 1775 was estimated at about 70 per cent that of China. Nevertheless, a devastating famine broke out in the eastern coast in early 1770s killing 5 per cent of the national population.

British rule

The British colonial rule created an institutional environment that did stabilize the law and order situation to a large extent. The British foreign policies however stifled the trade with rest of the world. They created a well developed system of railways, telegraphs and a modern legal system. The infrastructure the British created was mainly geared towards the exploitation of resources of India. By the end of the colonial rule India inherited an economy that was one of the poorest in the world and totally stagnant, with industrial development stalled, agriculture unable to feed a rapidly accelerating population. They were subject to frequent famines, had one of the world's lowest life expectancies, suffered from pervasive malnutrition and were largely illiterate.

GDP estimates

An estimate by Angus Maddison, formerly of Groningen University, reveals that India's share of the world income went from 24.4% in 1700, comparable to Europe's share of 23.3%, to a low of 3.8% in 1952. While Indian leaders during the Independence struggle and left-nationalist economic historians have blamed the colonial rule for the dismal state of India's economy, a broader macroeconomic view of India during this period reveals that there were segments of both growth and decline, resulting from changes brought about by colonialism and a world that was moving towards industrialization and economic integration.

Price of Silver - Rate of Exchange: 1871-72 to 1892-93
Period Price of Silver (in pence per Troy ounce) Rupee exchange rate (in pence)
1871–1872 60½ 23 ⅛
1875–1876 56¾ 21⅝
1879–1880 51¼ 20
1883–1884 50½ 19½
1887–1888 44⅝ 18⅞
1890–1891 47 11/16 18⅛
1891–1892 45 16¾
1892–1893 39 15
Source: B.E. Dadachanji. History of Indian Currency and Exchange, 3rd enlarged ed.

(Bombay: D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co, 1934), p. 15.

The fall of the Rupee

See also: The crisis of silver currency and bank notes (1750–1870)

After its victory in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), Germany extracted a huge indemnity from France of £200,000,000, and then moved to join Britain on a gold standard for currency. France, the US and other industrializing countries followed Germany in adopting a gold standard throughout the 1870s. At the same time, countries, such as Japan, which did not have the necessary access to gold or those, such as India, which were subject to imperial policies that determined that they did not move to a gold standard, remained mostly on a silver standard. A huge divide between silver-based and gold-based economies resulted. The worst affected were economies with a silver standard that traded mainly with economies with a gold standard. With discovery of more and more silver reserves, those currencies based on gold continued to rise in value and those based on silver were declining due to demonetization of silver. For India which carried out most of its trade with gold based countries, especially Britain, the impact of this shift was profound. As the price of silver continued to fall, so too did the exchange value of the rupee, when measured against sterling.

British East India Company rule

1775–1800

During this period, the East India Company began tax administration reforms in a fast expanding empire spread over 250 million acres (1,000,000 km2), or 35 per cent of Indian domain. Indirect rule was also established on protectorates and buffer states. China was the world's largest economy followed by India and France. The gross domestic product of India in 1800 was estimated at about 60 per cent that of China.

The Company treasury reported annual revenue of £111 million in circa 1800 thus registering an average annual growth of merely 0.1 per cent throughout the turbulent 18th century. Almost all of the Indian land revenues were diverted by the Company to help the British Crown defend herself in the Napoleonic Wars.

1800–1825

China was the world's largest economy followed by India and France. The gross domestic product of India in 1825 was estimated at about 50 per cent that of China. British cotton exports reach 3 per cent of the Indian market by 1825.(pdf)

1825–1850

China was the world's largest economy followed by the UK and India. Industrial revolution in the UK catapulted the nation to the top league of Europe for the first time ever. During this period, British foreign and economic policies began treating India as an unequal partner for the first time.[13] English replaced Persian as the official language of India. The gross domestic product of India in 1850 was estimated at about 40 per cent that of China. British cotton exports reach 30 per cent of the Indian market by 1850.(pdf)

British Raj

1850–1875

The formal dissolution of the declining Mughal Dynasty heralded a change in British treatment of Indian subjects. During the British Raj, massive railway projects were begun in earnest and government jobs and guaranteed pensions attracted a large number of upper caste Hindus into the civil service for the first time. China was the world's largest economy followed by the USA, UK and India. The gross domestic product of India in 1875 was estimated at about 30 per cent that of China (or 60 per cent that of the USA). British cotton exports reach 55 per cent of the Indian market by 1875.(pdf)

1875–1900

USA was the world's largest economy followed by China, UK, Germany and India. Collapse of the central authority of the Qing Dynasty and the resultant chaos triggered China's short but rapid decline on the world stage. The gross domestic product of India in 1900 was estimated at about 20 per cent that of the USA.

The Crown treasury reported annual revenue of £122 million in circa 1900 thus registering an average annual growth of merely 0.1 per cent throughout the turbulent 19th century.

1900–1925

US was the world's largest economy followed by the UK, China, France, Germany, India and the USSR. The gross domestic product of India in 1925 was estimated at about 10 per cent that of the US.

Zoroastrian business conglomerates like Tata and Godrej begin to dominate textile, mining and durable goods industries.

The Crown treasury reported annual revenue of £125 million in 1925 thus registering an average annual growth of merely 0.1 per cent during the turbulent first quarter of 20th century.

During this period, India became a net importer from net exporter of foodgrains. A US Dollar was exchanged at 2.76 Rupees.

1925–1950

US was the world's largest economy followed by the USSR, UK, China, France, Germany and India. The gross domestic product of India in 1950 was estimated at about 7 per cent that of the US.

The Great Depression of 1929 had a very severe impact on India, which was then under the British. During the period 1929–1937, exports and imports fell drastically crippling seaborne international trade. The railways and the agricultural sector were the most affected.

The international financial crisis resulted in the soaring prices of commodities. The discontent of farmers manifested itself in rebellions and riots. The Salt Satyagraha of 1930 was one of the measures undertaken as a response to heavy taxation during the Great Depression.

The Great Depression and the economic policies of the Government of British India worsened the already deteriorating Indo-British relations. When the first general elections were held according to the Government of India Act 1935, anti-British feelings resulted in the Indian National Congress winning in most provinces with a very high percentage of the vote share.

The newly independent but weak Union government's treasury reported annual revenue of £334 million in 1950 thus registering an average annual growth of almost 4 per cent during the second quarter of 20th century. In contrast, Nizam Asaf Jah VII of south India was widely reported to have amassed a fortune of almost £668 million then.[14]

About one-sixth of the national population were urban by 1950.[15] A US Dollar was exchanged at 4.79 Rupees.

Republic of India

Nehruvian Socialist rate of growth

Compare India (orange) with South Korea (yellow). Both started from about the same income level in 1950. The graph shows GDP per capita of South Asian economies and South Korea as a percent of the American GDP per capita.

The "Nehruvian Socialist rate of growth" is used to refer to the low annual growth rate of the economy of India before 1991. It stagnated at around 3.5% from 1950s to 1980s, while per capita income growth averaged extremely low 1.3% a year.[16] At the same time, Pakistan grew by 8%, Indonesia by 9%, Thailand by 9%, South Korea by 10% and in Taiwan by 12%.[17] A false and pejorative term, called the "Hindu rate of growth", was coined by a left-leaning Indian economist called Raj Krishna to describe this rate of growth.

Socialist reforms (1950-1975)

USA was the world's largest economy followed by the USSR, Japan, Germany and China. The gross domestic product of India in 1975 was estimated at about 5 per cent that of the USA.

Before independence a large share of tax revenue was generated by the land tax, which was in effect a lump sum tax on land. Since then land taxes have steadily declined as a share of revenues and completely replaced by sales taxes. [2]

Moreover, the structural economic problems inherited at independence were exacerbated by the costs associated with the partition of British India, which had resulted in about 2 to 4 million refugees fleeing past each other across the new borders between India and Pakistan. The settlement of refugees was a considerable financial strain. Partition also divided India into complementary economic zones. Under the British, jute and cotton were grown in the eastern part of Bengal, the area that became East Pakistan (after 1971, Bangladesh), but processing took place mostly in the western part of Bengal, which became the Indian state of West Bengal in 1947. As a result, after independence India had to employ land previously used for food production to cultivate cotton and jute for its mills.

India's leaders—especially the first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, who introduced the five-year plans -- agreed that strong economic growth and measures to increase incomes and consumption among the poorest groups were necessary goals for the new nation. Giving utmost importance to the economy, Nehru appointed R. K. Shanmukham Chetty, a person who did not participate in the mainstream Indian Independence Movement as the finance minister, since he believed that more than ideology, having the right person in the right job was important.

Government was assigned an important role in the process of alleviating poverty, and since 1951 a series of plans had guided the country's economic development. Although there was considerable growth in the 1950s, the long-term rates of real growth were less positive than India's politicians desired and much less than those of many other Asian countries.

Nehru's industrial policies were intended to encourage the growth of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries, yet because of state planning, controls and regulations the result was impairment of productivity, quality and profitability. The Indian economy lumbered along with an anemic rate of growth, and chronic unemployment amidst entrenched poverty continued to plague the population.

Toward the end of Nehru's term as prime minister, India would continue to face serious food shortages despite hoped for progress and increases in agricultural production. There was mass starvation in states like Bihar due to socialist controls on the economy. Farmers as well as industrialists were ham-strung with controls (License Raj) on their freedom to run their respective businesses.

Despite such atrocious conditions in the country Nehru's popularity remained unaffected because of the larger-than-life image and the personality cult that was promoted by the state controlled mass media.

Since 1950, India ran into trade deficits that increased in magnitude in the 1960s. The Government of India had a budget deficit problem and therefore could not borrow money from abroad or from the private sector, which itself had a negative savings rate. As a result, the government issued bonds to the RBI, which increased the money supply, leading to inflation. In 1966, foreign aid, which was hitherto a key factor in preventing devaluation of the rupee was finally cut off and India was told it had to liberalise its restrictions on trade before foreign aid would again materialise. The response was the politically unpopular step of devaluation accompanied by liberalisation. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 led the US and other countries friendly towards Pakistan to withdraw foreign aid to India, which further necessitated devaluation. Defence spending in 1965/1966 was 24.06% of total expenditure, the highest in the period from 1965 to 1989. This, accompanied by the drought of 1965/1966, led to a severe devaluation of the rupee. Current GDP per capita grew 33% in the Sixties reaching a peak growth of 142% in the Seventies, decelerating sharply back to 41% in the Eighties and 20% in the Nineties.

From FY 1951 to FY 1979, the economy grew at an average rate of about 3.1 percent a year in constant prices, or at an annual rate of 1.0 percent per capita (see table 16, Appendix). During this period, industry grew at an average rate of 4.5 percent a year, compared with an annual average of 3.0 percent for agriculture. Many factors contributed to the slowdown of the economy after the mid-1960s, the main one was the socialist policies pursued by Nehru and his cabinet. They managed to tamp down on the natural business acumen and abilities of the population, yet some economists differed over the relative importance of those factors.

Structural deficiencies, such as the need for institutional changes in agriculture and the inefficiency of much of the centrally directed industrial sector, also contributed to economic stagnation. Some other excuses that were generally offered were - War with China in 1962 and with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971; a flood of refugees from East Pakistan in 1971; droughts in 1965, 1966, 1971, and 1972; currency devaluation in 1966; and the first world oil crisis, in 1973-1974, all jolted the economy.

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of India at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. See also the IMF database.

Year Gross Domestic Product US Dollar Exchange[3] Per Capita Income
(as % of USA)
1950 100,850 4.79 Indian Rupees 1.56
1955 110,300 4.79 Indian Rupees 2.33
1960 174,070 4.77 Indian Rupees 2.88
1965 280,160 4.78 Indian Rupees 3.26
1970 462,490 7.56 Indian Rupees 2.23
1975 842,210 8.39 Indian Rupees 2.18

[18] The Union government treasury reported annual revenue of £5-6 billion in 1975 thus registering a average annual growth of almost 12 per cent during the third quarter of 20th century. Nevertheless, prime minister Indira proclaimed emergency and suspended the Constitution in 1975. About one-fifth of the national population were urban by 1975.[19]

Economic liberalization

Service markets which would enjoy much lighter burden of regulation and other obstacles became more successful than still regulated sectors. For example, world-famous business process services are very lightly regulated.[2]

Economic liberalization in India in the 1990s and 2000s led to large changes in the economy.

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product and foreign trade of India at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. See also the IMF database.

Year Gross Domestic Product Exports Imports US Dollar Exchange[4] Inflation Index (2000=100) Per Capita Income
(as % of USA)
1975 842,210 8.39 Indian Rupees 2.18
1980 1,380,334 19,290 135,960 7.86 Indian Rupees 18 2.08
1985 2,729,350 149,510 217,540 12.36 Indian Rupees 28 1.60
1990 5,542,706 406,350 486,980 17.50 Indian Rupees 42 1.56
1995 11,571,882 1,307,330 1,449,530 32.42 Indian Rupees 69 1.32
2000 20,791,898 2,781,260 2,975,230 44.94 Indian Rupees 100 1.26

[18] About one-fourth of the national population were urban by 2000.[20]

2000 - present

The gross domestic product of India in 2007 was estimated at about 8 per cent that of the USA. National Democratic Front led by Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), was in helm of economic affairs from 1998-2004. During this period there were two finance ministers, viz., Yashwant Sinha (1998–2003) and Jaswant Singh (2003–2004). The main economic achievement of the government was the universal license in telecom field, which allows CDMA license holders to provide GSM services and vice versa. NDA started off the Golden Quadrilateral road network connecting main metros of Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata. The project, still under construction, was one of the most ambitious infrastructure projects of independent India. Simultaneously, North-South and East-West highway projects were planned and construction was started.

The top 3 per cent of the population still contribute 50 per cent of the GDP and benefits of economic growth have not trickled down. Education for all is still an unrealised dream in India. This was made a fundamental right by amending the constitution of India and huge amount of money was pumped into the project under the name of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. This project met with limited success. Graduate unemployment was estimated at 34 million nationwide.

Currently, the economic activity in India has taken on a dynamic character which is at once curtailed by creaky infrastructure, for example dilapitated roads and severe shortages of electricity, and cumbersome justice system[21] yet at the same time accelerated by the sheer enthusiasm and ambition of industrialists and the populace. The upward economic cycle in India is expected in short time to effectively address the short comings and bottlenecks of the infrastructure. The fast changing, seemingly chaotic and unsettled situation is much more hopeful and reassuring than the socialist morass that was the Nehru and Indira Gandhi legacy.

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product and foreign trade of India at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. See also the IMF database.

Year Gross Domestic Product Exports Imports US Dollar Exchange[5] Inflation Index (2000=100) Per Capita Income
(as % of USA)
2000 20,791,898 2,781,260 2,975,230 44.94 Indian Rupees 100 1.26
2005 34,195,278 44.09 Indian Rupees 121 1.64

[18] For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 9.46 Rupees only. Despite steady growth and continuous reforms since the Nineties, Indian economy is still mired in bureaucratic hurdles from coast to coast. This was confirmed by a World Bank report published in late 2006 ranking Pakistan (at 74th) well ahead of India (at 134th) based on ease of doing business.[22]

The Union government treasury reported annual revenue of £51-52 billion in 2005 thus registering a average annual growth of almost 22 per cent since 2000. India imported about 85 per cent of oil and 22 per cent of gas consumption by 2003.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.thisismyindia.com/ancient_india/ancient-india-economy.html
  2. ^ a b c "Economic survey of India 2007: Policy Brief". OECD. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/52/39452196.pdf. 
  3. ^ "Industry passing through phase of transition". The Tribune. http://www.tribuneindia.com/50yrs/kapur.htm. 
  4. ^ Ranjit V. Pandit (2005). "Why believe in India". McKinsey. http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Why_believe_in_India_1663. 
  5. ^ Khanna (2005).
  6. ^ Jataka IV.
  7. ^ http://tamilartsacademy.com/books/coins/chapter01.xml
  8. ^ The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Angus Maddison
  9. ^ Ratan Lal Basu & Rajkumar Sen: Ancient Indian Economic Thought, Relevance for Today, ISBN 81-316-0125-0, Rawat Publications, New Delhi, 2008.
  10. ^ Raj Kumar Sen & Ratan Lal Basu (eds): Economics in Arthasastra, ISBN 81-7629-819-0, Deep& Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2006
  11. ^ a b c Angus Maddison (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, OECD, Paris
  12. ^ a b c Angus Maddison (2003). The World Economy: Historical Statistics, OECD, Paris
  13. ^ Broadberry, Stephen; Bishnupriya Gupta (23–25 June 2005). "COTTON TEXTILES AND THE GREAT DIVERGENCE: LANCASHIRE,INDIA AND SHIFTING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE, 1600-1850". Proc The Rise, Organization, and Institutional Framework of Factor Markets. Utrecht. http://go2.wordpress.com/?id=725X1342&site=cambridgeforecast.wordpress.com&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iisg.nl%2Fhpw%2Fpapers%2Fbroadberry-gupta.pdf. 
  14. ^ His Fortune on TIME
  15. ^ One-sixth of Indians were urban by 1950
  16. ^ Redefining The Hindu Rate Of Growth. The Financial Express
  17. ^ "Industry passing through phase of transition". The Tribune India. http://www.tribuneindia.com/50yrs/kapur.htm. 
  18. ^ a b c ^  Lawrence H. Officer, "Exchange rate between the United States dollar and forty other countries, 1913 -1999." Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. URL: http://eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/
  19. ^ One-fifth of Indians were urban by 1975
  20. ^ One-fourth of Indians were urban by 2000
  21. ^ http://www.business-anti-corruption.com/country-profiles/south-asia/india/corruption-levels/judicial-system/
  22. ^ [1]

Bibliography

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