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Economy of Africa
During 2003 unless otherwise stated
Population: 922 million (14%)
GDP (PPP): US$ 1.635 trillion
US$ 2.572 trillion (2007)
GDP (Currency): $558 billion
$1,150 billion (2007)
GDP/capita (PPP): $1,968
$2,975 (2007) IMF
GDP/capita (Currency): $671
Annual growth in
per capita GDP:
5.16% (2004-2006)
Income of top 10%: 44.7%
Millionaires (US$): 0.1 million (0.01%)
Population living
on under $1 per day:
36.2%
External debt as
a percent of GDP
60.7% (1998)
25.5% (2007) IMF
External debt payments
a as percent of GDP
4.2%
3.0% (2007) IMF
Foreign aid revenue as
a percent of GDP
3.2% (2001)
Estimated female
income
51.8% of male
*Numbers from the UNDP and AfDB. Most numbers exclude some countries for lack of information. Since these tend to be the poorest nations, these numbers tend to have an upwards bias. Numbers are mostly from 2002.
See also: Economy of the worldEconomy of AfricaEconomy of AsiaEconomy of EuropeEconomy of North AmericaEconomy of OceaniaEconomy of South America
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The economy of Africa consists of the trade, industry, and resources of the people of Africa. As of 2006, approximately 922 million people[1] were living in 54 different countries. Africa is the world's poorest inhabited continent. Though parts of the continent have made significant gains over the last few years, of the 175 countries reviewed in the United Nations' Human Development Report 2003, 25 African nations ranked lowest amongst the nations of the world. This is partly due to its turbulent history. The decolonization of Africa was fraught with instability aggravated by cold war conflict. Since mid-20th century, the Cold War and increased corruption and despotism have also contributed to Africa's poor economy.

The biggest contrast in terms of development has been between Africa and the economy of Asia. The African Economic Outlook report specifically mentions that Africa’s trade with China has multiplied by 10 since 2001, reaching over USD 100 billion in 2008. The economies of China and India have grown rapidly, while Latin America has also experienced moderate growth, lifting millions above subsistence living. By contrast, much of Africa has stagnated and even regressed in terms of foreign trade, investment, per capita income, and other economic growth measures.[2] Poverty has had widespread effects, including low life expectancy, violence, and instability, which in turn have perpetuated the continent's growth problems. Over the decades, there have been many unsuccessful attempts to improve the economies of individual African countries. However, recent data suggest some parts of the continent are experiencing faster growth. The World Bank reports the economy of Sub-Saharan African countries grew at rates that match global rates.[3][4] The economies of the fastest growing African nations experienced growth significantly above the global average rates. The top nations in 2007 include Mauritania with growth at 19.8%, Angola at 17.6%, Sudan at 9.6%, Mozambique at 7.9% and Malawi at 7.8%.[5] Many international agencies are gaining increasing interest in emerging modernizing African economies[6], especially as Africa continues to maintain high economic growth despite current global economic recession.[7]

Contents

Regional variation

National GDP per capita ranges from wealthier states in the north and south to poorer states in the east. These figures from the 2002 World Bank are converted to US dollars.

While no African nation has joined the ranks of the developed nations in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) yet, the entire continent is not utterly impoverished and there is considerable variation in its wealth. Arab North Africa has long been closely linked to the economies of Europe and the Middle East. South Africa is by far the continent's wealthiest state, both in GDP per capita and in total GDP, and its neighbors have shared in this wealth. The small but oil-rich states of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea round out the list of the ten wealthiest states in Africa.

The temperate northern and southern ends of the continent are wealthier than tropical sub-Saharan Africa. Within the tropics, East Africa, with its long pre-colonial history of trade and development, has tended to be wealthier and more stable than elsewhere. Islands such as the Seychelles, Réunion, Mauritius, and Cape Verde have remained wealthier than the continental nations, although the unstable Comoros remain poor.

The poorest states are those engaged in or just emerging from civil wars. These include the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, and Burundi. In recent times, the poorest region has been the Horn of Africa, although it had historically been one of the wealthiest regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia in particular had a long and successful history. The current poverty of the region, and the associated famines and wars, have been a problem for decades.

There is considerable internal variation within countries. Urban areas, especially capital cities, are generally wealthier than rural zones. Inequality is pronounced in most African countries; an upper class has a much higher income than the majority of the population.

Country Total GDP (nominal) in 2006[8]
(billion US$)
GDP (PPP) per capita in 2005[9]
(US$)
HDI in 2005[10]
 Algeria &0000000000000114.730000114.73 &0000000000005985.0000005,985 &0000000000000000.7330000.733
 Angola &0000000000000044.03000044.03 &0000000000003533.0000003,533 &0000000000000000.4460000.446
 Benin &0000000000000004.7800004.78 &0000000000001390.0000001,390 &0000000000000000.4370000.437
 Botswana &0000000000000010.33000010.33 &0000000000012057.00000012,057 &0000000000000000.6540000.654
 Burkina Faso &0000000000000006.2100006.21 &0000000000001140.0000001,140 &0000000000000000.3700000.370
 Burundi &0000000000000000.8100000.81 &0000000000000699.000000699 &0000000000000000.4130000.413
 Cameroon &0000000000000018.32000018.32 &0000000000001995.0000001,995 &0000000000000000.5320000.532
 Cape Verde &0000000000000001.1400001.14 &0000000000002831.0000002,831 &0000000000000000.7360000.736
 Central African Republic &0000000000000001.4900001.49 &0000000000000675.000000675 &0000000000000000.3840000.384
 Chad &0000000000000006.5400006.54 &0000000000001749.0000001,749 &0000000000000000.3880000.388
 Comoros &0000000000000000.4000000.40 &0000000000001063.0000001,063 &0000000000000000.5610000.561
 Democratic Republic of the Congo &0000000000000008.5400008.54 &0000000000000264.000000264 &0000000000000000.4110000.411
 Congo &0000000000000007.3900007.39 &0000000000003621.0000003,621 &0000000000000000.5480000.548
 Côte d'Ivoire &0000000000000017.48000017.48 &0000000000001575.0000001,575 &0000000000000000.4320000.432
 Djibouti &0000000000000000.7600000.76 &0000000000001964.0000001,964 &0000000000000000.5160000.516
 Egypt &0000000000000107.480000107.48 &0000000000005051.0000005,051 &0000000000000000.7080000.708
 Equatorial Guinea &0000000000000008.5600008.56 &0000000000011999.00000011,999 &0000000000000000.6420000.642
 Eritrea &0000000000000001.0900001.09 &0000000000000689.000000689 &0000000000000000.4830000.483
 Ethiopia &0000000000000013.32000013.32 &0000000000000591.000000591 &0000000000000000.4060000.406
 Gabon &0000000000000009.5500009.55 &0000000000012742.00000012,742 &0000000000000000.6770000.677
 Gambia &0000000000000000.5100000.51 &0000000000000726.000000726 &0000000000000000.5020000.502
 Ghana &0000000000000012.91000012.91 &0000000000001225.0000001,225 &0000000000000000.5530000.553
 Guinea &0000000000000003.3200003.32 &0000000000000946.000000946 &0000000000000000.4560000.456
 Guinea-Bissau &0000000000000000.3000000.30 &0000000000000569.000000569 &0000000000000000.3740000.374
 Kenya &0000000000000021.19000021.19 &0000000000001359.0000001,359 &0000000000000000.5210000.521
 Lesotho &0000000000000001.4800001.48 &0000000000001415.0000001,415 &0000000000000000.5490000.549
 Liberia &0000000000000000.6300000.63 &0000000000000383.000000383 &-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.0000000.? N/A
 Libya &0000000000000050.32000050.32 &0000000000010727.00000010,727 &0000000000000000.8180000.818
 Madagascar &0000000000000005.5000005.50 &0000000000000988.000000988 &0000000000000000.5330000.533
 Malawi &0000000000000002.2300002.23 &0000000000000691.000000691 &0000000000000000.4370000.437
 Mali &0000000000000005.9300005.93 &0000000000001027.0000001,027 &0000000000000000.3800000.380
 Mauritania &0000000000000002.6600002.66 &0000000000001691.0000001,691 &0000000000000000.5500000.550
 Mauritius &0000000000000006.4500006.45 &0000000000010155.00000010,155 &0000000000000000.8040000.804
 Morocco &0000000000000072.85000072.85[8] &0000000000004800.0000004,800 &0000000000000000.6460000.646
 Mozambique &0000000000000007.6100007.61 &0000000000000743.000000743 &0000000000000000.3840000.384
 Namibia &0000000000000006.3700006.37 &0000000000004547.0000004,547 &0000000000000000.6500000.650
 Niger &0000000000000003.5400003.54 &0000000000000613.000000613 &0000000000000000.3740000.374
 Nigeria &0000000000000114.690000114.69 &0000000000001892.0000001,892 &0000000000000000.4700000.470
 Réunion (France) &0000000000000015.98000015.98[11] &0000000000019233.00000019,233 (nominal)[11] &0000000000000000.8500000.850 (in 2003)[12]
 Rwanda &0000000000000002.4900002.49 &0000000000000813.000000813 &0000000000000000.4520000.452
 São Tomé and Príncipe &0000000000000000.1200000.12 &0000000000001460.0000001,460 &0000000000000000.6540000.654
 Senegal &0000000000000008.9400008.94 &0000000000001676.0000001,676 &0000000000000000.4990000.499
 Seychelles &0000000000000000.7500000.75 &0000000000013887.00000013,887 &0000000000000000.8430000.843
 Sierra Leone &0000000000000001.4400001.44 &0000000000000790.000000790 &0000000000000000.3360000.336
 Somalia &-1000000000000000.0600000.06[9] &0000000000000199.000000199 &-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.0000000.? N/A
 South Africa &0000000000000254.990000254.99 &0000000000008477.0000008,477 &0000000000000000.6740000.674
 Sudan &0000000000000037.57000037.57 &0000000000002249.0000002,249 &0000000000000000.5260000.526
 Swaziland &0000000000000002.6500002.65 &0000000000004384.0000004,384 &0000000000000000.5470000.547
 Tanzania &0000000000000012.78000012.78 &0000000000001018.0000001,018 &0000000000000000.4670000.467
 Togo &0000000000000002.2100002.21 &0000000000000888.000000888 &0000000000000000.5120000.512
 Tunisia &0000000000000030.30000030.30 &0000000000006461.0000006,461 &0000000000000000.7660000.766
 Uganda &0000000000000009.3200009.32 &0000000000000991.000000991 &0000000000000000.5050000.505
 Zambia &0000000000000010.91000010.91 &0000000000001175.0000001,175 &0000000000000000.4340000.434
 Zimbabwe &0000000000000005.0100005.01 &0000000000000538.000000538 &0000000000000000.5130000.513

History

Ancient Egypt was one of the world's most prosperous and advanced civilizations, which began around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and it developed over the next three millennia. The port of Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great in 334 BC, was a hub for Mediterranean trade for centuries. Well into the 19th century, Egypt remained one of the most developed regions in the world. Prosperity in the rest of Africa existed in nation states and kingdoms such as the Ghana Empire , Nubia, Ethiopia, and Mali, which had trade routes north to the Mediterranean world and Middle East.

Africans have historically built structures from stone mainly in the Nile Valley in cities like Meroe, Napata, Axum by former Nubian and Ethiopian kingdoms. Most other Sub Saharan African pre-colonial civilizations built mainly out of mud brick, leaving few lasting ruins except Great Zimbabwe. Finding no architectural monuments in most parts of the region, some European explorers and historians long concluded that pre-colonial sub-Saharan Africa was devoid of civilization (see Sub-Saharan Africa critic of the term). It must be noted that racism also blinded some of the European explorers and historians to conclude that pre-colonial Africa was devoid of civilization for example J. Theodore Bent, who researched the origins of Great Zimbabwe stated in The Ruined Cities of Mashonaland (1891) that the ruins revealed either the Phoenicians or the Arabs as builders. Other European researcher favored a legend that the structures were built to replicate the palace of the Queen of Sheba in Jerusalem.[13] Other theories as to their origin abounded among white settlers and academics, with one racist element in common: they were probably not made by Africans.

Once a departure point for trans-Saharan caravans, the market of Douz, Tunisia is today popular with Western tourists.

New technologies and increasing scales of production made trading easier. For most of the first millennium AD, the Axumite Kingdom had a prosperous trade empire on the eastern horn, where the modern states of Ethiopia and Eritrea lie. Axum had a powerful navy and traded as far as the Byzantine Empire, India, and possibly China. The introduction of the camel by North African Arab conquerors in the 10th century opened trade across the Sahara for the first time. The profits from the gold and salt trades created powerful empires in the western Sahel including the Kingdom of Ghana and the Mali and Kanem-Bornu Empires, where travellers reported vast wealth. Arabs helped build a maritime trade along Africa's east coast, which prospered as Swahili traders exported ivory and slaves across the Indian Ocean.

Further south empires were less common, with the notable exception of Great Zimbabwe. In the Great Lakes region, states such as Rwanda, Burundi, and Buganda became strongly centralized, due to its high population and agricultural surplus.

In the 15th century, Portuguese traders circumvented the Saharan trade route and began to trade directly with Guinea. Other European traders followed, rapidly boosting prosperity in Western Africa. States flourished, including the Kingdom of Benin, Dahomey, and the Ashanti Confederacy. Loose federations of city states such as those of the Yoruba and Hausa were common. However, this wealth was principally based on the slave trade, which collapsed following the abolition of slavery and later European colonization.

Although Europeans were ostensibly committed to developing their colonies, colonial rulers employed a laissez-faire strategy during the first decades. It was hoped that European companies would prosper if given a secure operating environment. This only occurred in a few areas with rich resources; the colonial economies hardly grew from the 1890s through the 1920s. The colonies had to pay their own way, receiving little or no development money from Europe. Only in the 1930s, with the rise of Keynesian economics, did the colonial administrations seriously encourage development. However, new projects could not transpire until after the Great Depression and the Second World War.

African economies boomed during the 1950s as growth and international trade multiplied beyond their pre-war levels. The insatiable demand for raw materials in the rebuilding economies of Asia and Europe and the strong growth in North America inflated the price of raw materials. By the end of the colonial era in the 1960s, there was great hope for African self-sufficience and prosperity. However, sporadic growth continued as the newly independent nations borrowed heavily from abroad.

The world economic decline of the 1970s, rising oil prices, corruption, and political instability hit Africa hard. In subsequent decades Africa has steadily become poorer compared to the rest of the world; South America experienced solid growth, and East Asia spectacular growth, during that same period. According to the World Economic Forum, ten percent of the world's poor were African in 1970; by 2000, that figure had risen to 50 percent. Between 1974 and 2000 the average income declined by $200. Beginning in 1976, the Lomé Convention and Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and ACP countries, including Sub-Saharan Africa, have structured economic relations between the two regions.

Sectors

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Agriculture

Around 60 percent of African workers are employed by the agricultural sector, with about three-fifths of African farmers being subsistence farmers. Subsistence farms provide a source of food and a relatively small income for the family, but generally fail to produce enough to make re-investment possible. Larger farms tend to grow cash crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, and rubber. These farms, normally operated by large corporations, cover tens of square kilometres and employ large numbers of labourers.

The situation whereby African nations export crops to the West while millions on the continent starve has been blamed on developed countries including Japan, the European Union and the United States. These countries protect their own agricultural sectors with high import tariffs and offer subsidies to their farmers, which many contend leads the overproduction of such commodities as grain, cotton and milk. The result of this is that the global price of such products is continually reduced until Africans are unable to compete, except for cash crops that do not grow easily in a northern climate.[14]

Because of these market forces, in Africa excess capacity is devoted to growing crops for export. Thus, when civil unrest or a bad harvest occurs, there is often very little food saved and many starve. Ironically, excess foodstuffs grown in developed nations are regularly destroyed, as it is not economically viable to transport it across the oceans to a market poor in capital. Although cash crops can expand a nation's wealth, there is often a risk that focusing on them rather than staples will lead to food shortages and hunger.

In modern years countries such as Brazil, which has experienced great progress in agricultural production, have agreed to share technology with Africa to greatly increase agricultural production in Africa to make it a more viable trade partner.[15] Increased investment in African agricultural technology in general has the potential to greatly decrease poverty in Africa.[16] The demand market for African cocoa is currently experiencing an enjoyable price boom.[17] The South African[18] and Ugandan governments have targeted policies to take advantage of the increased demand for certain agricultural products[19] and plan to stimulate agricultural sectors.[20] The African Union has plans to heavily invest in African agriculture [21] and the situation is closely monitored by the UN.[22]

Mining and drilling

Oil production by country
(with other key actors of African or oil economy)
Rank Area bb/day Year Like...
_ W: World 85540000 2007 est.
01 E: Russia 9980000 2007 est.
02 Ar: Saudi Arb 9200000 2008 est.
05 As: China 3725000 2008 est. Iran
13 Af: Nigeria 2352000 2007 est. Norway
15 Af: Algeria 2173000 2007 est.
16 Af: Angola 1910000 2008 est.
17 Af: Libya 1845000 2007 est.
27 Af: Egypt 664000 2007 est. Australia
31 Af: Sudan 466100 2007 est. Ecuador
33 Af: Eq.Guinea 368500 2007 est. Vietnam
38 Af: DR Congo 261000 2008 est.
39 Af: Gabon 243900 2007 est.
40 Af: Sth Africa 199100 2007 est.
45 Af: Chad 156000 2008 est. Germany
53 Af: Cameroon 87400 2008 est. France
56 E: France 71400 2007
60 Af: Ivory Coast 54400 2008 est.
_ Af: Africa 10780400 2007-2008 Russia
Source: CIA.gov, World Facts Book > Oil exporters.

Africa's most valuable exports are minerals and petroleum. A few countries possess and export the vast majority of these resources. The southern nations have large reserves of gold, diamonds, and copper. Petroleum is concentrated in Nigeria, its neighbors, and Libya.

While mining and drilling produce most of Africa's revenues each year, these industries only employ about two million people, a tiny fraction of the continent's population. Profits normally go either to large corporations or to the governments. Both have been known to squander this money on luxuries for the elite or on mega-projects that return little value[citation needed].

In some cases, these resources have turned out to be detrimental to economic development. Although Congo is rich in minerals, the country remains one of the poorest countries in the world. This is historically due to ownership fights over these minerals, tracing back to the early 1900s. After Congo's independence from Belgium, the colonial government hesitated to leave behind these resources. Congo solicited UN help against Belgium, but that turned out to be a bad idea. In an attempt to get out of the quagmire, Congo sought Soviet assistance. This led the country into deeper trouble, as the country separated into two and a long proxy war between the West and East began. However, countries such as Angola[23] and Uganda[24] are experiencing booms in drilling and oil drilling and manufacture.

Manufacturing

Africa is the least industrialized continent; only South Africa, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia in general have substantial manufacturing sectors. Despite readily available cheap labour, nearly all of the continent's natural resources are exported for secondary refining and manufacturing. According to the AFDB, about 15% of workers are employed in the industrial sector.

The multinational corporations that control most of the world's major industries and their financiers require political stability before erecting an expensive factory and risk losing that investment through nationalization. An educated populace, good infrastructure and a stable source of electricity are essential to investments. These factors are rare in most countries in Africa. Other developing regions of the world such as India and China have been more attractive to companies looking to build a new factory or invest in a local enterprise.

Many African states used to limit foreign investment to ensure local majority ownership. Close governmental control over industry further discouraged international investment. Attempts to foster local industry have been hampered by insufficient technology, training, and investment money. The paucity of local markets and the difficulty of transporting goods from major African centres to world markets contribute to the lack of manufacturing outside of South Africa and Egypt.

Both the African Union and the United Nations have outline plans in modern years on how Africa can help itself industrialize and develop significant manufacturing sectors to levels proportional to the African economy in the 1960s with 21st century technology.[25] This focus on growth and diversification of manufacturing and industrial production, as well as diversification of agricultural production, has fueled hopes that 21st century will prove to be a century of economic and technological growth for Africa. This hope coupled with the rise of new leaders in Africa in the future inspired the term "the African Century" referring to the 21st century potentially being the century when Africa's vast untapped labor, capital and resource potentials might become a world player. This hope in manufacturing and industry is helped by the boom in communications technology[26][27] and local mining industry[28] in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Namibia has attracted industrial investments in recent years[29] and South Africa has begun offering tax incentives to attract foreign direct investment projects in manufacturing.[30]

Countries such as Mauritius have plans for developing new "green technology" for manufacturing.[31] Developments such as this have huge potential to open new markets for African countries as the demand for alternative "green" and clean technology is predicted to soar in the future as global oil reserves dry up and fossil fuel-based technology becomes more economically nonviable.[32][33]

Investment and banking

Banking in Africa has long been problematic. Because local banks are often unstable and corrupt, governments and industry rely on international banks. South Africa and Egypt alone have a thriving banking sector, aided by the international sanctions of the apartheid era, which forced out the once-dominant British banks for the former. In the years after independence, African governments heavily regulated the banking sector and placed strict limits on international competition. In recent decades, banking reform has been a priority of the IMF and World Bank. One important reform was obtaining permission for increased penetration by foreign banks. South Africa and Egypt have been the most successful in attracting local operation of foreign banks. In 2007, Egypt surpassed South Africa as the biggest recipient of FDI recording $11.1 bn. This trend continued in 2008, where Egypt attracted $13.2 bn in FDI.

Encouraging foreign investment in Africa has been difficult. Even Africans are reluctant to invest locally; about forty percent of sub-Saharan African savings are invested in other markets. The IMF and World Bank only lend money after imposing stringent and controversial conditions such as austerity policies. However, China and India[34] have showed exponentially increasing interest in emerging African economies in the 21st century. Investment in Africa by China and African trade with China has increased dramatically in recent years[35][36], even regardless of the current world financial crisis.[37] The increased investment in Africa by China has attracted the attention of the European Union and has provoked talks of competitive investment by the EU.[38] Members of the African diaspora abroad, especially in the EU and the United States, have increased efforts to use their businesses to invest in Africa and encourage African investment abroad in the European economy.[39] Remittances from the African diaspora and rising interest in investment from the West will especially be helpful for Africa's least developed and most devastated economies, such as Burundi, Togo and Comoros.[40]

Angola has announced interests in investing in the EU, Portugal in particular.[23] South Africa has attracted increasing attention from the United States as a new frontier of investment in manufacture, financial markets and small business[41], as has Liberia in recent years with new leadership.[42]

There are two African currency unions: the West African Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (BCEAO) and the Central African Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale (BEAC). Both use the CFA franc as their legal tender.

Communication and information technology

The continent has the largest growth rate of cellular subscribers in the world.[43] African markets are expanding nearly twice as fast as Asian markets.[44] The African cell phone has created a base for cellular banking.[45] Namibia has attracted international attention with new phone services[46] and liberalization of regulatory controls in Kenya are producing a boom in Internet services demand[47] and demand for modern communication technology.[48]

Determinants

The seemingly intractable nature of Africa's poverty runs counter to modern economic theory , leading to debate concerning its root causes. Endemic warfare and unrest, widespread corruption, and despotic regimes are both causes and effects of the continued economic problems. 

Geography

Variations of the controversial theory of geographic determinism date back to Montesquieu, though these theories have been simplistic and unscientific until they have recently been revived and refined by academics such as William Masters and Jeffrey Sachs and popular writers such as Jared Diamond.

Africa has the largest hot desert and the second largest tropical forest in the world that hinder building transcontinental means of transportations, hampering its economy. In the centre of the continent, on the western side, an almost impenetrable rainforest impedes the transit of people and goods. The Sahara creates an obvious barrier to trade from the north. Although Africa has great river systems such as the Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi, they do not link the continent into trade routes effectively as happens in Europe and China. Rapids and cataracts block African rivers, requiring development projects to allow navigation. The wet terrain of the interior complicates transport. Few roads are paved and during the wet season unpaved tracks become impassable mud.

Countries in Africa are cut off from the sea more than those on other continents. Africa has more landlocked nations than any other continent, which support a high population density compared to the steppes or plains of North America and Asia. The ridge running from Zimbabwe to Ethiopia has superb volcanic soils and the higher altitude produces a more temperate climate. These enable more interior settlement, but the lack of access to the sea makes international trade harder.

A satellite composite image of Africa reveals the more inhabitable regions of the interior.

The majority of the world's population and wealth is found in the temperate zone. Historically the vast expanse of Eurasia, almost entirely in the temperate zone (except for the vast tracts that are dry and hot such as the Arabian Peninsula; cold tundra such as in North Asia, and tropical such as subcontinental India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Singapore) was linked by land routes, allowing technologies and ideas to spread from one area over time, aiding innovation. The agricultural techniques and medicines designed to work in the northern climes may fail in the tropics. This theory could partly explain why temperate South Africa is by far the wealthiest part of Africa, and why other tropical areas in South America and Indonesia share Africa's poverty. Exceptions exist, Singapore and Brunei among them, however these are isolated spots of wealth. There are no tropical countries in the OECD, apart from Mexico and Australia which have significant tropical sections, and only a handful have a GDP per capita above the world average, again apart from Mexico, Australia, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia and Thailand. Globally there is a correlation between wealth and climate although it does not fully explain all instances of poverty in Africa.

Africa is well-endowed with natural resources, including gold, diamonds, and oil reserves, but due to several factors including poor governance and global trade policies which place tariffs on finished goods from Africa, few African countries have materially benefited from their mineral wealth. Africa is as well suited to agriculture as any other continent; the volcanic soils of the Great Lakes region are—by some measures—the best in the world.

Disease

Closely linked to geography is the problem of disease in Africa. The tropics are more hospitable to disease than the colder climates. The most significant illness has long been malaria. Since the tropical regions are poorer, pharmaceutical companies are reluctant to invest in curing the diseases of the region. Disease reduces productivity and creates a health care cost burden.

A new problem of vast magnitude is the rise of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa.[49] AIDS, whose spread correlates with poverty, has nevertheless hit hardest in some of the wealthiest African countries, including Botswana, Swaziland, and South Africa. AIDS has decimated or will decimate the working-age population of many states. As parents die or become unable to work, their children must find care elsewhere, adding to the burden of already struggling families and states.[citation needed]

The costs of HIV/AIDS, including importation of anti-retroviral AIDS drugs from the West, is a new burden on many African states, leading to the challenging of drug prices and the manufacture of cheap generic alternatives.

Animal diseases can also harm agriculture and transportation, as most forms of livestock cannot survive the diseases of the region. Historically, sub-Saharan Africans could not use pack animals for trade or work horses for labor, limiting the continent's development.[citation needed]

Colonialism

By 1913, European powers had divided the African continent into a patchwork that showed little regard for ethnic or linguistic boundaries.

The economic impact of the colonization of Africa has been debated. Africa acquired its greatest relative wealth in the 1960s, just prior to decolonization. African countries have yet to return to those levels of wealth. Some see this as evidence that colonialism helped local economies by creating a cyclical economic link with the ruling colonial power, and with independence this link was broken.

To achieve wealth during the colonial period, imperial overseers geared the economies of Africa towards exporting raw materials. Egypt produced cotton, Ruanda-Urundi was almost completely dedicated to growing coffee, and Upper Volta specialized in palm oil. Basing an entire nation's wealth on one commodity in this way would have debilitating effects later. These monocultures left national economies extremely vulnerable to price swings, making economic planning difficult. Some writers, such as Walter Rodney in his influential book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, argue that these colonial policies are directly responsible for many of Africa's modern problems. Other post-colonial scholars, most notably Frantz Fanon, have argued that the true effects of colonialism are psychological and that domination by a foreign power creates a lasting sense of inferiority and subjugation that creates a barrier to growth and innovation.

Once independent, African states saw an exodus of European administrators and consequently lacked individuals with the training or education to operate the government they had inherited. For instance, the massive area of French Equatorial Africa was divided into four independent nations, but was home to only five locals who were university graduates.

One method of gauging the effects of colonialism on the economies of Africa is to compare the results of different colonial policies implemented by the European powers. Regions where the economy was plundered, such as the Raubwirtschaft policies of Leopold II in the Congo Free State, have not prospered. The long reluctance of Portugal to surrender its colonies, leading to long wars of independence, had an obvious negative effect on Mozambique and Angola.[citation needed] The countries formerly under French control have fared much better, and those under British dominion were the most successful. This inequality may be due to other factors than economic policy. Britain, at the time of the Scramble for Africa, was the world's greatest power and could thus cherry-pick the wealthiest parts of the continent. The French, with their mighty navy, could also occupy prosperous areas, while the Belgians were forced to take the economically disadvantaged interior.

Africa as a whole has not prospered compared with other colonised regions in Asia and the Americas. At the end of the Second World War the Americas were economically the strongest of the colonised regions; in the span of one generation, former colonies in Asia have become economic powerhouses.

Borders

In the Scramble for Africa, national boundaries in sub-Saharan Africa were established by Europeans using latitude and longitude rather than natural borders. This separated population centres from their supplies of food and natural resources. The artificial borders of modern African states cut across cultural, tribal, linguistic and religious boundaries, creating ethnic and religious cleavages which impede national unity and induce internal violence.[citation needed]

However, those states that preserved pre-colonial boundaries have been no more successful. Few countries in Africa have more troubled recent histories than Rwanda and Burundi, although their borders are almost identical to those of the prosperous kingdoms from which they are descended. The ancient and only briefly occupied state of Ethiopia is one of the poorest on the continent. Elsewhere, the Americas were also divided up by Europeans along arbitrary borders and yet those continents remain economically far more successful than Africa.[citation needed]

Africa is a much divided continent with many small countries. Successful economic growth requires regional cooperation, which political tensions make difficult. To be effective, foreign aid must be multilateral, making it harder to base aid upon the performance of local governments.[citation needed]

Language diversity

A randomly selected pair of people in Ghana has only an 8.1% chance of sharing a mother tongue.

African countries suffer from communication difficulties caused by language diversity. Greenberg's diversity index is the chance that two randomly selected people would have different mother tongues. Out of the most diverse 25 countries according to this index, 18 (72%) are African.[50] This includes 12 countries for which Greenberg's diversity index exceeds 0.9, meaning that a pair of randomly selected people will have less than 10% chance of having the same mother tongue. The primary language of government, political debate, academic discourse, and administration is often the language of the former colonial powers—English, French, or Portuguese. Only an elite minority speak these European languages fluently enough to participate in these institutions without intermediaries, further disenfranchising the majority population.

Governance

The political situation in Africa perpetuates the intractable nature of African poverty. Democracy in Africa has not been historically successful, almost always supplanted by centralized authoritarian rule such as military dictatorships. Although some rulers worked to improve the lot of their nation's citizens, others used power purely for their own benefit. Among the most notorious was Mobuto Sese Seko of Zaire, whose regime has been called a kleptocracy due to its looting of the nation's wealth. According to international measures, the economies of Africa generally rank among the most corrupt. Bribery and graft abound, due to poverty and poorly handled de-colonization, and the superpowers' (Soviet Union and United States) practice during the Cold War of supporting any ruler with the desired political alignment, regardless of their managerial practices or human rights records.

Dependency theory asserts that the wealth and prosperity of the superpowers and their allies in Europe, North America and East Asia is dependent upon the poverty of the rest of the world, including Africa. Economists who subscribe to this theory believe that poorer regions must break their trading ties with the developed world in order to prosper.[51]

Less radical theories suggest that economic protectionism in developed countries hampers Africa's growth. When developing countries have harvested agricultural produce at low cost, they generally do not export as much as would be expected. Abundant farm subsidies and high import tariffs in the developed world, most notably those set by Japan, the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy, and the United States Department of Agriculture, are thought to be the cause. Although these subsidies and tariffs have been gradually reduced, they remain high.

Local conditions also affect exports. In addition to lack of mechanization or other infrastructure, state over-regulation in several African nations can prevent their own exports from becoming competitive. Research in Public Choice economics such as that of Jane Shaw suggest that protectionism operates in tandem with heavy State intervention combining to depress economic development. Farmers subject to import and export restrictions cater to localized markets, exposing them to higher market volatility and fewer opportunities. When subject to uncertain market conditions farmers press for governmental intervention to suppress competition in their markets, resulting in competition being driven out of the market. As competition is driven out of the market farmers innovate less and grow less food further undermining economic performance.[52][53]

Although Africa and Asia had similar levels of income in the 1960s, Asia has since outpaced Africa. One school of economists argues that Asia's superior economic development lies in local investment. Corruption in Africa consists primarily of extracting economic rent and moving the resulting financial capital overseas instead of investing at home; the stereotype of African dictators with Swiss bank accounts is often accurate. Asian dictators such as Suharto often take a cut on everything, necessitating bribery, but enable development through infrastructure investment and the social stability created by law and order.[citation needed] University of Massachusetts researchers estimate that from 1970 to 1996, capital flight from 30 sub-Saharan countries totalled $187bn, exceeding those nations' external debts.[54] This disparity in development is consistent with the model theorized by economist Mancur Olson. Because governments were politically unstable and new governments often confiscated their predecessors' assets, officials would stash their wealth abroad, out of reach of any future expropriation.[citation needed]

Corruption encouraged social inequality, because the wealthy elite not only avoided investing at home, but also imported most of its consumption. Desirable luxury goods were generally not locally available. This hindered the development of national markets. Historically, economic development is closely linked to the creation of a middle class with enough income to save and invest but limited influence on governance. In countries without such a middle class, development is all but impossible, beyond resource extraction..[citation needed]

War

Since independence, Africa has seen dozens of wars, both civil and international. This has contributed to poverty because states have spent their scarce resources on military equipment and supplies. Development has suffered, since warfare has scared off foreign investors, destroyed infrastructure, and created lasting animosities.

Much conflict was enabled by the Cold War. The countries of the Western and Eastern blocs leveraged foreign aid money to coax countries into their camp. Aid was tied to the purchase of military weapons, and donor countries ignored misappropriation of the funds. Corruption became endemic, hampering economic development. Proxy conflicts erupted in Africa when each bloc would fund and assisted rebel or sectarian groups under the control of the opposing bloc.

Violence in Africa has increased following the Cold War, despite the slashing of foreign aid spending in developed countries. Civil wars have raged throughout the African Great Lakes region, Somalia, Sudan, Mozambique, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, and Guinea-Bissau. International wars include the First and Second Congo Wars between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its neighbours, and conflict between Ethiopia and its former province Eritrea.

Effects of widespread poverty

High index values, indicated by lighter colors, show the relative poverty of African countries as ranked by the UNDP's 2004 list of countries by quality of life.

Africa's economic malaise is self-perpetuating, as it engenders more of the disease, warfare, misgovernment, and corruption that created it in the first place. Other effects of poverty have similar consequences. The most direct consequence of low GDP is Africa's low standard of living and quality of life. Except for a wealthy elite and the more prosperous peoples of South Africa and the Maghreb, Africans have very few consumer goods. Quality of life does not correlate exactly with a nation's wealth. Angola, for instance, reaps large sums annually from its diamond mines, but after years of civil war, conditions there remain poor. Radios, televisions, and automobiles are rare luxuries. Most Africans are on the far side of the Digital Divide and are cut off from communications technology and the Internet. Quality of life and human development are also low. African nations dominate the lower reaches of the UN Human Development Index. Infant mortality is high, while life expectancy, literacy, and education are all low. The UN also lowers the ranking of African states because the continent sees greater inequality than any other region. The best educated often choose to leave the continent for the West or the Persian Gulf to seek a better life.

Catastrophes cause deadly periods of great shortages. The most damaging are the famines that have regularly hit the continent, especially the Horn of Africa. These have been caused by disruptions due to warfare, years of drought, and plagues of locusts.

An average African faced annual inflation of over 60% from 1990 until 2002 in those few countries that account for inflation. At the high end, Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo both saw triple-digit inflation throughout the period. Most African states saw inflation of around 10% per year.

There are no reliable numbers for unemployment in most African nations, but it is an important problem. Major cities like Lagos, Kinshasa, and Nairobi notably have large slums of the unemployed and underemployed.

Environmental degradation occurs on many fronts. Farmers on the verge of starvation are unlikely to be concerned about the fate of the rainforest in their pursuit of new land, and starving people do not often consider the rarity of an animal before eating it (see bushmeat). Along the length of the Sahel, deforestation and overgrazing has caused increased desertification as the Sahara spreads south. Profits from the sale in the West of rare animals, ivory from elephants, and timber encourage illegal poaching. Local governments have little money to devote to protecting the environment.

Attempts at promoting growth

The relative economic failure of Africa has long been an important issue both in Africa and abroad. Many attempts at solving Africa's poverty have been attempted, but few have had any great degree of success.

Socialism

In the years immediately after independence many nations saw the rapid industrialisations of the Soviet Union and China under communism as models to follow. This led to command economies and major investment in heavy industries such as coal and steel production to stimulate growth, but this approach had little success. Only a handful of states formally adopted socialism and even fewer turned to outright Marxism. Everywhere government intervention in the economy was seen as necessary for growth, especially since private companies and investors were unlikely to invest in the region.

Often the approach of governments in Africa was to borrow heavily from abroad and use this aid to grow the economy to a level that the loans could be paid off. Sporadic growth during the years after independence continued. The countries focused on exports to pay for these development efforts. The 1973 energy crisis hit sub-Saharan Africa as hard as anywhere in the world. While some nations were net exporters, most were heavily reliant on imported fuels. Economies quickly began to falter and events such as famines hit Africa in the 1980s. The collapse of the Soviet Union, which had supported socialist and collectivist projects throughout the continent, undermined the legitimacy of such an approach, while it also meant that there were no longer any sources of international aid to help pursue this approach. However, there are a few successful socialist endeavors in Africa which have led to growth or increasing wealth in a small handful of African countries such as Libya and Angola.

Liberalism

Thus in the 1980s, socialist ideas were discarded throughout almost the entire continent as capitalism became seen as the route to salvation in what became known as the Washington Consensus. By 1990, forty of the nations of Sub-Saharan Africa had agreed to follow rigorous IMF restructuring plans. IMF recommendations saw the continent's currencies drop by an average of 50%, the selling off of government-owned industries, and the slashing of government spending. After twenty years, however, these methods have seen as little success as the socialist approaches of the previous era. Average growth increased from 2.3% per annum to 2.8%. Only a handful of African states reached new levels of wealth, and many others became poorer over the course of the 1990s. Today there is a great deal of controversy on why this failed. One school of thought is that the reforms failed because they were only economic in nature and without democracy and the rule of law development cannot occur.

Yet another school of thought attributes some of Africa's problems to insufficient liberalization. It has been pointed out that while the developed world has insisted that Africa open its markets and eliminate public subsidies, this has been one-sided as the developed world has not opened its markets to agricultural goods from Africa nor has it eliminated agricultural subsidies. At the GATT free trade talks, the African leaders repeatedly request that the developed nations abolish the subsidies they provide their farmers and open their markets to African agricultural goods. It has been argued that the abolition of the subsidy would have three beneficial effects for the developing world and Africa:

  • The developed nations would produce less food locally, therefore providing a larger export market for developing countries.
  • Food prices would rise without the artificial subsidy and therefore would increase profits for food exports from the developing world.
  • The developing nations could adopt a more balanced agriculture policy, producing food and grain for export; this would provide a surplus that would shield countries from famine.

Autarky

The pursuit of self-sufficiency as advocated by dependency theory has been given limited trials in several African countries. In the 1980s, Nigeria banned the importation of many foodstuffs to stimulate domestic production. The Lagos Plan of Action of 1982 called for Africa as a whole to block imports from the rest of the world, but few countries followed through on the idea. Eventually even Nigeria agreed to limited liberalization.

Foreign aid

Since independence there has been a constant flow of foreign aid into Africa. The benefits of this aid have been mixed. In many cases much of this aid was misappropriated by unscrupulous leaders. During the Cold War the main goal of much of the aid money was to win the allegiance of these rulers, and so their misappropriation of the aid was at the very least overlooked. Since the end of the Cold War almost all developed countries have slashed foreign aid spending. Many also allege that the aid that was not stolen was long misdirected. For many decades the leading notion of development was government supervised mega-projects; today many believe that small grants to local businesses would be more effective. One example of foreign aid which has come under considerable criticism is food aid. In some circles, it is believed that food aid does not solve any fundamental problems and can also lead to a dependency on outside assistance, as well as hindering the development of indigenous industries. Food shipments in case of dire local shortage are generally uncontroversial; but as Amartya Sen has shown, most famines involve a local lack of income rather than of food. In such situations, food aid - as opposed to financial aid - has the effect of destroying local agriculture and serves mainly to benefit Western agribusiness which are vastly overproducing food as a result of agricultural subsidies. Historically, food aid is more highly correlated with excess supply in Western countries than with the needs of developing countries.

Debt relief

Advocacy for debt relief has become widespread. Each year Africa ,sends more money to Western bankers in interest on its debts than it receives in foreign aid from these countries. Debt relief is not a panacea, but relieving some of the burden, especially of debts that were run up by regimes for their own benefit, may help the economies of Africa grow and prosper.

Arguments against full and unconditional debt relief include:

  • Debt relief punishes nations which have managed borrowing well and do not need debt relief.
  • Unconditional debt relief will not necessarily cause nations to spend more in social programs and services, on the one hand, or to solve their financial problems without stifling the economy with the need for more taxes, on the other hand.
  • Debt relief may make it more difficult for nations to receive credit in the future.

It has been suggested that any debt relief policy be conditional upon a commensurate reduction in aid.

The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative was launched in 1996; in the 2000s, eligible countries began receiving debt relief. Future foreign aid is planned to be more heavily weighted toward grants than loans.

International unions

The African Union is the largest international economic grouping on the continent. The confederation's goals include the creation of a free trade area, a customs union, a single market, a central bank, and a common currency (see African Monetary Union), thereby establishing economic and monetary union. The current plan is to establish an African Economic Community with a single currency by 2023.[55] The African Investment Bank is meant to stimulate development. The AU plans also include a transitional African Monetary Fund leading to an African Central Bank. Some parties support development of an even more unified United States of Africa.

International monetary and banking unions include:

Major economic unions are shown in the chart below.

African Economic Community
Pillars
regional
blocs (REC)
Area (km²) Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Member
states
in millions per capita
AEC 29,910,442 853,520,010 2,053,706 2,406 53
ECOWAS 5,112,903 251,646,263 342,519 1,361 15
ECCAS 6,667,421 121,245,958 175,928 1,451 11
SADC 9,882,959 233,944,179 737,335 3,152 15
EAC 1,817,945 124,858,568 104,239 1,065 5
COMESA 12,873,957 406,102,471 735,599 1,811 20
IGAD 5,233,604 187,969,775 225,049 1,197 7
Western
Sahara
1
266,000 273,008  ?  ? N/A 2
Other
African
blocs
Area (km²) Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Member
states
in millions per capita
CEMAC 3 3,020,142 34,970,529 85,136 2,435 6
SACU 3 2,693,418 51,055,878 541,433 10,605 5
UEMOA 3 3,505,375 80,865,222 101,640 1,257 8
UMA 4 5,782,140 84,185,073 491,276 5,836 5
GAFTA 5 5,876,960 166,259,603 635,450 3,822 5
1 The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is a
signatory to the AEC, but not participating in any bloc yet

2 Majority under military occupation by Morocco; some
territory
administered by the SADR

3 Economic bloc inside a pillar REC
4 Proposed for pillar REC, but objecting participation
5 Non-African members of GAFTA are excluded from figures
     smallest value among the blocs compared      largest value among the blocs compared During 2004. Source: CIA World Factbook 2005, IMF WEO Database

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision" United Nations (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, population division)
  2. ^ Industry and Enterprise: an International Survey of Modernization and Development, ISR Publications, 2nd edition, 2003, Chapter 12: "Industry and Enterprise Development In Africa". ISBN 978-0-906321-27-0. Google Books abridged version: [1]
  3. ^ 'Fast economic growth' in Africa
  4. ^ African economy 'to expand 6.2%'
  5. ^ African growth 'steady but frail'
  6. ^ Economic Growth and Trade
  7. ^ Africa’s economic growth continues upward trend
  8. ^ a b Source
  9. ^ a b Source
  10. ^ Source
  11. ^ a b (French) INSEE Réunion. "11.1 - RÉSULTATS ÉCONOMIQUES" (PDF). http://www.insee.fr/fr/insee_regions/reunion/rfc/docs/ter2007_11_1_resultats_economiques.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  12. ^ Source
  13. ^ "Vast Ruins in South Africa- The Ruined Cities of Mashonaland". The New York Times: p. 19. 1892-12-18. 
  14. ^ Farm Subsidies: Devastating the World's Poor and the Environment
  15. ^ AGRICULTURE: Brazil Shares Technology with Africa
  16. ^ Targeted agricultural investments will slash poverty in Africa
  17. ^ African cocoa enjoying price boom
  18. ^ South Africa: Commodities lead boom
  19. ^ Yara's GroHow sees 2008 profit stable - Reuters
  20. ^ Govt targets agricultural boom - Daily Monitor
  21. ^ African Union support crucial for agricultural progress
  22. ^ Though making ‘very good progress,’ Africa still faces challenges, says UN official
  23. ^ a b Angola oil tiger plans investment in Europe
  24. ^ Kenya ill-prepared for Uganda oil boom
  25. ^ Africa strives to rebuild its domestic industries
  26. ^ Mobile boom in Africa a boon to ad agencies - International Herald Tribune
  27. ^ Rural Africa new frontier for mobile phone boom
  28. ^ Resources Boom Represents Development Potential in Africa
  29. ^ Namibia: Congo Copper Giant to Invest in Country
  30. ^ Tax breaks for big investment projects
  31. ^ ECONOMY-MAURITIUS: Textile Manufacturing Goes Green and Clean
  32. ^ Market for renewable energy expected to boom in Africa
  33. ^ Africa Could Profit from Global Economic Crisis
  34. ^ India to Step Up Trade and Investment in Africa
  35. ^ China in Africa: Developing ties
  36. ^ Chinese investment in Africa soars
  37. ^ China to maintain aid, investment in Africa "regardless of financial crisis" - Xinhuanet
  38. ^ China outwits the EU in Africa
  39. ^ TRADE-AFRICA: Europe Looks to Encourage Diaspora Investment
  40. ^ The global remittances boom: billions pour into Africa
  41. ^ Minnesota: Investment opportunities abound in South Africa
  42. ^ Liberian Leaders Predict Boom for Poor West African Country
  43. ^ "Mobile growth fastest in Africa". BBC News. 2005-03-09. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4331863.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  44. ^ "Phone revolution makes Africa upwardly mobile". London. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-2068420,00.html. 
  45. ^ "Africa's cell phone boom creates a base for low-cost banking". http://www.usatoday.com/tech/products/gear/2005-08-28-cell-banks-africa_x.htm. 
  46. ^ New operator to improve Namibian phone services
  47. ^ Kenya’s Internet Boom
  48. ^ IT boom expected in Kenya by 2009
  49. ^ FAO. "AIDS - a threat to rural Africa". Focus on the issues. http://www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/aids/aids6-e.htm. Retrieved 26 August 2006. 
  50. ^ [2]
  51. ^ See, for example, Frank, A. G. (1979), Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment, New York: Monthly Review Press.; Köhler, G. and Tausch, A. (2001), Global Keynesianism: unequal exchange and global exploitation, Nova Publishers; Amin, S. (1976), Unequal Development: An Essay on the Social Formations of Peripheral Capitalism, New York: Monthly Review Press.
  52. ^ Shaw, Jane (April 2004). "Overlooking the Obvious in Africa" (PDF). Econ Journal Watch. http://www.econjournalwatch.org/pdf/Shaw%20Comment%20April%202004.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  53. ^ Pasour, E.C. (April 2004). "Intellectual Tyranny of the Status Quo" (PDF). Econ Journal Watch. http://www.econjournalwatch.org/pdf/Pasour%20Intellectual%20Tyranny%20April%202004.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  54. ^ Wrong, Michela (2005-03-14). "When the money goes west". New Statesman. http://www.newstatesman.com/Economy/200503140015. Retrieved 2006-08-28. 
  55. ^ "Profile: African Union". BBC News. 2006-07-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/3870303.stm. Retrieved 2006-07-10. 

References

  • Fage, J.D. A History of Africa (Routledge, 4th edition, 2001 ISBN 0-415-25247-4) (Hutchinson, 1978, ISBN 0-09-132851-9) (Knopf 1st American edition, 1978, ISBN 0-394-32277-0)
  • Kayizzi-Mugerwa, Steve The African Economy: Policy, Institutions and the Future (Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0-415-18323-5)
  • Moshomba, Richard E. Africa in the Global Economy (Lynne Rienner, 2000, ISBN 1-55587-718-4)
  • OECD. African Economic Outlook 2006/2007 (OECD, 2007, ISBN 978-92-64-03313-9)
  • Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. (Washington: Howard UP, 1982, ISBN 0-88258-096-5)
  • Sahn, David E., Paul A. Dorosh, Stephen D. Younger Structural Adjustment Reconsidered: Economic Policy and Poverty in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-58451-5)

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