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Economy of Kazakhstan
Soyuz TMA-3 launch.jpg
Currency Tenge (Tenge symbol.svg)
Statistics
GDP $177.835 billion (PPP, 55th)[1]
$135.601 billion (nominal, 53rd)[1]
GDP growth -1.8% (2009 est.)
GDP per capita $11,434 (PPP, 70th)[1]
$8,719 (nominal, 68th)[1]
GDP by sector agriculture: 6.4%; industry: 38.1%; services: 55.5% (2009 est.)
Inflation (CPI) 7.3% (2009)
Population
below poverty line
12.1% (2008)
Gini index 28.8[2] (2008, low)
Labour force 8.7 million (2009 est.)
Labour force
by occupation
agriculture: 31.5%; industry: 18.4%; services: 50% (2006)
Unemployment 6.3% (2009 est.)
Main industries oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
External
Exports $41.64 billion (2009 est.)
Export goods oil and oil products 59%, ferrous metals 19%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal
Main export partners China 13.4%, Russia 11.1%, Germany 10.6%, Italy 6.9%, Romania 6.6%, France 5.7%, Ukraine 5.4%, Turkey 4.1% (2008)
Imports $25.15 billion (2009 est.)
Import goods machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
Main import partners Russia 34%, China 25%, Germany 6.2%, Ukraine 4.7% (2008)
Gross external debt $93.21 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Public finances
Public debt 14% of GDP (2009 est.)
Revenues $18.98 billion (2009 est.)
Expenses $22.44 billion (2009 est.)
Foreign reserves $23.21 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars

The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia. It possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production, as well as developed space infrastructure, which took over all launches to the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle. The mountains in the south are important for apples and walnuts; both species grow wild there. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military items. The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97 the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. The December 1996 signing of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz Field to the Black Sea increases prospects for substantially larger oil exports in several years. Kazakhstan's economy turned downward in 1998 with a 2.5% decline in GDP growth due to slumping oil prices and the August financial crisis in Russia. A bright spot in 1999 was the recovery of international petroleum prices, which, combined with a well-timed tenge devaluation and a bumper grain harvest, pulled the economy out of recession.

Current GDP per capita shrank by 26% in the Nineties.[3] However since 2000, Kazakhstan's economy grew sharply, aided by increased prices on world markets for Kazakhstan's leading exports--oil, metals and grain. GDP grew 9.6% in 2000, up from 1.7% in 1999. Since 2001, GDP has been among the highest in the world. In 2006, extremely high GDP growth had been sustained, and grew by 10.6%.[4] Business with booming Russia and China, as well as neighboring Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) nations have helped to propel this amazing growth. The increased economic growth also led to a turn-around in government finances, with the budget moving from a cash deficit of 3.7% of GDP in 1999 to 0.1% surplus in 2000.

Contents

Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Kazakhstan at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Kazakhstani Tenges.[5]

Year Gross Domestic Product US Dollar Exchange Inflation Index
(2000=100)
Per Capita Income
(as % of USA)
1995 78,014,200 61.11 Tenges 64 3.81
2000 102,599,902 142.26 Tenges 100 3.53
2005 147,453,000 132.88 Tenges 140 9.01

For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 59.95 Tenges only. Average wages in 2007 hover around $31-38 per day.

Kazakhstan's monetary policy has been well-managed. Its principal challenges in 2001 are to manage strong foreign currency inflows without sparking inflation. Inflation has, in fact, stayed under control, registering 9.8% in 2000, and appears likely to be under 10% in 2001. Because of its strong economic performance and financial health, Kazakhstan became the first former Soviet republic to repay all of its debt to the IMF by paying back $400 million in 2000; 7 years ahead of schedule. Overall foreign debt is about $12.5 billion, $4 billion of which is owed by the government. This amounts to 69% of GDP, well within manageable levels.

The upturn in economic growth, combined with the results of earlier tax and financial sector reforms, dramatically improved government finances from the 1998 budget deficit level of 4.2% of GDP to a slight surplus in 2000. Government tax revenues grew from 16.4% of GDP in 1999 to 20.6% of GDP in 2000. In 2000, Kazakhstan adopted a new Tax Code in an effort to consolidate these gains. Its strong financial position also allowed the government to reduce the value-added tax (VAT) from 20% to 16% and reduce social (payroll) taxes as of July 2001. Kazakhstan's stronger budget position and strong export earnings earned it credit ratings upgrades from Moody's, S&P, and Fitch during 2001.

Kazakhstan instituted a pension reform program in 1998 that was partly based on the model of the Chilean pension system but enclosed modifications. By July 2001, Kazakhstanis had contributed more than $1 billion to their own personal pension accounts, most of which is managed by the private sector. The National Bank oversees and regulates the pension funds. The pension funds' growing demand for quality investment outlets triggered rapid development of the debt securities market. Pension fund capital is being invested almost exclusively in corporate and government bonds, including Government of Kazakhstan Eurobonds. The Kazakhstani banking system is developing rapidly. Banking systems capitalization now exceeds $1 billion. The National Bank has introduced deposit insurance in its campaign to strengthen the banking sector. Several major foreign banks have branches in Kazakhstan, including ABN AMRO, Citibank, and HSBC. Kazakhstan is also a member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).

Mining

Oil and gas is the leading economic sector. In 2000, Kazakhstan produced 35,252,000 metric tons of oil (700,000 barrels per day), a 17.4% increase over 1999's 30,025,000 tons. It exported 28,883,000 tons of oil in 2000, up 38.8% from 20,813,000 tons in 1999. Production in 2001 has been growing at roughly 20%, on target to meet the government's forecast of 40,100,000 tons of oil (800,000 barrels per day). In 2000, production reached 11.5 km³ of natural gas, up from 8.2 km³ in 1999.

Kazakhstan has the potential to be a world-class oil exporter in the medium term. The landmark foreign investment in Kazakhstan is the TengizChevroil joint venture, owned 50% by ChevronTexaco, 25% by ExxonMobil, 20% by the Government of Kazakhstan, and 5% by Lukarco of Russia. The Karachaganak natural gas and gas condensate field is being developed by BG, Agip, ChevronTexaco, and Lukoil. The Agip-led Offshore Kazakhstan Consortium has discovered potentially huge Kashagan oil field in the northern Caspian. Kazakhstan's economic future is linked to oil and gas development. GDP growth will depend on the price of oil, as well as the ability to develop new deposits.

Kazakhstan is the third country in the world for uranium production volumes, and it owns the world second biggest uranium reserves after Australia.[6]

It has also the largest silver, zinc and nickel markets in West Asia.

Trade

Kazakh exports in 2006

Sherin Suzhikova, Counselor of Kazakhstan's Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Chao yon-chuan, Secretary-General of the Taiwan External Trade Development Council, signed an agreement on 13 October 2006 in Taipei to improve economic relations through "exchanges of market information and visits by trade professionals." TAITRA has an office in Almaty, Kazakhstan.[7]

North Dakotan Lieutenant Governor Jack Dalrymple led an 18-member delegation of the North Dakota Trade Office representing seven North Dakota companies and Dickinson State University on a trip to Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Russia from 22 October to 4 November. Governor John Hoeven said the trip is "part of a larger effort to increase North Dakota's export volume." North Dakota's "total export value is growing at a rate of nearly 18% a year, and companies working with the trade office are seeing export sales grow at an even higher rate."[8]

North Dakota Trade Office Executive Director Susan Geib said, "Agricultural and industrial equipment is in high demand in Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Russia." North Dakota exports mostly machinery to Kazakhstan, the eighth largest destination for North Dakotan exports. North Dakota machinery exports amounted to only $22,000 in 2000, but rose to $25 million in 2005.[8]

See also

References

External links

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