Economy of North Ossetia-Alania: Wikis

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Coordinates: 42°57′52″N 44°07′16″E / 42.96446°N 44.12109°E / 42.96446; 44.12109

Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (English)
Республика Северная Осетия-Алания (Russian)
Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон — Алани (Ossetic)
-  Republic  -
Map of Russia - Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (2008-03).svg
Coat of Arms of North Ossetia-Alania.png
Seal of North Ossetia-Alania
Flag of North Ossetia.svg
Flag of North Ossetia-Alania
Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania[citation needed]
Political status
Country Russia
Political status Republic
Federal district North Caucasian[1]
Economic region North Caucasus[2]
Capital Vladikavkaz[citation needed]
Official languages Russian[3]; Russian, Ossetic[4]
Statistics
Population (2002 Census)[5] 710,275 inhabitants
- Rank within Russia 68th
- Urban[5] 65.5%
- Rural[5] 34.5%
- Density 89 /km2 (200/sq mi)[6]
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[7] 8,000 km2 (3,088.8 sq mi)
- Rank within Russia 79th
Established July 7, 1924[citation needed]
License plates 15
ISO 3166-2:RU RU-SE
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Government (as of November 2008)
Head[8] Taymuraz Mamsurov[9]
Legislature Parliament[8]
Constitution Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania
Official website
http://www.rso-a.ru/

The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Russian: Республика Северная Осетия–Алания, IPA [rʲɪˈspʊblʲɪkə ˈsʲevʲɪrnəjə ɐˈsʲetʲɪjə ɐˈlanʲɪjə]; Ossetic: Республикæ Цæгат Ирыстон — Алани; About this sound the name in Ossetic ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). The direct romanization of the Russian name of the republic is Respublika Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya. Its name in Ossetic transliterates (in the ISO 9-system) as Respublikæ Cægat Iryston - Alani.

Contents

Name

In the last years of the Soviet Union, as nationalist movements swept throughout the Caucasus, many intellectuals in the North Ossetian ASSR called for the revival of the name of Alania, a medieval kingdom of the Alans, ancestors of the modern-day Ossetians. The term of "Alania" quickly became popular in Ossetian daily life through the names of various enterprises, a TV channel, political and civic organizations, publishing house, soccer team, etc. In November 1994, the name of "Alania" was officially added to the republican title (Republic of North Ossetia-Alania).[10]

History

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Early history

The territory of North Ossetia-Alania was first inhabited by Caucasians tribes. Some Nomadic Alans settled in the region in the 7th century, forming the kingdom of Alania. It was converted to Christianity by Byzantine missionaries. Alania greatly profited from the Silk Road which passed through its territory.

After the Middle Ages, the Mongols' and Tartars' repeated invasions decimated the population, now known as the Ossetians. Islam was introduced to the region in the 17th century by Kabardians. Conflicts between the Khanate of Crimea and the Ottoman Empire eventually pushed Ossetia into an alliance with Imperial Russia in the 18th century. Soon, Russia formed a military in the capital, Vladikavkaz, becoming the first Russia-controlled area in the northern Caucasus. By 1806, Ossetia was under complete Russian control.

Russian/Soviet rule

Border changes after World War II

The Russians' rule led to rapid development of industry and railways which overcame its isolation. The first books from the area came during the late 18th century, and became part of the Terskaya Region of Russia in the mid-19th century.

The Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in North Ossetia being merged into the Soviet Mountain Republic in 1921. It then became the North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast on 7 July 1924, then merged into the North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 5 December 1936. During World War II, it was subject to a number of invasions by Nazi Germany unsuccessfully trying to seize Vladikavkaz.

The North Ossetian SSR became the first autonomous republic 20 June 1990 of the Soviet Union, being renamed to the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania in 1991.

Post-Soviet rule

The Soviet Union's collapse posed particular problems for the Ossetian people, who were divided between North Ossetia, which was part of the Russian SFSR, and South Ossetia, part of the Georgian SSR. In December 1990 the Supreme Soviet of Georgia abolished the autonomous Ossetian enclave amid the rising ethnic tensions in the region, and much of the population fled across the border to North Ossetia or Georgia proper. Some 70,000 South Ossetian refugees were resettled in North Ossetia, sparking clashes with the predominantly Ingush population in the Prigorodny District. That led to the Ossetian-Ingush conflict.

As well as dealing with the effects of the conflict in South Ossetia, North Ossetia has had to deal with refugees and the occasional spillover of fighting from the war in neighboring Chechnya. The bloodiest incident by far was the September 2004 Beslan hostage crisis, in which Chechen insurgents attributed to Shamil Basayev (who alternatingly denied and claimed responsibility) seized control of a school. In the firefight between the terrorists and Russian forces that ended the crisis, 335 civilians, the majority of them children, died.

Geography

North Ossetian landscape Kwyrttaty kom

The Republic is in the northern Caucasus. The northern part of the republic is situated in the Stavropol Plain. 22% of the republic's territory is covered by forests.

Rivers

All of the republic's rivers belong to the basin of the Terek River. Major rivers include:

Mountains

Map of the region with the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania highlighted
Map of North Ossetia-Alania

All of the mountains located on the territory of the republic are a part of the Caucasus. Mount Kazbek is the highest point (5,033 m), with Mount Dzhimara being the second highest (4,780 m).

Natural resources

Natural resources include minerals (copper, silver, zinc), timber, mineral waters, hydroelectric power, and untapped reserves of oil and gas.

Climate

Climate is moderately continental.

  • Average January temperature: −5 °C (23 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +24 °C (75.2 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: 400–700 mm in the plains, over 1,000 mm in the mountains.

Administrative divisions

Demographics

  • Population: 710,275 (2002)
    • Urban: 464,875 (65.5%)
    • Rural: 245,400 (34.5%)
    • Male: 336,035 (47.3%)
    • Female: 374,240 (52.7%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,114
  • Average age: 33.8 years
    • Urban: 34.2 years
    • Rural: 32.9 years
    • Male: 30.4 years
    • Female: 36.9 years
  • Number of households: 200,191 (with 690,806 people)
    • Urban: 143,397 (with 447,884 people)
    • Rural: 56,794 (with 242,922 people)
  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 9,731 3,964 17.6 7.2
1975 10,368 4,664 18.0 8.1
1980 10,135 5,821 16.9 9.7
1985 11,598 6,047 18.8 9.8
1990 10,967 6,166 16.9 9.5
1991 10,985 6,694 16.2 9.9
1992 10,048 7,125 14.7 10.4
1993 8,251 7,872 12.5 11.9
1994 8,806 8,329 13.2 12.5
1995 8,781 8,574 13.0 12.7
1996 8,043 8,514 11.8 12.5
1997 7,758 8,378 11.4 12.3
1998 7,767 8,188 11.4 12.0
1999 7,195 8,412 10.4 12.2
2000 7,179 8,626 10.3 12.3
2001 7,317 8,205 10.3 11.6
2002 7,874 8,753 11.1 12.3
2003 7,978 8,952 11.3 12.6
2004 7,893 8,663 11.2 12.3
2005 7,894 8,654 11.2 12.3
2006 8,308 8,138 11.8 11.6
2007 9,556 7,806 13.6 11.1
2008 9,981 7,975 14.2 11.4
  • Ethnic groups

The Ossetian population of North Ossetia is predominantly Christian with a Muslim minority, speaking Ossetic and Russian.

According to the 2002 Census, Ossetians make up 62.7% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (23.2%), Ingush (3.0%), Armenians (2.4%), Kumyks (12,659, or 1.8%), Georgians (10,803, or 1.5%), Ukrainians (0.7%), Chechens (3,383, or 0.5%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. 3,283 people (0.5%) did not indicate their nationalities during the Census.

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Ossetians 139,120 (60.3%) 165,616 (50.3%) 215,463 (47.8%) 269,326 (48.7%) 299,022 (50.5%) 334,876 (53.0%) 445,310 (62.7%)
Russians 50,272 (21.8%) 122,614 (37.2%) 178,654 (39.6%) 202,367 (36.6%) 200,692 (33.9%) 189,159 (29.9%) 164,734 (23.2%)
Ingush 1,540 (0.7%) 6,106 (1.9%) 6,071 (1.3%) 18,387 (3.3%) 23,663 (4.0%) 32,783 (5.2%) 21,442 (3.0%)
Armenians 6,921 (3.0%) 8,932 (2.7%) 12,012 (2.7%) 13,355 (2.4%) 12,912 (2.2%) 13,619 (2.2%) 17,147 (2.4%)
Ukrainians 14,282 (6.2%) 7,063 (2.1%) 9,362 (2.1%) 9,250 (1.7%) 10,574 (1.8%) 10,088 (1.6%) 5,198 (0.7%)
Others 18,646 (8.1%) 18,874 (5.7%) 29,019 (6.4%) 39,896 (7.2%) 45,139 (7.6%) 51,903 (8.2%) 56,444 (7.9%)
  • Number of Refugees: 12,570 [11]

Politics

The head of government in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania is the Head of the Republic. As of 2008, the head of the republic is Taymuraz Mamsurov. Mamsurov succeeded Alexander Dzasokhov, who voluntarily quit his post on May 31, 2005.[12]

Economy

In recent years North Ossetia Alania's economic development has been successful; the indicators of the republic's social and economic development in 2005-2007 revealed a stable growth of all sectors of the economy and major social parameters. The nature and climatic conditions of the republic contribute to the successful development of various economic sectors, which is compounded by the abundance of natural resources. Gross regional product pro capita of the region in 2006 was 61,000 rubles ($2,596), and increased 30% in the 2005-2007 time period.[13] GRP pro capita in 2007 was 76 455 rubles.[14] In 2005-2007, the average monthly wage in North Ossetia-Alania doubled, with the actual cash earnings increased by 42.5 percent. In terms of the average monthly wage growth, the republic ranks first in the North Caucasus.[13]

The regional government's economic priorities include industrial growth, development of small enterprise, spas, and resorts, and strengthening the budgetary and tax discipline.[15]

Natural resources, agriculture, and industry

The most widespread resources are zinc- and lead-containing complex ores. There are deposits of limestone, dolomites, marble and touchstone. There is also a large availability of construction materials, such as clay, sand and gravel. The local oil deposit reserves are estimated at 10 million metric tons.[13]

Agricultural sector is varied and specializes in the cultivation of wheat, corn, and sunflowers; horticulture; viticulture; and cattle and sheep breeding.[16][17]

North Ossetia's industry is mainly concentrated in Vladikavkaz. Major companies located here include Elektrotsink, Gazoapparat, an instrument-making plant, Elektrokontraktor, a factory producing automotive electrical equipment, a large-panel construction complex, and companies in the food industry. The Sadonsky industrial center has grown around the mining and forest industries.[17]

Tourism

Cableway in Tsey canyon

Despite the proximity of the republic to Chechnya, North Ossetia is making efforts to develop its tourist industry.[18] Projects under a program for spa, resort, and tourism development have been successfully implemented in the mountainous part of the republic, according to the head of the regional government.[15] There are nearly 3000 historical monuments in the republic and more than half of the its area is occupied bv Alania National Park, the North Ossetia National Preserve, and game preserves. There are more than 250 therapeutic, mineral, and freshwater springs in the republic with estimated daily reserves of 15,000 cubic meters. Besides providing the basis for health spas, these mineral waters also have the potential to be bottled and sold. North Ossetian mineral waters are known for their unique qualities, as well as special mineral composition.[17][18]

Infrastructure

In terms of its infrastructure, North Ossetia-Alania ranks second in the Southern Federal District and 10th in the nation.[13] The republic has some of the most extensive telecommunication networks in the North Caucasus region and in Russia. It ranks first in terms of its telecom network installations in the Southern Federal District.

The republic ranks fourth in Russia in terms of its paved roads, and its expanding transport and logistics complex provides communication networks between Russia and the South Caucasus, as well as Central Asia. The complex includes two federal highways (Georgian Military Road connects Vladikavkaz with Transcaucasia) running across the Greater Caucasus Range, two customs checkpoints for cars, a developed railway network, Vladikavkaz international airport, and well-equipped transport terminals.[13]

Culture

There are six professional theaters in North Ossetia-Alania, as well as Ossetian State Philarmonia.

Education

The most important facilities of higher education include North Caucasus State Technological University, North Ossetian State University, North Ossetian State Medical Academy, and Mountain State Agrarian University; all in Vladikavkaz.

Religion

The predominant religion in the republic is Russian Orthodox Christianity, followed by Islam.[citation needed] Many of the native rituals predate both faiths.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ According to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia, Russian is the official language on the whole territory of the Russian Federation. Article 68.2 further stipulates that only the republics have the right to establish official languages other than Russian.
  4. ^ Constitution, Article 15.1
  5. ^ a b c Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  8. ^ a b Constitution, Article 7
  9. ^ Official website of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. Taymuraz Dzambekovich Mamsurov (Russian)
  10. ^ Shnirelman, Victor (2006). The Politics of a Name: Between Consolidation and Separation in the Northern Caucasus. Acta Slavica Iaponica 23, pp. 37-49.
  11. ^ http://www.regnum.ru/news/1129867.html
  12. ^ Regional government to quit over Beslan tragedy: president from ABC
  13. ^ a b c d e "North Ossetia-Alania: social and economic indicators looking up". Moscow News. 2008-09-18. http://mnweekly.rian.ru/news/20080918/55347008.html. 
  14. ^ Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения Федеральная служба государственной статистики
  15. ^ a b "Republic of North Ossetia-Alania - Introduction". Russia: All Regions Trade & Investment Guide. CTEC Publishing LLC. 2008. http://www.russiasregions.com/north_ossetia_alania.html. 
  16. ^ "North Ossetia-Alania". Microsoft Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. http://www.webcitation.org/5kx8cyHJk. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  17. ^ a b c "Republic of North Ossetia". Kommersant. 2004-03-11. http://www.kommersant.com/p-105/r_448/Republic_of_North_Ossetia/. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  18. ^ a b "Republic of North Ossetia". Russia Profile. 2008-08-25. http://www.russiaprofile.org/resources/territory/districts/osetiya/. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 

References

  • Верховный Совет Республики Северная Осетия. 12 ноября 1994 г. «Конституция Республики Северная Осетия-Алания», в ред. Закона №7-ркз от 22 декабря 2006 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of North Ossetia. November 12, 1994 Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, as amended by the Law #7-rkz of December 22, 2006. ).

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