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Dr. Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan, a resident of Columbus, was the first woman to walk in space. She is the former President and CEO of the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, and currently serves as the Director at the Battelle Center of Mathematics and Science Education Policy in Columbus, while sitting on the National Science Board. Science has had an enormous impact on Ohio's economy historically.

The economy of Ohio had a GSP of $471 billion in 2008, which would rank it as the world's 23rd largest economy, behind Sweden and ahead of Saudi Arabia.[1] In 2009, Ohio was ranked #4 in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database. The state was referred to as a dynasty after having won its fourth consecutive Governor's Cup award from the magazine in 2010, based on business growth and economic development.[2][3] The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state #10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked #6 at 1.9%.[4] Ohio has 5 of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report's 2010 rankings,[5] and was ranked #8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools.[6] Overall, the state's schools were ranked #5 in the country in 2010.[7]

Ohio is considered a center of science and industry, with a museum dedicated to such in Columbus, COSI, the Great Lakes Science Center in Cleveland, and the Boonshoft Museum of Discovery in Dayton. The state includes many historically strong industries, such as banking and insurance, which accounts for 8% of the gross state product, motor vehicle manufacturing, research and development, and steel production, accounting for 14-17% of the nation's raw output. More traditional industries include agriculture, employing one out of seven Ohioans, and new and developing sectors include bioscience, green, information, and food processing industries. Ohio is the biggest manufacturer of plastics and rubber in the country, has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and ranked fourth in the country for green economic growth through 2007.

The state is recognized internationally as the "Fuel Cell Corridor", while Toledo is recognized as a national solar center, Cleveland a regenerative medicine research hub, Dayton an aerospace and defense hub, Akron the rubber capital of the world, and Columbus a technological research and development hub.

Wal-Mart is the largest private sector employer in Ohio,[8] with approximately 53,000 employees.[9] The largest Ohio employer with headquarters in Ohio is Kroger, with approximately 36,500 employees, and headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio.[8] The largest employer at a single location in Ohio is Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio.[8] 70% of the nation's electrometallurgical ferroalloy manufacturing employees are located in Ohio.

Contents

Overview

Kroger, a supermarket company based in Cincinnati, is the largest employer of companies headquartered in the state.

Ohio's gross state product (GSP) was $471 billion as of 2008,[9] which would rank as the world's 23rd largest economy.

In 2009, Ohio was ranked #4 in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database. The state won its fourth consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine in 2010, based on business growth and economic development.[2][10] The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state #10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked #6 at 1.9%.[4] Ohio was ranked #11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009.[11] The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state #13 overall for best business climate, including #7 for best ligitation climate.[12] Forbes ranked the state #8 for best regulatory environment in 2009.[13] Ohio has 5 of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report's 2010 rankings,[5] and was ranked #8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools.[6] Overall, the state's schools were ranked #5 in the country in 2010.[14]

Ohio's private sector is composed of 921,000 employers, which hire around 50.4% of Ohio's non-farm private workforce. The manufacturing sector contributes 18% of Ohio's GSP, followed by the trade sector with 16%.[9] Ohio has a developing technology sector and is home to over 28,000 employers that employ nearly 820,000 people; its rate of technology operations is 14% higher than the US average.[9]

Between 2006 and 2014, Ohio's employment is expected to grow by 290,700 jobs, or approximately 5.0%.[9] Personal income grew an average of 3.1% in 2008.[9] About 659,900 people are employed in Ohio's manufacturing sector.[9] Major manufacturing employers include AK Steel, Timken, and Honda. Ohio's exports are delivered to 213 countries and constitute 3.5% of total US exports;[9] major exports include motor vehicles and machinery.

As of 2008, Ohio was #5 in the country for Fortune 500 companies with 28. They included Cardinal Health at #19, Procter & Gamble at #23, National Cash Register at #25 (has since relocated to Georgia), Kroger at #26, Macy's at #91, Nationwide Insurance at #108, Goodyear Tire and Rubber at #119, Progressive Insurance at #175, and American Electric Power at #196.[15]

Major employers

The following is a list of the top 10 Ohioan employers with headquarters in Ohio.[8]

Rank Employer Number of Ohio employees Headquarters location
1 Kroger 38,000 Cincinnati, Ohio
2 Cleveland Clinic Health System 37,800 Cleveland, Ohio
3 Catholic Healthcare Partners 28,200 Cincinnati, Ohio
4 The Ohio State University 26,800 Columbus, Ohio
5 Wright Patterson Air Force Base 23,800 Dayton, Ohio
6 University Hospitals of Cleveland 21,800 Cleveland, Ohio
7 OhioHealth 15,300 Columbus, Ohio
8 ProMedica 14,500 Toledo, Ohio
9 Premier Health Partners 14,000 Dayton, Ohio
10 Procter and Gamble 14,000 Cincinnati, Ohio

The following is a list of the top Ohioan employers with headquarters anywhere in the world.[8]

Rank Employer Number of Ohio employees Headquarters location
1 Wal-Mart 54,200 Bentonville, Arkansas
2 Kroger 38,000 Cincinnati, Ohio
3 Cleveland Clinic Health System 37,800 Cleveland, Ohio
4 Catholic Healthcare Partners 28,200 Cincinnati, Ohio
5 The Ohio State University 26,800 Columbus, Ohio
6 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base 23,800 Dayton, Ohio
7 University Hospitals of Cleveland 21,800 Cleveland, Ohio
8 JP Morgan Chase 17,500 New York, New York
9 Giant Eagle 17,000 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
10 Sears Holdings Corp 16,400 Hoffman Estates, Illinois

Industries

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Aerospace and defense

GE Aviation, headquartered in Evendale, is a major manufacturer of aircraft engines globally. Aircraft engine manufacturing accounts for nearly 75% of Ohio's aerospace and defense industry workforce.
Ohio's state quarter lays claim to the "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers," in which Ohio's aerospace and defense industry is still economically strong.

The aerospace and defense industry employs 16,000 Ohioans.[16] Employment has been increasing after 2003, despite an overall decrease in employment since the industry's peak at 37,000 employees in 1990.[16] In 2005, Ohio ranked fifth among US states in the production of aerospace products and parts, and eighth in the number of aerospace industry workers.[16] Ohioan workers in the aerospace industry made an annual average salary of $75,765 in 2005, compared to $48,208 in for workers in the manufacturing sector generally.[16] Nearly 75% of the state's aerospace and defense employees work in the aircraft engine manufacturing sub-sector;[16] only Connecticut has larger aircraft engine workforce.[16] Notable aerospace and defense companies in Ohio include GE Aviation, Goodrich Corporation, and Aircraft Braking Systems.[16]

Defense systems play a smaller role in the industry. Ohio corporations were awarded around $5.5 billion of United States Department of Defense procurements.[16] Notable defense contractors include Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in Akron, Lockheed Martin in Akron, which won a contract to develop a space-ship in 2003 and produces the vertical launch ASROC missile,[17][18] and Armor Holdings Aerospace and Defense Group in Fairfield.[16] BAE Systems has a large facility in West Chester producing armored vehicles, armor kits, and ballistic glass.[19]

The United States Department of Defense currently maintains a large Supply Center in Whitehall, a suburb of Columbus.

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, located in Dayton, and partially named for the Wright Brothers from Ohio who are generally credited with inventing the airplane, employs 23,800 residents. The Air Force estimates that Wright-Patterson’s annual economic impact on the Dayton region is $3.6 billion.[16]

Bioscience

In 2008, Ohio was ranked #1 in the Midwest and 4th in the nation for biotech industry strength by Business Facilities magazine.[20] As of 2008, there were over 1,100 biotech related firms operating in the state,[21] employing 1.4 million residents overall in direct or indirect related fields, including healthcare, with $2.5 billion in investment in 2007, making it an international leader.[22][23] Ohio had three city-regions in the top 30 biotech locations in the country, with Cleveland-Akron ranked #20, Columbus #22, and Cincinnati #28.

The overall economic impact of the bioscience industry in Ohio, including healthcare, amounted to $148.2 billion in 2007, representing 15.7% of Ohio's economic output.[23] Half of the biotech industry is located in northeast Ohio, with 574 firms, while central and southern Ohio are home to around 200 each.[24] 635 companies are FDA-certified to manufacture medical devices.[24] Biotech research and development employs directly 12,415 residents, while agricultural bioscience contributed the largest economic impact, at $10.7 billion. Medical device manufacturers employ 9,757 residents.[24]

Major firms include Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, which has been ranked by Fortune and Business Week as one of the top small businesses in the country; Atricure in West Chester, Ganeden Biotech in Cleveland, Cleveland Medical Devices and Orbital Research in Cleveland,[25] Stolle Milk Biologics in Cincinnati, BASF in Whitehouse, Imalux Corporation in Cleveland, ZIN Medical in Cleveland, Theken Surgical in Akron, Ohio, Philips Medical Systems in Highland Heights, Charles River Labs in Spencerville, Freedom Meditech in Toledo, Traycer Diagnostic Systems in Columbus, Idexx Laboratories in Boardman, Ben Venue Laboratories, a division of Boehringer Ingelheim, in Bedford, Ethicon Endo-Surgery, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, located in Blue Ash, STERIS Corporation in Mentor, Chemical Abstracts Service in Columbus, Invacare in Elyria, Diagnostic Hybrids in Athens, and Synapse Biomedical in Oberlin.[24][26]

Capital venture firms focused on biosciences include Charter Life Sciences in Cincinnati, Primus Venture Partners in Cleveland, Reservoir Venture Partners in Columbus, River Cities Capital Funds in Cincinnati, Draper Triangle Ventures in Cleveland, Ohio Innovation in Cleveland, CID Equity Partners in Columbus, Triathlon Medical Ventures in Cincinnati, and Oakwood Medical Investors in Cleveland, while JumpStart, based in Cleveland, provides funding for related ventures.[27]

Major biotech incubators include BioEnterprise in Cleveland, BIOSTART in Cincinnati, TechColumbus, and the Innovation Center in Athens.[27]

Biopharmaceutical

Biopharmaceutical companies in Ohio employ 91,750 people in Ohio, with 15,992 directly related jobs, and 75,758 indirectly related positions.[28] In 2006, wages from the sector totaled $1.2 billion, with an economic output of $14.9 billion.[28] 15.8% of clinical trials for new medicines focused on important conditions were conducted in the state in 2008, while companies invested $688 million in research and development.

Major firms include Procter & Gamble, headquartered in Cincinnati, Roxane Laboratories, a division of Boehringer Ingelheim, located in Columbus, Forest Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Forest Laboratories, located in Cincinnati, Patheon in Cincinnati, Amylin Pharmaceuticals in West Chester, Auburn Pharmaceuticals in Cleveland, a Sigma-Aldrich facility in Miamisburg, Reese Pharmaceutical in Cleveland, AcelleRX Therapeutics in Cleveland, Akebia Therapeutics in Cincinnati, Kendle International in Cincinnati, Bayer in Newark, Ross Laboratories, a division of Abbott Laboratories, in Columbus, Barr Pharmaceuticals in Cincinnati, and Cardinal Health in Dublin.[24][26] In total, there are 88 FDA-certified companies in Ohio manufacturing pharmaceuticals.[24]

Healthcare

Major hospital employers include the Cleveland Clinic Health System with 37,800 employees, Catholic Healthcare Partners in Cincinnati with 28,200, University Hospitals of Cleveland with 21,800, OhioHealth in Columbus with 15,300, ProMedica in Toledo with 14,500, and Premier Health Partners in Dayton with 14,000.

Ohio is home to world class medical facilities, led by the Cleveland Clinic, which has locations throughout the world. In 2009, U.S. News and World Report ranked the clinic as the fourth best hospital in the country, and the #1 heart center in the country for the 15th year in a row.[29] The Ohio State University Medical Center was ranked #21.[30] Overall, the magazine ranked 16 Ohio hospitals among the best hospitals in the nation, making the state #3 in the country in total. The Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center ranked #6 in the nation for pediatric hospitals, and overall, four children's hospitals in Ohio ranked among the best.

Apart from U.S. News and World Report, in 2010, HealthGrades ranked nine Ohio hospitals in the top 50 in the United States[31] and 27 of Ohio's hospitals as Distinguished Hospitals for Clinical Excellence, with the majority of these hospitals in the Cleveland and Dayton areas.[32]

Child magazine ranked Cincinnati Children's #4, Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus #6, including #1 for emergency care, and Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital in Cleveland #9.[33]

University Hospitals of Cleveland is among the nation's top teaching institutions, and responsible for the first mesenchymal stem cell clinical trials in the U.S. in the 1990s, the first adult umbilical cord transplant in the world in 1997, and the first adult stem cell clinical trials in the U.S. in 2003.

In 2009, Thomson-Reuters named the Kettering Medical Center in Kettering, The Ohio State University Medical Center in Columbus, Good Samaritan Hospital in Cincinnati, and Grandview Medical Center in Dayton to their top 30 list of teaching hospitals with cardiovascular programs.[34] Thomson-Reuters also rated the Kettering Health Network of Kettering, Ohio as one of the top 10 hospital networks for clinical excellence in the United States.[35] University Hospitals Case Medical Center in Cleveland was named in the top 15 for major teaching hospitals, while Riverside Methodist Hospital in Columbus and Hillcrest Hospital in Mayfield Heights ranked in the top 16 for minor teaching hospitals. Southwest General Health Center in Middleburg was ranked in the top 15 for large community hospitals, and Mercy Hospital Clermont in Batavia Union Hospital in Dover Sycamore Medical Center in Miamisburg and Wooster Community Hospital in Wooster ranked in the top 16 for medium sized community hospitals.[36]

Regenerative medicine

Cleveland has become recognized as a regenerative medicine research hub, due in part to the location of major research facilities in the city such as the National Center for Regenerative Medicine, Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Clinical Tissue Engineering Center, and the Cleveland Clinic, as well as its 30-year history of the research.

In 1986, scientists from the Case Western University filed patents related to mesenchymal stem cells, creating the foundation internationally for this sector in celluar therapeutics. The first clinical trials in the United States involving mesenchymal stem cells occurred between 1996-2000 at the University Hospitals of Cleveland, while the hospital was also responsible for the first adult umbilical cord transplant in 1997, and the first adult stem-cell clinical trials in the country in 2003.[37][38]

Major regenerative medicine firms located in Cleveland include Osiris Therapeutics, started in 1994, Arteriocyte Inc., which has completed one clinical trial and raised $43 million in venture capital and grants,[38] Juventas Therapeutics, which has plans for their first clinical trial in 2010 and has raised $9.1 million in venture capital and grants, Cell Targeting Inc., which has raised $1 million in grants,[38] Invenio Therapeutics Inc., which specializes in leukemia treatments,[38] and Athersys Inc., which has developed the product Multistem, conducted 2 clinical trials, and raised $180 million in venture capital and grants.[38] Other firms include Proxy Biomedical, LucCell, Inc., and the Cleveland Cord Blood Center.

Firms and institutions around the state include Hi-Genomics in Toledo, BioDontos in Dublin, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, SecuraCell in Canton, Stembanc, Inc. in Chardon, the Center for Tissue Regeneration and Engineering in Dayton, and Ethicord in Strongsville.

Agriculture

Tomatoes are an example of why Ohio's agriculture industry has deep relations with Ohio's food processing industry. Ohio is the 3rd largest producer of tomatoes out of all 50 states in the United States,[39] and, in turn, the world's largest ketchup processing plant is located in Fremont, Ohio.[39]

Ohio's agricultural industries represent $93 billion of the state's economic output, employing one in seven Ohioans directly or indirectly.[40] Ohio's agricultural market exports many different products. Ohio ranks 1st in the production of Swiss cheese out of all 50 states,[39] 2nd in eggs,[39] 3rd in tomatoes,[39] 6th in soybeans,[39] and 6th in corn for grain.[39] The agriculture and food processing and eatery industries are heavily intertwined in Ohio. For example, Ohio being the 3rd largest producer of tomatoes in the United States in turn has the world's largest ketchup processing plant in Fremont, Ohio.[39] They are #16 in the nation for beef production, and #5 in flower production.[40]

The number of farms in Ohio stood at 75,700, as of 2007,[41] covering 14,200,000 acres (57,000 km2) of land. 47.5% of all farms are operated by residents aged 35–54.[40] The average farm size was 188 acres (0.76 km2).[41] However, the number of farms slowly decreased from 2006, where the number of farms in Ohio stood at 76,200.[41] The amount of land used for farms in Ohio also decreased from 2006, where 14,300,000 acres (58,000 km2) of land were used for agriculture.[41] However, the dairy sector of Ohio's agriculture industry is growing.[41] The estimated number of dairy cows in Ohio increased from 274,000 in 2006[41] to 276,000 in 2007. Estimated dairy production in Ohio increased from 4,860,000,000 pounds (2.20×109 kg) in 2006[41] to 4,980,000,000 pounds (2.26×109 kg) in 2007.[41] There a total of 1,270,000 cattle, 4,000,000 hogs, and 141,000 sheep in the state.[40]

Energy

Several notable energy companies are headquartered in Ohio, including American Electric Power, Columbia Gas of Ohio, DPL Inc., American Municipal Power, Inc., Murray Energy, FirstEnergy, AB Resources, and IGS Energy. Rolls-Royce North America's Energy Systems, Inc. is headquartered in Mt. Vernon, specializing in gas compression, power generation, and pipeline technologies.[42] Ultra Premium Oilfield Services and V&M Star Steel operate steel production facilities in the state, which cater to energy exploration.

Ohio consumed 160.176 TWh of electricity in 2005, fourth among U.S. states.[43][44]

Oil, natural gas, and coal

Standard Oil refinery in Cleveland, 1899. Ohio was a world leader in oil production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The Ohio oil and natural gas industries employ 14,400 citizens, resulting in $730 million in wages. The industries paid $202 million in royalties to landowners, and $84 million in free energy.[45] The state's oil and natural gas industry continues to grow, having topped the $1 billion mark in market value production for four consecutive years, including $1.35 billion in 2008. This has only been accomplished five times in state history.[46][47] The oil and gas industry contributed $1.5 billion to the gross state product in 2008, and $3.1 billion in sales.[48]

Ohio was one of the original modern-energy states in the world starting in the 19th century and has a storied history. The first discovery of oil from a drilled well and first offshore oil rig placed in world history occurred in Ohio in 1814 in Noble County, and 1891 at Grand Lake St. Marys.[49] Ohio was the country's lead producer of oil between 1895-1903, until technology allowed further developments throughout the nation.[50]

At peak production, the state produced 24 million barrels of oil in 1896.[49] They produced the world's first billionaire, John D. Rockefeller, as a result. Standard Oil was first headquartered in Cleveland, beginning in 1870. The state has produced 1.12 billion barrels since 1860.[47]

In 2007, the state produced 5.455 million barrels of crude,[47] and increased production to 5.554 million barrels in 2008, ranking #17 in the country.[51] The state is fourth in the country in total wells drilled, including natural gas, only trailing Texas, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and having drilled 1,048 new wells in 2008.[45] Offshore oil drilling in Lake Erie first occurred in 1913, and the lake is home to oil reserves.

Ohio has the second largest oil refining capacity in the Midwest.[52] Toledo is home to facilities operated by Sunoco and BP. The BP facility is undergoing a $400 million renovation and is expected to receive nearly exclusive supplies from a $2.5 billion oilsands project in Alberta by 2011.[53] Toledo is also a target destination for supplies coming from the Bakken Oil Fields.[54]

Natural gas was discovered in Clinton County in 1887.[49] In 2008, the state produced 85 billion cubic feet of natural gas, which nearly 100% of the production stayed in the state, enough to heat 1 million homes.[45] The Rockies Express Pipeline was recently completed, connecting the eastern part of Ohio with natural gas production facilities in Colorado. 1.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves are estimated to be in Ohio's portion of Lake Erie alone.[55]

Train carrying mined coal through Ashtabula. Ohio has an estimated 11 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources.

Ohio is ranked #7 in the country in overall coal reserves, with 23 billion short tons, 11 billion which is recoverable.[56] In 2008, the state mined 26 million short tons of coal, ranking #11 in the country in production.[57]

Devonian Shales

In 1951, the process of hydraulic fracturing was used in Ohio to extract oil and gas.[49] Beneath Ohio rests part of the Devonian Shales, which contain large quantities of natural gas and oil reserves, and is one of the world's largest concentration of organic carbon.[58]

Part of the Devonian Shale is the Marcellus Shale, which alone is estimated to hold between 168 trillion and 516 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.[59] Recent technological advances have made the recovery of these reserves possible, and the state has experienced a boom in drilling.[60] It is estimated that 423 billion barrels of oil are present in the Devonian-Mississippi Shale, with 98% of the near-surface mineable resources located in Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, and Tennessee.[61]

In February of 2010, Russian steel company TMK IPSCO opened a production facility in Brookfield through a subsidiary, Ultra Premium Oilfield Services, with the Marcellus Shale exploration boom cited as the reason.[62] This followed the decision by V&M Star Steel, a subsidiary of French-based Vallourec, to construct a $650 million plant in Youngstown for the same reasons earlier in the month, expanding existing operations in the state.[63] By March, The Intelligencer, based in neighboring Wheeling, West Virginia, had declared that a "gas rush" was occurring with the Marcellus Shale in the area and that property was "hot".[64]

Renewable

Ohio is part of the emerging "Green Belt" in the United States, as companies flock to the industrial Midwest and Northeast to take advantage of the proximity to the infrastructure, resources, and skilled labor available.[65] Through 2007, Ohio ranked #4 in the country for "green" economic growth, according to the Pew Charitable Trust.[66] In 2008, Site Selection magazine ranked Ohio #1 in the nation in alternative energy manufacturing, with 135 projects.[67] In 2006, renewable energy revenues in Ohio were $775 million, creating 6,615 jobs.[68]

On October 22, 2008, in a unanimous vote, the Ohio legislature has passed, and Governor Ted Strickland has signed into law, Senate Bill 221 requiring 12.5% of Ohio's energy be generated from renewable sources by 2025.[69] This built on initiatives from the previous administration of Bob Taft, who led with an "Energy Action Plan" and placed mandates on ethanol and renewable energy use for the state government, while providing incentives for production and consumption to the private market.

Solar
A fully deployed solar sail system at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Space Power Facility, the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, in Sandusky. The development of these sails has been critical for future robotic space exploration.

Toledo is recognized nationally as a "seat of solar energy".[70] There are 115 companies and research institutions involved in developing solar energy in the state.[71] Ohio is home to large solar production facilities, including Willard and Kelsey Solar Group and First Solar in Perrysburg and Xunlight Corp. in Toledo.[72] First Solar is the fourth largest manufacturer of solar PV panels in the world, and the largest manufacturer of thin film solar modules in the United States.

Other companies specializing in solar include DuPont, which is undertaking a $175 million expansion at their Circleville facility,[73] Owens Corning, SolarGystics, Innovative Thin Films, Shadeplex, Buckeye Silicon, Maumee Authority Stamping, Advanced Distributed Generation, and Nextronex in Toledo, Third Sun Solar in Athens, The Renaissance Group in Kirtland, Solar Grid in Cleveland Heights, Dovetail Solar and Wind in Glouster, Solar Creations in Mansfield, SunLight Energy Systems in North Lawrence, and Blue Chip Solar and Wind in Cincinnati.[74][75]

A large solar field is being constructed by Advanced Distributed Generation and nearing completion on the University of Toledo campus.[76] In 2009, ground broke one the largest solar fields in the Midwest and in the United States, located in Wyandot County. The plant is being constructed by German-based Juwi Solar, and will be called Wyandot Solar LLC., leasing its energy to AEP.[77][78]

The airbase for 180th Fighter Wing of the Ohio Air National Guard in Toledo is currently expanding their existing solar installation, which will make it the second largest installation among U.S. Air Force bases in the country.[79] Another of the state's largest solar arrays is being constructed by The Dayton Power and Light Company in Dayton, Ohio. The solar field will generate 1.1 Megawatts of power when complete in 2010.[80] The facility will consist of 9,000 solar panels constructed over 7 acres, and will generate enough electricity to power nearly 150 homes.[81]

Fuel cell

Ohio is recognized internationally as a leader in fuel cell technology, nicknamed the "Fuel Cell Corridor".[82][83] Since 2002, the state government has invested $100 million in research and development.[84] In 2006, revenues for the industry in the state totalled $80 million, creating 1,030 jobs.[68]

Over 100 companies focused on fuel-cell production dot the state.[85] Notables include Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems, headquartered in Canton, UltraCell Corporation's manufacturing operation located in Dayton, NexTech Materials located in Columbus, Graftech's global headquarters in Parma, Texaco Ovonic Battery Systems in Springboro, HydroGen Corporation, headquartered in Cleveland, Pemery Corporation in Brecksville, Pacific Fuel Cell Company, which has a manufacturing operation in Willoughby, Hawk Corporation, headquartered in Cleveland, and Catacel is located in Garrettsville. The Battelle Memorial Institute is also involved in the fuel cell industry in Ohio. Cleveland is home to the Wright Fuel Cell Center.

Wind
Wind farm in Bowling Green, the pioneer of the state in developing commercial wind energy.

The state is currently #27 in wind energy production.[72] In 2006, revenues from wind energy production totaled $250 million, creating 1,700 jobs.[68]

In 1998, the city of Bowling Green began studying the feasibility of wind energy, and eventually became the first municipality in the state to construct wind turbines for commercial use, a $9.2 million project resulting in the reduction of kilowatt per hour cost from $.10 to $.025-.035.[86] The northwest region is recognized as the pioneer for the state in wind energy.[87] In 2009, Lorain County Community College became the first higher-education institution in the state to offer an associate degree in wind turbine power generation, in which almost five dozen students immediately enrolled.[88]

Ohio has enormous wind energy potential in Lake Erie and in the western portion of the state. Numerous wind energy projects have popped up, ready to produce thousands of megawatts of power.[89][90] They include Legacy Renewable Energy Development's proposed $120 million tri-county project near Lake Erie,[91] the Buckeye Wind Project in Champaign County,[92] and the Northwest Ohio Wind Energy project in Grover Hill.[93]

Wind turbine at the Great Lakes Science Center in Cleveland.

Companies specializing or involved in wind infrastructure production and retail include Twenty First Century Energy LLC, which recently received $1.2 million federal grant to develop turbines for the military,[94] Jetstream Power International in Holmesville, Four Seasons Windpower in Medina, Ohio Windmill Manufacturing Company in Berlin Center, North Coast Wind and Power in Port Clinton, Cardinal Fastener & Specialty Co., Inc. in Bedford Heights,[95] Ashland Inc. in Dublin, American Tower Company in Shelby, Ohio, Canton Drop Forge in Canton, Green Energy Technologies in Akron, Michael Byrne Mfg. Co. Inc. in Akron, Molded Fiber Glass Companies in Ashtabula, Caldwell Energy Options in Wooster, O'Brock Windmill Distributors in North Benton, Presto Wind Products in Cincinnati, National Electric Coil in Columbus, Parker Hannifin in Cleveland, Swiger Coil Systems in Cleveland, and Vanner Inc. in Hilliard. Red Hawk Systems manufactures wind energy components, as well as photovoltaic systems for solar energy, and fuel cell systems for automobiles.[96]

Biofuels

Biofuels resulted in $167 million in revenues in 2006 for companies operating in the state, resulting in 1,590 jobs.[68] Ohio is #10 in the nation in ethanol production capacity at 246 million gallons and has 7 production facilities.[97][98] The state is #7 in the nation in biomass potential, with over 7 million dry tons of produced.[72] The Edison Materials Technology Center in Kettering recently received a $2 million federal grant to develop biofuel from algae for the military.[94]

Geothermal

Professor Carl Nielsen of The Ohio State University invented the first ground source heat pump heating system in 1948 in Columbus.[99] In 2006, revenue created from geothermal totalled $112 million, creating 1,270 jobs.[68] The largest family-owned geothermal drilling company and one of the largest companies for such in the United States, Jackson Geothermal, is headquartered in Mansfield.[100]

Hydroelectric

Columbus is home to a national leader in hydroelectric power development, American Municipal Power, Inc. They currently have five plants under development along the Ohio River, including the 84MW Cannelton project, 105 MW Meldhahl project, 48 MW Robert C. Bird project, 72 MW Smithland project, and 35 MW Millow Island project. They also operate the existing Belleville Hydroelectric Plant.[101] Other notable hydroelectric plants include Stockport Mill Country Inn.[102]

Nuclear

Davis-Besse nuclear power plant located in Oak Harbor on Lake Erie

Ohio is home to two nuclear power plants, the Davis-Besse facility and Piqua facility. A third is planned for construction in Piketon, at a cost of $10 billion and with promise of 3000 construction jobs. The project is being led by Duke Energy.[103] Piketon is already home to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a former uranium enrichment plant built in 1954 and used for energy and weaponry purposes. It ceased in 2001 to perform its main functions, but carried on with relatively small tasks, until the United States Enrichment Corporation, which owns the facility, constructed the American Centrifuge Demonstration Facility at the site. Construction also has begun on the American Centrifuge Plant, expected to reach commercial capacity in 2010.[104][105] Ohio has an above average concentration of uranium in southern Ohio, as well as in the Ohio shale in the western and central part of the state.[106]

Research and development

Ohio is a major research and development center, home to many institutions. In 2008, Ohio won 10 of the top 100 innovations recognized by R&D Magazine, finishing second behind California.[107] The Ohio State University is among the country's top public research institutions at #7.[108] Ohio is ranked in the top eight for states conducting clinical trials, including conducting the most clinical trials per capita.[109]

In 2006, Ohio had a high-tech payroll of $9.8 billion, with 155,174 high-tech employees at 10,756 high tech locations. In 2005, industry in Ohio spent $5.9 billion on research and development, with colleges spending $1.5 billion, but by 2009, $8.2 billion in R&D contracts were identified in Ohio, ranking 13th nationally.[110] Ohio receives around $2.7 billion annually in federal R&D funds, ranking #9.[111]

In 2005, Ohio ranked #4 in the country in industrial R&D activities, while the University of Dayton and The Ohio State University ranked #2 and #3 nationally in total materials research. Ohio leads the nation in plastics and rubber research.[112]

Government and non-profit

Government-operated and non-profit research and development institutions include:

The Battelle Memorial Institute headquarters in Columbus. The institute is the world's largest private contract research and development organization, responsible for innovations such as photo-copying, leading to the creation of Xerox, the first nuclear fuel rods for nuclear reactors, the first optical digital recorder, the development of the Universal Product Code, and cruise control for automobiles. They have won 217 prestigious R&D magazine awards.

Private

Private institutions in Ohio conducting research and development include:

Proctor and Gamble's headquarters in Cincinnati. The company is responsible for the first synthetic detergent used on delicate clothing, Dreft, the first shampoo and conditioner combination product, Pert Plus, and the first concentrated tablet laundry detergent, Salvo.
The Goodyear Polymer Center at the University of Akron in Akron. The company is responsible for the first self-sealing fuel tanks for airplanes, the first off-road tire, the world’s first passenger conveyor belt, the first tires on moon, the first plastic beverage bottles, and the first tire with a “Z” speed rating.[113]

Collegiate

Collegiate institutions in Ohio conducting major research and development include:

Scott Laboratory at the Ohio State University, Columbus

Insurance

Ohio insurance employees work in a broad array of sub-industries. Around 44.8% of insurance employees work in fire, marine, and casualty insurance; this helps make Ohio the 4th largest casualty insurance state, in the measure of employees, trailing behind only California, New York, and Illinois.[114]

Ohio is a major center for insurance corporations, ranking 6th out of all 50 states in the insurance industry, based on overall employment,[114] and Ohio ranks 4th in casualty insurance out of all 50 states.[114] As far as gross state product, from the period of 1990-1999 Ohio insurance contribution to Ohio's gross state product grew about 161% from $2.6 billion to $6.8 billion,[114] despite population growth from 1990-2000 of only about 4.67%, from 10,847,115 to 11,353,140.[115] Ohio's insurance employment is expected to grow continuously at a rate of 9.8%.[114] Ohio is home to the 3rd most claim examiners in the United States, out of all 50 states.

Five Fortune 500 companies are Ohio-based insurance companies.[114] These companies are:

Financial services

Ohio is home to three commercial banks that rank among the largest commercial banks in the United States as measured by asset size. Up until 2008, Ohio had four banks among the Top 25 however the acquisition of Cleveland-based National City Bank by Pittsburgh-based PNC Bank eliminated the fourth.

The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland is located in the state. Other notable institutions headquartered in the state include FirstMerit Corporation, Commerce National Bank, First Federal Bank of the Midwest, Liberty Savings Bank, and Park National Bank.

Automobile manufacturing

The Honda Accord was the single model that was most produced in Ohio.[116] Almost all Accords are assembled in Marysville, Ohio.[117] The Accord's Ohio production exceeded 200,000,[116] one of only five models to do so in Ohio.[116]

The current state of the motor vehicle industry in Ohio is mixed and dotted. In 2002, the Ohio motor vehicle industry produced about $16 billion of items.[116] This is about 14% of the automobile production of the United States, and Ohio outputs every state in production of motor vehicles except for Michigan.[116] These $16 billion account for approximately 4.1% of Ohio's gross state product; however, the motor vehicle industry only accounts for 1.1% of the United States' output.[116] In 2003, Ohio was able to produce about 1,885,000 motor vehicles, accounting for 15.6% of the United States' production, and, again, more than any state except for Michigan, in which 928,000 of these were automobiles.[116]

The Ohio Department of Development estimates that there are 555 motor vehicle production establishments in Ohio, and that by employing around 138,000 people, Ohio motor vehicle production employees account for 12.7% of the United States' motor vehicle production employees.[116] Despite sharp losses since 1999, the motor vehicle production industry was able to recover in 2001, producing a net gain of 148,000 vehicles.[116] General Motors produced the plurality of motor vehicles in Ohio, with 36.5% of the production of motor vehicles in Ohio, followed closely by Honda with 35.9%. Other major motor vehicle producers in Ohio include DaimlerChrysler (with 17.5% of production) and Ford (with 10.5% of production).[116] However, despite the growth listed above, employment statistics and outlooks are much more grim.

In 2004, the number of people employed in the motor vehicle assembly industry in Ohio was reported to be around 31,000, down from about 40,000 throughout the 1990s,[116] while in the motor vehicle parts production industry in Ohio, in December 1997, employment stood at approximately 122,000 employees;[116] however, that number dropped by about 26% to 90,000 employees by 2004.[116] Despite the growth facts above, the loss of employment is more likely to directly affect Ohio's economy. The Ohio Bureau of Labor Market Information estimates that there will be 3,300 less assembly employees and 2,400 less parts manufacturing employees in 2012 than 2002.[116] Major firms operating in the state include Ford, Honda, and General Motors. Some major motor vehicle assembly production plants in the state include the Toledo Complex, Lordstown Assembly, Marysville Auto Plant, East Liberty Auto Plant, Ohio Assembly, and Toledo North Assembly.

Iron and steel

Ohio is considered the historical center of steel production in the U.S.[118] The state produces annually around 14 million tons, with a $7.2 billion state economic impact.[119] The largest steel foundry in North America is located in Columbus, Columbus Castings.[120] It was formerly part of Buckeye Steel Castings, which traces its root back to the 19th century.

Ohio produces between 14% and 17% of the United States' raw steel.[121] The sector of objects made from purchased steel in Ohio ranks 2nd out of all 50 states,[121] and 3rd in the sector of iron, steel, and ferroalloys.[121]

Seventy percent of the United States' electrometallurgical ferroalloy manufacturing employees are located in Ohio.[121] The entire industry as a whole, although not as concentrated as the electrometallurgical ferroalloy manufacturing sector, employs 34,000 paid workers at 234 individual workplaces.[121] Ohio's 234 workplaces make up 9.5% of the United States industry's workplaces,[121] and the 34,000 paid workers make up 13.6% of the United States industry's workers.[121] Of these workers and workplaces, the sector of iron, steel, and ferroalloys make up the largest sector in Ohio's industry,[121] with 17,000 paid workers in 73 workplaces.[121]

However, despite Ohio's large presence in the iron and steel market, employment rates have declined in Ohio,[121] generally attributed to weakening national economy.[121] Between 1998 and 2005, the number of Ohio iron and steel industry workers decreased from 52,700 to 34,000.[121] The Ohio Department of Development predicts the decreases will continue in coming years.[121] The average annual salary for iron and steel industry workers in Ohio was $59,686, compared the national industry average of $53,352.[121]

There are three Fortune 500 iron and steel manufacturers with world headquarters in Ohio:[121] AK Steel, located in Westchester, Timken Company, located in Canton, and Worthington Industries, located in Columbus. Other notable companies include Russian-based Severstal, which has facilities located in Warren and Steubenville, Luxembourg-based Mittal Steel USA,[119] which has facilities in Columbus and Cleveland, United States Steel Corporation in Lorain,[119] and Republic Engineered Products, North America's largest supplier of specialty bar quality steel, located in Canton.[119]

Rubber and plastics

The rubber and plastics industry in Ohio is largely dominated by Goodyear Tire & Rubber, in terms of revenue, although there are more non-rubber producing Fortune 500 rubber and plastics companies in Ohio than Ohio Fortune 500 rubber and plastics companies that do produce rubber.

One of Ohio's historically strong industries is the rubber and plastics industry. Ohio ranks 1st of all 50 states in rubber and plastics production,[122] producing around $17.4 billion of rubber and plastics shipments annually.[122] Eight Fortune 1000 rubber and/or plastics corporations are located in Ohio:[122]

Ohio ranks 1st in the gross state product of the rubber and plastics industry of any state.[122] For the 5-year period of 2000-2004, inflation-adjusted production increased around 10%.[122] In addition, in this period, the US rubber and plastics industry only grew 6%.[122]

Ohio exported around $1.3 billion worth of rubber and plastics shipments in 2006.[122] Rubber and plastics exports make up for 7.3% of total sales.[122] Canada is the largest importer of Ohio's $1.3 billion worth of exports, accounting for 46% of this amount.[122] The Census Bureau expects that an addition $1.1 billion worth of material is indirectly exported, through the means of other goods that are made from rubbers and plastics, including motor vehicles and machinery.[122]

However, despite increased production, employment has been decreasing in Ohio's rubber and plastic industry.[122] In 2000, Ohio employed around 92,000 rubber and plastics industry workers. By 2006, those rates have declined by about 26% to about 69,000 workers.[122] The Ohio Bureau of Labor Market Information predicts that, from 2004-2014, there will be 11,200 less workers in Ohio's industry.[122] They also predict that plastics employment in Ohio will decrease by 13.7%, and that rubber products employment will decrease by 20.7%.[122] The industry currently employs about 73,000 Ohio workers,[122] and employs about 12.3% of the United States' rubber employees, and 7.8% of the United States' plastics employees.[122]

Other manufacturing

Overall, Ohio is home to 21,250 manufacturing operations. Cincinnati is ranked #6, Cleveland #10, and Columbus #19 respectively in the nation for manufacturing jobs. Ohio leads the nation in general-purpose machinery production and is #2 in metalworking machinery production.[123] In 2004, Ohio was third in the nation for major industrial operations,[124] and second in the nation for total manufacturing payroll.[125] Ohio was third in the nation in manufacturing GDP in 2008,[126] but has lost 106,629 manufacturing jobs and over 1,000 manufacturers since 2007.[127]

In 1837, William Proctor and James Gamble founded a candle and soapmaking business in Cincinnati called Procter & Gamble. In the 1880s, the company introduced the product Ivory, a bar of soap. Eventually they began manufacturing Crisco, and sponsored radio dramas, which led to the name "soap operas". Today Procter & Gamble is the 8th largest company in the world by market capitalization fully diversified in household products, and has 135,000 employees worldwide, with manufacturing operations located throughout the state, and their headquarters still based in Cincinnati.

In 1866, Henry Sherwin and Edward Williams founded Sherwin-Williams, a general building supplies company, in Cleveland. Their first factory was opened on the Cuyahoga River in 1873, and today the company has four manufacturing and distribution facilities in Ohio, located in Columbus, Cincinnati, Grove City, and Bedford Heights, and numerous locations throughout the country and world, with their world headquarters maintained in Cleveland. The company employs 3,394 residents alone just in the Cleveland-area.[128][129]

In 1879, James Ritty, a saloon owner, invented a mechanical cash register, paving way for its production through the National Cash Register Company, based in Dayton. The company prospered through the 21st century, producing ATM machines, barcode scanners, and other related products, employing thousands. It was eventually relocated to Georgia in 2009.

In 1907, a janitor named James Spangler working for the Hoover family invented the first electronically portable vacuum cleaner. Production of the device began at a factory in New Berlin (later renamed North Canton), and today the company is known as The Hoover Company, with its headquarters still located in North Canton.[130]

In 1918, the Parker Appliance Company was founded in Cleveland, later becoming the Parker Hannifin Corporation. They manufacture motion and control technologies, with locations throughout Ohio, the country, and the world. Their headquarters is maintained in Cleveland, employing 2,201 residents in the local area.[129]

Crown Equipment Corporation, headquartered in New Bremen, employs 8,300 residents in the state and is the 7th largest manufacturer of heavy-duty equipment in the world.[131] Headquartered in Cleveland and founded in 1932, MTD Products employs 6,800 residents in the state and is a major manufacturer of heavy duty lawn equipment.[131] Advanced Drainage Systems headquartered in Hilliard employs 3,900 residents and specializes in manufacturing industrial components and equipment.[131] Hexion Specialty Chemicals is headquartered in Columbus employing 6,900 residents, and is a lead manufacturer of resins and coatings.[131] Aleris International, headquartered in Beachwood, employs 8,500 residents and is one of the world's largest recyclers of aluminum and zinc, manufacturing alloy sheet metal.[131]

Logistics

The Columbus/Dayton corridor is considered one of two "centroids" in America's logistics sector.[132] Transportation and warehousing employs 183,000 Ohioans, amounting to a $12 billion industry, or 3.6% of the GSP. Since 2003, Ohio has added 21,500 logistics jobs.[133]

Ohio has the 7th largest highway system, and 4th largest interstate system in the country. Ohio's trucking industry ranks 4th in the nation with a total economic output of $5.2 billion. The state ranks third in the country in total value of inbound and outbound shipments at $907 billion, and first in value of outbound shipments at $244 billion.[133]

Ohio has the fourth largest rail system, and is ranked third in total economic output at $1.3 billion.[133]

Major employers include BAX Global, Total Quality Logistics, UPS, FedEx, Roadway Express, CSX Corp, Pacer International, and ABX Air.[133] Parsec Inc., based in Cincinnati, controls 45% of the nation's intermodal transportation business.[134][135]

Food processing and eateries

Heinz operates the world's single largest ketchup processing facility in Fremont, Ohio. It processes thousands of bottles of ketchup each day, much like the one above.

Ohio's food processing industry produces $23.5 billion dollars in food shipments annually.[39] The frozen food industry is the largest sub-industry,[39] surpassing even the state of California by $700 million in frozen food shipments,[39] in which Ohio ships $2.4 billion dollars of frozen food shipments annually.[39] Ohio also ranks 1st out of every state in the United States in frozen food shipments and Ohio's frozen food industry accounts for 20.7% of the United States' frozen food processing.[39]

Several of the world's largest food operating plants are operated in Ohio: the world's largest yogurt processing plant is operated by Dannon in Auglaize County, Campbell's operates the world's largest soup processing plant in Napoleon, Heinz operates the world's single largest ketchup processing plant in Fremont, and General Mills operates the world's largest frozen pizza processing plant in Wellston.[39]

Major food processing companies in Ohio include Chiquita Brands International (Cincinnati), Kroger (Cincinnati), T. Marzetti Company (Columbus), The J.M. Smucker Co. (Orrville), and The Iams Company (Cincinnati).[39] Other food processing sub-industries that Ohio lead in include pet food (8.4% of the nation's pet food, ranking in 2nd), ketchup and dressings (7.6% of the nation's ketchup and dressing production, ranking 2nd), cookies and crackers (9.9% of the nation's production, ranking 4th), and soft drinks (6.2% of the nation's production, ranking 4th).[39]

The county with the most food processing facilities is Hamilton County, followed by Franklin County and Stark County.[39]

Major eateries headquartered in Ohio include Bob Evans Restaurants (Columbus) and Wendy's (Dublin).

Information

Ohio is in the 1st quintile in the information industry, in terms of establishments for the information industry.[136] In 2002, Ohio had reached 4,143 establishments, which are 3% of the United States' information establishments.[136] Information establishments include printing and publishing establishments, broadcasting establishments, and telecommunications establishments.[136]

As of 2002, there were approximately 106,754 workers in Ohio working in the information industry.[136] The total industry ranks 8th out of all 50 states in the number of establishments, and 9th in the number of paid workers, which was 106,754 in 2002.[136]

A prime sector in Ohio's information industry is the broadcasting sector.[136] The broadcasting sector ranks 9th out of all 50 states in the number of establishments,[136] which is 1,954,[136] 11th in number of paid workers,[136] and 11th to its contribution to Ohio's gross state product, which is $6.6 billion.[136]

Publishing

A main sector of the industry is the publishing sector.[136] The sector ranks 9th out of all states in the number of establishments,[136] which is 1,015,[136] and ranks 10th in the number of employees in the sector,[136] and 13th in its contribution to the gross state product.[136] McGraw-Hill operates a division in Columbus, Brown Publishing Company distributes over 70 publications throughout the state, American Legal Publishing Corporation, headquartered in Cincinnati, codifies ordinances for 1,800 cities and counties, and Knight-Ridder has its roots in Ohio, although now headquartered in California.

Tourism

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is a well-visited tourist attraction in Cleveland, Ohio. This is one of many tourist attractions that help make up Ohio's diverse tourism industry.
Put-in-bay, located on the Bass Islands in Lake Erie, attracts international tourism.
Ohio tourism expenditures by category. About 34.4% of the expenditures were on food, making food the plurality of all Ohio tourism expenditures.

Ohio's tourism industry, although historically under-represented, is now growing stronger. For example, in 2006, the Ohio Department of Development reported that 173.8 million trips were taken either to Ohio, or within Ohio.[137] Although an estimated 139.2 million trips (around 80%) were one-day trips, an estimated 33.6 million trips were overnight trips.[137] Another one million trips are unaccounted for. 74% of overnight visitors came from Ohio or nearby states,[138] while another 26% came from both the rest of the United States' states and the rest of the world.[137] The Ohio Department of Development also reported that $33.7 billion was spent by tourists.[137] The analysis breaks down the revenue to $11.6 billion for food, $7.7 billion for retail items, $6.5 billion for transportation, $4.3 billion for recreation, and $3.6 billion for accommodations.[137]

The above expenditures give Ohio approximately $1.4 billion in state taxes and $702 million in local taxes.[139] Northeast Ohio received 29% of all tourism expenditures.[137] The tourism industry in Ohio currently gives work to 560,000 people directly, and many others indirectly.[137]

Ohio is especially famous for two of the largest amusement parks in North America which draw tourists from around the world: Cedar Point in Sandusky and Kings Island in suburban Cincinnati. Other major attractions include the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, the Bass Islands near Sandusky, the National Museum of the United States Air Force, the world's largest and oldest military aviation museum located in Dayton, The Wilds, one of the world's largest conservation centers located in Cumberland, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, the nation's premier zoo, Lake Erie, and the annual Arnold Sports Festival in Columbus. Other notable attractions include the Toledo Museum of Art, the National McKinley Birthplace Memorial in Niles, Ohio, the Egypt Valley Wildlife Area in Belmont County, the Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens in Akron, the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, the Great Lakes Science Center in Cleveland, the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, the Boonshoft Museum of Discovery in Dayton, the 125 historic covered bridges located throughout the state, musician Chrissie Hynde's restaurant The VegiTerranean in Akron, and the Great Serpent Mound in Adams County.

Personal income

Ohio was #8 in the U.S. for personal income earned in 2005, at $373 billion.[140] The average income for the top 5% in the state was $174,026 in 2008. Over two decades, the bottom 20% average income bracket increased 11.6% to $18,337, while the middle 20% increased by 8.9% to $49,051.[141]

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2008, the average annual salary for Ohioans was $39,820. The highest paid professionals in the state were concentrated in the medical fields. Anesthesiologists, with average annual income of $211,060, were the highest paid, followed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons at $206,670, surgeons at $206,570, orthodontists at $200,770, obstetricians and gynecologists at $186,740, physicians at $170,730, and dentists at $165,400. Average annual income for other selected professionals include airline pilots at $121,330, computer and information research scientists at $99,730, physicists at $98,150, chief executives at $159,730, financial managers at $109,740, aerospace engineers at $94,530, biomedical engineers at $72,150, art directors at $83,110, police officers at $49,890, chefs at $43,230, housekeepers at $19,450, construction laborers at $37,600, steel workers at $50,690, and elevator repairmen at $70,270[142]

The state of Ohio's residents have an overall $35,511 per capita personal income[110] as of 2009, up from $33,338 in 2006.[143]

Incomes vary by county. The median family income in Cuyahoga County is $54,506,[144] where the Cleveland Clinic is the single largest employer.[145] Cleveland also has emerging biotechnology and financial concentrations. It is also worthwhile to note that while some cities in Ohio have declining populations,[146][147] the overall growth in per capita income in Ohio increased by 4.6% from 2005–2006.[143]

Housing

According to the United States Census Bureau, there are an estimated 5,045,356 houses in Ohio, of which 4,499,506, or about 89.2% are estimated to be occupied;[148] this is 0.8% above the national average rate of occupation.[148] Houses with a mortgage are estimated to cost owners about $1,216 per month,[148] which is $186 below the national average.[148] The United States Census Bureau also estimates that 3,150,239 houses are owner-occupied,[148] or about 70%, which is 2.7% above the national average, and that an estimated 1,349,267 houses are renter-occupied.[148] The median house value is $135,200,[148] which is a significant $50,000 below the national average. Also, there are an estimated 545,850 unoccupied houses.[148] It is also interesting to note that the plurality of houses in Ohio were built from 1940 to 1959 (1,175,325 houses),[149] and that 3,058,721 houses are in some way dependent on utility gas.[149]

The average home value in Cleveland is $139,900, Cincinnati $149,900, and Columbus $164,900.[150] Clear Capital's Home Data Index in July 2009 showed that Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati led the nation in home value increases, up 19.6, 15.6 and 12.9 percent.[151] The top five counties through November 2006 for average listing price were Geauga County at $388,822, Ottawa County at $314,786, Union County at $306,872, Warren County at $267,236, and Hamilton County at $237,965.[152]

Some historians suggest Ohio is the birthplace of public housing, having submitted the first application for such to the Public Works Administration in 1933. The state was also the first to establish a local public housing authority. Ernest J. Bohn, a Romanian immigrant to Cleveland, is credited as a pioneer in public housing.[153]

Taxation

According to the Small Business & Entrepreneunership Council, Ohio's top personal income tax rate of 5.925% ranks #27 as of 2009.[4] The rate has been steadily declining since the 2005 tax reform, dropping from $11,506.20 + 7.5% of excess over $200,000 in 2004 to $9,090 + 5.925% of excess over $200,000 in 2009.[154] The top personal capital gains rate is 5.925%, ranking #30, while the top corporate tax rate is 1.9%, ranking #6, and the top corporate capital gains rate is also ranked #6 at 1.9%. Ohio is #30 in average property taxes at 3.3% of personal income, but the taxes vary by city and district. The state is #14 in overall average percentage of income used for sales, excise, and gross receipt taxes at 2.96%.[4]

Below are the simple personal income tax rates for Ohio:[154]

Income range Tax rate per dollar earned
$0–$5000 0.587%
$5001–$10000 $29.35 + 1.174% of excess of $5,000
$10001-$15000 $88.05 + 2.348% of excess over $10,000
$15001-$20000 $205.45 + 2.935% of excess over $15,000
$20001-$40000 $352.20 + 3.521% of excess over $20,000
$40001-$80000 $1,056.40 + 4.109% of excess over $40,000
$80001-$100000 $2,700 + 4.695% of excess over $80,000
$100001-$200000 $3,639 + 5.451% of excess over $100,000
$200001 or more $9,090 + 5.925% of excess over $200,000

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