Economy of Uruguay: Wikis


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Foreign relations



Specialtie[[Media:-- (talk) 18:21, 14 March 2010 (UTC)Example.ogg]]s of Uruguay

  • Cattle were introduced to Uruguay before its independence by Hernando Arias de Saveedra, the Spanish Governor of Buenos Aires in 1603. Beef exports in 2006 amounted to around 37% of Uruguayan exports.[1]
  • Wool is a traditional product exported mainly to China, followed by the UK and India.[2]
  • Milk and dairy products. Conaprole, National Cooperative of Milk Producers[3] is the main exporter of dairy products in Latin America (in 2006). The area of the country dedicated to the dairy food is located mainly in the south west.
  • Rice. Fine varieties are produced in the lowlands in the east of the country close to Merin lake on the Uruguay-Brazil border. The national company Saman claims to be the main exporter in Latin America.[4] Countries it exports to include Brazil, Iran, Peru, South Africa, Chile, Senegal, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Ecuador, USA, Canada and China.
  • Tourism: Several seaside resorts, like Punta del Este or Punta del Diablo in the south-eastern departments of Maldonado and Rocha, regarded as a jet set resort in South America, are main attractions of Uruguay. International cruises call at Montevideo from October to March every year. Also, Uruguay hosts many year-round international conferences. (The original GATT Uruguay Round concerning trade was, as its name suggests, hosted in Uruguay). Montevideo is home to the headquarters (secretariat) of [Mercosur], the Common Market of the South, whose full members are Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Venezuela, associate members Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
  • Software and consulting. Uruguay's well-educated workforce and lower-than-international wages have put Uruguay on the IT map. A product named GeneXus,[5] originally created in Uruguay by a company called ArTech, is noteworthy. Other important developers and consultants include De Larrobla & Asociados[6], Greycon and Quanam.[7] Tata Consultancy Services has its headquarters for the Spanish speaking world in Uruguay. Many of these companies have established in Zonamerica Business and Technology Park, near the Montevideo airport.

"With a population of only three million, Uruguay has rapidly become Latin America's outsourcing hub. In partnership with one of India's largest technology consulting firms, engineers in Montevideo work while their counterparts in Mumbai sleep." - The New York Times, Sep 22, 2006

  • Banking Services. Banking has traditionally been one of the strongest service export sectors in the country. Uruguay was once dubbed "the Switzerland of America", mainly for its banking sector and stability. The largest bank in Uruguay is Banco Republica, or BROU. Almost 20 private banks, most of them branches of international banks, operate in the country (Banco Santander, ABN AMRO, Citibank, among others). There are also a myriad of brokers and financial-services bureaus, among them Ficus Capital, Galfin Sociedad de Bolsa, Europa Sociedad de Bolsa, Darío Cukier, GBU, Hordeñana & Asociados Sociedad de Bolsa, etc. Uruguay has fully recovered from the financial crisis that caused a run on its banks.
  • Public Sector: The state in Uruguay has an important role in the economy, Uruguay resisted the trend of privatization in Utilities and state owned enterprises in the region. Several Referendums supported the state being in control of the most important utilities and energy companies. Some of the companies have a full monopoly warranted by law (like landline telephony, water), others compete freely with private operators (Insurance, mobile telephony, Banks). Most of them are dominant in the local market. There is strong debate in the Uruguayan society about their role, and future. Some of them made a contribution to the Uruguay state treasury.
    • The most important state owned companies are:Republica AFAP (Pension Fund), AFE (Railways), ANCAP (Energy), ANCO (Mail), Administracion Nacional de Puertos (Ports), ANTEL (Telecommunications: Telephony, Mobiles (ANCEL and Data ANTELDATA)), BHU (Mortgage Bank), BROU (Bank), BSE (Insurance), OSE (Water & Sewage), UTE (Electricity). These companies operate under public law, using a legal entity defined in the Uruguayan Constitution called 'Ente Autonomo' (Meaning Autonomic Entity). The government also owns parts of other companies operating under private law like the National Airline Carrier PLUNA and others owned totally or partially by the CND National Development Corporation.

Raw Data

  • GDP: purchasing power parity - $37.54 billion (2006 est.)
  • GDP - real growth rate: 7% (2006 est.)
  • GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,900 (2006 est.)
  • Pop. below the poverty line: NA%
  • GDP - composition by sector:
    • agriculture: 9.3%
    • industry: 33.7%
    • services: 57% (2006)
  • Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (2006 est.)
  • Labor force: 1.27 million (2006 est.)
  • Unemployment rate: 7.5% (June 2009)
  • Unemployed Population: 370,649 (2006 est.)
  • Budget:
    • revenues: $5.203 billion
    • expenditures: $5.449 billion; including capital expenditures of $193 million (2006 est.)
  • Industries: food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
  • Industrial production growth rate: 12.6% (2006 est.)
  • Electricity - production: 9,474 GWh (1998)
    • fossil fuel: 3.91 %
    • hydro: 95.62 %
    • nuclear: 0 %
    • other: 0.47 % (1998)
  • Electricity - consumption: 6,526 GWh (1998)
  • Electricity - exports: 2,363 GWh (1998)
  • Electricity - imports: 78 GWh (1998)
  • Agriculture - products: wheat, rice, barley, maize, sorghum; livestock; fish
  • Exports: $3.993 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
  • Exports - commodities: meat, rice, leather products, vehicles, dairy products, wool, electricity
  • Exports - partners: Brazil 14%, US 12.3%, Argentina 8.2%, China 6.1%, Germany 5%, Russia 5%, Mexico 4.3% (2006)
  • Imports: $4.532 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
  • Imports - commodities: road vehicles, electrical machinery, metal manufactures, heavy industrial machinery, crude petroleum
  • Imports - partners: Brazil 17.2%, Argentina 16.4%, US 8.9%, Paraguay 7.8%, China 7.5%, Venezuela 5.2%, Nigeria 4.8% (2006)
  • Debt - external: $11.4 billion (30 September 2006 est.)
  • Currency: 1 Uruguayan peso ($Ur) = 100 centesimos
  • Exchange rates: Uruguayan pesos per US dollar - 24.048 (2006), 24.479 (2005), 28.704 (2004), 28.209 (2003), 21.257 (2002)
  • Fiscal year: calendar year

See also




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